NOOTROPICS- THE MEMORY INHANCEMENT DRUGS- A REVIEW

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About Author:
Rahul Singh
M.PHARMA (Pharmaceutics)
Shri Rawatpura Sarkar Institute Of Pharmacy
Kumhari, Distt-Durg , Chhatisgarh, India
rahulbaba92@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT-
This century will see the arrival of lifestyle drugs to enhance the power of our minds. These ‘smart’ drugs, or nootropics, will be substances that increase the speed of our learning and the capacity of our memory. Nootropics are thought to work by altering the availability of the brain's supply of neurochemicals (neurotransmitters, enzymes, and hormones), by improving the brain's oxygen supply, or by stimulating nerve growth. Nootropics has proved to be a very successful pharmacological means of raising academic performance in children with attention deficit disorder and it is therefore regarded as a nootropic. Motivation and attention are aspects of cognition that vary particularly with wakefulness. Research into learning and memory is yielding a wide range of targets for drug companies in search of the perfect nootropic.


REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1673

INTRODUCTION-
Nootropics , also referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers, neuro enhancers, cognitive enhancers, and intelligence enhancers, are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that purportedly improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration.
The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by the Romanian Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea, derived from the Greek words νους nous, or "mind," and τρ?πειν trepein meaning "to bend/turn".
Nootropics are thought to work by altering the availability of the brain's supply of neurochemicals (neurotransmitters, enzymes, and hormones), by improving the brain's oxygen supply, or by stimulating nerve growth.

AVAILABILITY AND PREVALENCE-
At present, there are several drugs on the market that improve memory, concentration, and planning, and reduce impulsive behavior. Many more are in different stages of development. The most commonly used class of drug is stimulants.

These drugs are used primarily to treat people with cognitive difficulties such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and ADHD. However, more widespread use is being recommended by some researchers. These drugs have a variety of human enhancement applications as well, and are marketed heavily on the Internet. Nevertheless, intense marketing may not correlate with efficacy; while scientific studies support some of the claimed benefits, it is worth noting that not all of the claims from certain nootropics suppliers have been formally tested.

In academia, modafinil has been used to increase productivity, although its long-term effects have not been assessed in healthy individuals. Stimulants such as methylphenidate are being used on college campuses, and by an increasingly younger group. One survey found that 7% of students had used stimulants for a cognitive edge in the past year, and on some campuses the number is as high as 25%.


DRUG PROFILE AND DOSE OF SOME NOOTROPICS DRUGS-
Nootropics
or Smarts Drugs are chemicals which are claimed to have mild to moderate positive mental or physical effects such as improvements to memory, cognition, and clarity of thought or "anti-aging" effects.

Nootropics can be divided into several subsets depending on how they act on cognition,The world ‘cognition’itself covers a wide range of facets of bain function,including learning,memory,attention and motivation

COMMON NAME

OTHER NAMES

DESCRIPTION

ADRAFINIL

Olmifon

Stimulant

ANIRACETAM

Draganon, Sarpul


DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone

Anti-aging

DILANTIN

Phenytoin

 Cognitive Function

DMAE

Di-methyl-amino-ethanol

Memory, Learning

FIPEXIDE

Attentil, Vigilor

Learning

GABAPENTIN

Neurontin

Anti-convulsant

GEROVITAL

GH-3

Anti-aging, Memory

GHB

Gamma Hydroxy Butyrate

Sleep Aid

GINKGO BILOBA


Memory

HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE

 hGH, Somatotropin

 Anti-aging

HERBAL ECSTASY

HerbalX, Cloud9


HYDERGINE

Dihydroergotoxine

  Memory, Anti-aging

MECLOFENOXATE

Centrophenoxine, Lucidril

 Anti-aging

MELATONIN


 Sleep Regulator

MODAFINIL

Provigil

 Stimulant

OXIRACETAM

Neuractiv, Hydroxypiracetam

 Memory

PHENYTOIN

Dilantin

 Cognitive Functions

PIRACETAM


 Cognitive Functions

PRAMIRACETAM

CI-879


SELEGILINE

Deprenyl, Eldepryl

 Memory, Intelligence

TRYPTOPHAN

l-tryptophan, 5-HTP

 Sleep Aid

VASOPRESSIN

Pressyn, Diapid

 Memory

VINPOCETINE

Cavinton





(1)  ANIRACETAM-


Description

(1-Anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone)Due to its fat solubility the effects last longer and are far more potent than piracetam.

Appearance

White Powder. Neutral odour.

Solubility

Fat Soluble. Forms oily layer when mixed with water.

Daily Dose

600 – 3,000 mg

Bio-mechanical Effects

- Helps increase inter-hemispheric communication, improving creativity, perception, sound, colour, etc.
- Has an more potent AMPA receptor enhancing effect than Piracetam, resulting in better focus and concentration.
- Reported to be best anxiolytic racetam of the lot.

Half Life

1 – 3.5 hours.

Comments

Relatively neutral taste, needs to be taken with choline otherwise headaches may develop. Take with food, ideally eggs, nuts and EFA’s.


(2)  OXIRACETAM -


Description

(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinacetamide)Far stronger than both Piracetam and Aniracetam and much faster acting. One of the more premium nootropics available.

Appearance

Coarse or Semi-Coarse White Powder

Solubility

Water Soluble

Daily Dose

750 – 1,600 mg

Bio-mechanical Effects

- Supports multiple aspects of cognition.
- Boosts ATP levels, which improves mental energy.
- Increase choline acetylcholinetranferase, the neuro-enzyme that creates acetylcholine in the brain.
- Powerful memory support.

Half Life

3 – 6 hours

Comments

May cause ‘mental tiredness’ after long study sessions.

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