REVIEW ON BALANCED DIET

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III.TYPES OF NUTRIENTS:

1. CARBOHYDRATES:
These are defined as poly hydroxyl aldehydes or ketones or compounds which produce them on hydrolysis, which are most abundant organic molecules in nature. They are primarily composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
* These are found in a wide variety of foods, e.g. sugar, jam, cereals, bread, pastsa etc.
* 1 gm of carbohydrates can provide 4 k.cal/gm (16.7 kj/gm) of energy.
* Daily 57% of energy can be provided by carbohydrates.

CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES:

1.1. MONOSACCARIDES:

These are chemically the simplest form in which a carbohydrate can exist.

E.g.
glucose
Fructose
Galactose

1.2. DI SACCHARIDES:
These consist of two mono saccharide molecules chemically combined. When split into their constituent mono saccharides energy is released for metabolic work.

E.g.
Sucrose
Maltose
Lactose

1.3. POLY SACCHARIDES:
These consist of complex molecules made up of large number of mono saccharide molecules in chemical combination.

E.g.
Starch
Glycogen
Cellulose
Dextrins

FUNCTIONS:
-  Provision of rapidly available energy and heat
-  Protein sparing
-  Provision of store of energy when carbohydrate is excess of body’s needs as it is converted into:
-  Glycogen as a short term energy store in the liver and skeletal muscles.

2. PROTEINS OR NITROGENOUS FOODS:
Proteins are the most abundant organic molecules of the living system. They occur in every part of the cell and constitute about 50% of the cellular dry weight, Proteins from the fundamental basis of structure and function of life.

* Dietary protein is the main source of nitrogen used in the body.
* 1gm protein can be provide 4k.cal/gm.
* Daily 13% of the energy can be provided by protein.

3. AMINO ACIDS:
These are a group of organic compounds containing amino and carboxyl functional groups.

These are divided into two types:

ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS:
These cannot be synthesized in the body therefore they must be included in diet.
E.g.

  • Histidine
  • Isoleucine
  • Leucine
  • Lysine
  • Methionine
  • Phenyl alanine
  • Throninetryptophan
  • Valine

NON ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS:
These are synthesised in the body.
E.g.

  • Alanine
  • Arginine
  • Asparagines
  • Aspartic acid
  • Cysteine glutamic acid
  • Glycine
  • Hydroxyproline
  • Proline
  • Serine
  • Tyrosine
  • Glutamine

FUNCTIONS:
* Growth and repair of body cells and tissues.
* Synthesis of enzymes, plasma proteins, antibodies and some harmones.
* Provision of energy.

4. FATS:
These may be regarded as organic compounds relatively insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents actually or potentially related to fatty acids and utilized by the living cells.

These are two types:

4.1. SATURATED OR ANIMAL FATS:
It’s containing mainly saturated fatty acids and glycerol. They are found in milk
Cheese
Butter
Eggs
Meat etc.

4.2. UNSATURATED OR VEGETABLE FATS:
It’s containing mainly unsaturated fatty acids and glycerol. . They are found in margarine and in most vegetable oils.

E.g.  Linoleic acid
Linolenic acid
Arachidonic acid

FUNCTIONS:
* Provision of most concentrated source of chemical energy and heat.
* Support of certain body organs e.g. kidneys, eyes.
* Transport and storage of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K.
* Storage of energy as fat in adipose tissue.
* Formation of cholesterol and steroid hormones.

5. VITAMINS:
These are chemical compounds, required in very small quantities, which are essential for normal metabolism and health. They are widely distributed in food and are divided into two main groups. They are

5.1) Fat soluble vitamins
·         Vitamin-A (Retinol)
·         Vitamin-D (calciferol)
·         Vitamin –E (tocopherols)
·         Vitamin-K (phylloquinone)

5.2) Water soluble vitamins:
·         B-complex
·         Vitamin-c (ascorbic acid)

6. MINERAL SALTS:
These are inorganic compounds which are necessary within the body for all the body processes, usually in small quantities, which are following
·         Calcium
·         Phosphate
·         Sodium
·         Potassium
·         Iron
·         Iodine

7. WATER:
Water makes up about 60% of the body weight in men and about 55% in women.

A man weighing 70kg contains about 40 litres of water, 28 of which are intracellular and 12 extracellular. Extracellular water consist of 2 – 3 litres in plasma and the remainder intestinal fluid.

Large amount of water is lost each day in urine, sweat and faeces.

FUNCTIONS:
* Regulation of body weight
* Moistening of food
* Dilution of waste products and poisonous substances in the body.
* Participation in all the reactions that occur inside and outside the body cell.

REFERENCES:
1.    Dietary Bio Chemistry by U.Sathyanarayana and U.Chakrapani
2.    Anatomy and Physiology by Ross & Wilson
3.    Guidelines for Americans-2005,Washington,DC. US Dept of Health and Human Services and US Dept of Agriculture; 2005.
4.    American Heart Association Nutrition Committee: Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, Carnetho M, Daniels S et al. Diet and lifestyle recommendation revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation.2006; 114 (1) : 82-96.
5.    Sivan Ekstein, Davd Laniado and Benjamin Glick. Does Picky Eating Affect Weight for Length Measurement in Young Children? Clinical Pediatrics, 2010; 49(3):217-220
6.    Fishberg et al: Effect of Oral Supplementation with or without Symbiotics on Sickness and Catch up Growth in Preschool Chgildren, Int Pediatr, 2002; 17(4):216-22.
7.    Number of sick days decreased by 29% in a study conducted in children 1-6 years of age who were given pediasure with symbiotics. Results were only seen in children 3-5 years of age. Schrezenmier et al: Benefits of Oral Supplementation with and without symbiotic in Young Children with Acute Bacterial Infections Clin Pediatr: 2004; 43:239-249.
8.    Fussy eaters at nutritional risk fed pediasure as a supplement shoed a 45% decrease in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections as compared to those who did not receive pediasure. Pedro Alarcon et al. Effect of Oral Supplementation on catch up growth in Picky eaters, Clinical Pediatrics, 2003; 42:209-217.

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