IN-VITRO SCREENING OF DHATURA INOXIA FOR ITS ANTI-MALARIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST P. FALCIPARUM

 

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
S.O. Pratap1,2, Ruchi Gaur3, R.Stephan4, J.L bhatt3, C.R. Pillai1, Usha Devi1
1Department of  Parasitology, Malaria Research Center, New Delhi
2Department of  Biotechnology, SR Group of Institutions, Jhansi, UP
3School of Life Science, ITM University Gwalior, MP
4Department of Botany, Government P.G. College Ariyalur, Tamilnadu, India
dixitshivom@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The natural products are important source of biologically active compounds having potential for developing a novel malaria drug. Malaria is one of the most important infectious vector born parasitic disease caused by Coccidian protozoan parasite of genus Plasmodium carried out by mosquito, invade red blood cells. Malaria is thousand times more complex than any disease. In the current study, a natural ingredient of herb; Dhatura Inoxia is analyzed, for its anti-malarial activity by preparing crude extract of water and ethanol, analyzed on schizont stage of plasmodial life cycle against two Chloroquine strains: sensitive and resistant of Plasmodium falciparum isolates. The results revealed that IC50 values of crude water extract was recorded as; 71± 1.41µg/ml and 105±7.07 while as the ethanol crude extract produced IC50 concentrates: 52±3.53 µg/ml and 59.5± 70 µg/ml against sensitive and resistant P. f. isolates, respectively. The results showed that this herb plant possess significant antiplasmodial activity in terms of IC50 as recorded in this study.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2145

PharmaTutor (ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 2, Issue 4

Received On: 28/02/2014; Accepted On: 08/03/2014; Published On: 01/04/2014

How to cite this article: SO Pratap, R Gaur, R Stephan, JL bhatt, CR Pillai, U Devi, In-vitro screening of Dhatura Inoxia for its anti-Malarial activity against P. falciparum, PharmaTutor, 2014, 2(4), 93-98

Introduction:
Malaria still remains one of the greatest causes of illness and death in this world. It is estimated that malaria kills 1.5 to 2.7 million people globally; mostly children below five years and 300 to 500 million people suffer annually (WHO, 1996). Despite the considerable progress in malaria control over the past decade, malaria remains a disease of priority, particularly in Africa where about 90% of clinical case occurs. One of the greatest challenges facing malaria control worldwide is the spread and intensification of parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs. The limited number of such drugs has led to increasing difficulties in the development of antimalarial drug policy and adequate disease management (WHO, 2000). Developed countries are relatively free of malaria, but it remains well entrenched across the tropical world and greatest burden fall on Africa. Malaria parasite is one of the few infective agents of human that invade human red blood cells and completes their life cycle. All four species of malarial parasites, which infect human have a similar life cycle that alternates between human and mosquito. The clinical symptoms and sign are produced by the asexual forms of parasite which invades and destroy red blood cells, localized in critical organs and tissues across the body. The parasite invasion induces the release of many pro-inflammatory cytokines, produce fever and pain (Wright, C.W. and Phillipson D, 1990).

The P. Falciparum is a predominant species which causes 120,000,000 deaths per year globally and in 1989, the World Health Assembly urged priority states and WHO to increase control efforts. Each year this disease infects upto half a billion people and resulting in two million death (Anon.,1979). The eradication of the disease has been hampered by the emergence and spread of multidrug resistant malarial parasites, especially P. falciparum strains resistant to many antimalarial drugs (Olliaro,1996).

The epidemiology of malaria depends upon a complex interplay between the host (Human), vector (Mosquito) and the complexity in the life cycle of malaria parasite. Sporozoites infected mosquitoes, bites to man, exo-erythrocytic parasites which subsequently develop in liver and sexual forms of parasite (macro and micro-gametocytes), which arise from the asexual forms do not cause clinical disease. Jenson, (1976) states that malaria is thousand times more complex ailment than anything else. The Artemisinin groups of a new drug target the parasite when it is in its ring-like form. early in the asexually dividing part in the blood stream (Pillai, 2001). The parasite is thus destroyed before it reaches its immature gametocyte stage in which, it is ingested by anophelesmosquitoes as blood meal. Artemisinin drug developed by the scientists of CDRI and CIMAP, Lucknow have short half-life in the human body and they are eliminated from the body rather quickly (1.6-2.6 hrs).

The main problem for malaria control, at present, is the antimalarial drug resistance, especially of Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly malaria parasite (Krettli, 2001). Another important reason for the persistence of malaria in Africa is the presence of the vector, Anopheles gambiae, although social and economic factors are also worth mentioning. The female A. gambiae feeds preferentially on humans and is long-lived, making it particularly effective at transmitting malaria from one person to another. The spread of multi drug-resistant P. falciparum has highlighted the urgent need to develop new antimalarial drugs, preferably inexpensive drugs that are affordable for developing countries, where malaria is prevalent (Miller, 1992)

In view of the problems associated with antimalarial drug resistance, new drugs or drug combinations are urgently required today for the treatment of malaria. Preferably, new drugs should have novel modes of action or be chemically different from the drugs using currently (Wright and Phillipson, 1990). Development of new therapeutic approaches to malaria is very much needed; since the resistance of parasites has increased a lot against mostly used different antimalarial compounds like; primaquine, proquanil, pyrimethamine, metloquine etc. so there is an urgent need to produce alternative drugs with minimal side effects for humans (Usha Devi, 1996).

Due to limited availability or affordability of pharmaceutical medicines in many tropical countries, majority of the populations depend on traditional medical remedies (WHO, 2002; Zirihi et al., 2005), mainly from plants extracts since beginning. There are a series of new synthetic antimalarials that have been developed either or undergoing for trails against on different stages of Pasmodial falciparum. Most of the antimalarial drugs in use at the moment, such as quinine and artemisinin were either obtained directly from plants or developed by using plant-derived chemical compounds as template (Basco et al., 1994) which are widely acceptable as a potent treatment against malaria.

Plants have always been considered to be a possible alternative which found rich source of new valuable drugs. First time a natural product gained wide acceptance as a treatment for the Malaria was in the 16th century when the therapeutic action of the bark of Cinchona tree, disclosed by the natives of Peru to J. missionaries (Connelly, 1996).

The sincere intensive efforts are much needed for the development of new antimalarials from indigenous plants hence having much potential for the development of novel anti-malarial drugs (Singh & Panday, 1998). The natural products are important source of biological active compounds and have potential to be novel antimalarial drugs using by local people from many years to overcome malaria (Kalyman, 1985).

In this regard, preliminary study has been carried out for crude extracts/fractions of D. innoxia to analyse its antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains of P. falciparum isolates and encouraging results have been recorded.

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