HEPATITIS; CRISIS OF PEOPLE

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

ABOUT AUTHORS
SUMAN A*, Nagavamshidhar M, SRIKANTH J, QADRIE ZL
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Pratishta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Suryapet, Telangana, India

ABSTRACT:
Hepatitis is a viral infection which can leads to the inflammation of liver. The injury is occurred to the liver due to the inflammation of hepatic cells. The auto immune hepatitis occurred when the body makes antibodies against its own hepatocytes (or) liver cells. Hepatitis is an inflammation that can be shelf limited or can progress to fibrosis, liver cancer, and cirrhosis. The hepatitis word comes from the ancient Greek, it means, heap-liver cities: inflammation the first hepatitis discussed in 1963 when Dr Baruch Blumberg discovered an antigen that detected in blood samples. HAV severity is increased with the age; this is lead to outbreaks of HAV. HAV vaccination was developed in 1990s; it is thermo-stable and acid resistant. All viruses are classified according to their virion properties like morphology, physiochemical properties and physical properties, genome, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, genome organization and replication. HBV is a global health problem that can leads to the liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The majority of liver transplantations occurred due to the HCV infection. The pathophysiology is not completely understood, the virus is reached to the liver but exact mechanism not known, the HVE replicated in Gastro-intestinal tract it before enter to the liver. The study was mainly done because of the common people  have lakh of knowledge on about hepatitis, they are suffered a lot due to this disease  by doing this type of reviews reveals that  how the common peoples are suffered, how to improve health information and communication to people in  health care system. Health care team and system  improve the information provided to people regarding the current issues of diseases, treatments and preventing measures based on this type of reviews.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2602

PharmaTutor (Print-ISSN: 2394 - 6679; e-ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 6, Issue 8

Received On: 03/07/2018; Accepted On: 21/07/2018; Published On: 01/08/2018

How to cite this article: Suman, A., Nagavamshidhar, M., Srikanth, J. and Qadrie, Z.L. 2018. Hepatitis: Crisis of People. PharmaTutor. 6, 8 (Aug. 2018), 31-37. DOI:https://doi.org/10.29161/PT.v6.i8.2018.31

INTRODUCTION;
“Hepatitis” means inflammation of the liver. The liver is a vital organ that processes nutrients, filters the blood, and fights infections. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can cause hepatitis. However, hepatitis is most often caused by a virus. In the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C ( cdc.gov, Jules ).

BACKGROUND /HISTORY;
Hepatitis, a general term referring to inflammation of the liver, may result from various causes, both infectious (ie, viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic organisms) and non-infectious (eg, alcohol, drugs, autoimmune diseases, and metabolic diseases); this article focuses on viral hepatitis, which accounts for more than 50% of cases of acute hepatitis in the United States, primarily in the emergency department setting. (emedicine.medscape.com).

TYPES OF HEPATITIS
The hepatitis was classified into various types depending upon the viruses, they are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D& hepatitis E.
The hepatitis was isolated by Dur cell in 1973. HAV is one of the more common causes of acute hepatitis. (Goldberg et al,2016).

Approximately  90% of HAV in children below the age of 6yrs are asymptomatic and above the age of 6yrs to adultescence will show symptoms appx 75% (Franco E et al,2012).  Hepatitis B infection is caused by the hepatitis b virus    will affects the liver the infection of time period is very short is called acute hepatitis, in some causes time period is prolonged is called chronic hepatitis B. HBV was first discovered in 1976 by the Dr Blumberg. HBV infection is the major problem in present situation in worldwide, appx 30%of the world population shows the infection based on serological evidence current and past infection (Trépo C ,2014). HBV is a global health problem that can leads to the liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (Tang CM et al,2014). HBV is generally divided into four phases depending upon natural history of HBV. They are tolerant, reactive phase, inactive carrier stage immune clearance phase (Chan Ran You,2014).  Hepatitis c is a major cause for chronic liver disease, it is further classified into acute and chronic hepatitis (Blanca san,2016). In chronic HCV which can leads to the liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. the majority of liver transplantations occurred due to the HCV infection ( Zhang,2016). The acute HBV are asymptomatic which can lead to the liver failure rarely (Vinay sundaram,2015). Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) is smallest virus which is infected to humans then leads to increasing the cause of fulminant hepatitis (Abbas Z,2013). HDV is present in underneath of the outer HBS Ag layer &it is tightly as associated with HDV RNA genome (seyed Mohammad).

HBV is a satellite RNA virus dependent on HBV surface antigens which is assembles to envelope and form new viral and propagate infection (corolinaalves,2013).
Hepatitis delta virus was first discovered by Mario Rizzuto in 1977 Turin Italy (Noureddine ,2014).

Hepatitis is a viral infection traditionally it has been considered as acute, water borne disease and it is similar to hepatitis A (Arvind,2015). The one of the causes of the HEV is sporadic and epidemic viral hepatitis worldwide the infection mainly spreads through faecal oral route (Vasickova 2007). HEV is single-standard RNA and nonenveloped virus (Hoofnagle,2012).

HBV similar features to retrovirus, it is small DNA virus with prototype virus of hepadanaviridae family. In infectious serum three types of viral particles are visualized with the help of electron microscope in that two viral particles are smaller spherical in structures with the diameter about 20nm and its filaments are variables width of 22nm (Jake Liang,2009).

Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) is smallest virus which is infected to humans then leads to increasing the cause of fulminant hepatitis  (Jennifer,2001).  The shape of HDV is spherical and about seize is 36nm, with satellite virus, circular RNA of negative polarity of helper function to propagate (Dastgerdi,2012). HDV is a small single standard RNA genome of 1679 nucleotides (Severin Gudima,2002).

VIROLOGIC CLASSIFICATION
All viruses are classified according to their virion properties like morphology, physiochemical properties and physical properties, genome, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, genome organisation and replication.
In addition to that viral particles may be envelope [host cell derived lipid enveloped] or non-enveloped.
There are five major types of hepatitis viruses they are given

Viruses

Classification

Transmission or       spread

Genome

Envelope

Hepatitis A

Picornaviridae

Faecal-oral

RNA

Non -envelope

Hepatitis B

Hepadanaviridae

Parenteral

DNA

Lipid envelope

Hepatitis C

Flavivirid

Parenteral

RNA

Lipid envelope

Hepatitis D

Unclassified

Parenteral

RNA

Lipid envelope

Hepatitis E

Caliciviral

Faecal oral

RNA

Non -envelope

ETIOLOGY
*Poor sanitation
*Lack of safe water
*Use of recreational drugs
*Living in a household with infected person(c. hang,2012).
*Men and women who are have multiple sex partners
*Men who have sex with men
*Sexual transmitted disease
*Infected mother to infants
*Close physical contact with infected persons
*Men/women who have participated sex with the infected person
*Sexual contact with infected persons
*Blood transfusions
*Organ transplantations
*Have gotten tattoos with non-sterile tools
*Peoples infected with HIV ( Chou R,2012).
HDV is replicated by the help of HDV, it is single standard RNV with delta antigen
HDV is also referred as incomplete virus (doh.wa.gov). The causative organism of HEV is hepatitis E virus, is a nonenveloped sphere of about 27 to 34nm in diameter (james,2001).

Epidemiology and prevalence
Hepatitis E annually2 million cases are occurred in India based on estimated or statistical data 60%of sporadic hepatitis in India (gideononline.com ).

The worldwide hepatitis A virus (HAV) clinical cases are occurred appx 1.5 million   but the rate of infection as much as increases 10times greater than cases reported.  The HAV is depends upon the socioeconomic status because has income is increases the quality of drinking water is increases when the income is decreased the quality of water is de creases.

HAV is depends on sanitation, age dependent factor, in developed countries HAV infection rate is very low due to the hygiene and sanitation conditions maintained in children. The children are more prone to this infection, in developing countries due to the lack of hygiene and sanitation conditions (Franco E,2012; Arvind,2015). HBV infection symptoms in adults are majorly asymptomatic in fulminant liver failure in adults 30% will present with jaundice and hepatitis is 0.1-0.5% In acute hepatitis candidates, we can do serological test can detect hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B antigen ( James,2001).

In globally 350,000 deaths are occurred per annually due to the HCV infection, one of the most common cause of liver cirrhosis is HCV infection. Based on estimated statistical data one third of those with HCV infection will go developed the liver cirrhosis (Shaina,2016) .In global wide estimated prevalence HCV infection is about 13000000 HCV positive persons in worldwide (Jake Liang,2009). Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) routes of transmission is similar to that hepatitis Bathe five no of 5% of HBV antigen carrying   to effect of HDV around 15-20 million people around worldwide (Sultanik,2016).. based on statistical data appx 15 million people are infected with HDV are HBV (whoint). HDV is more common in children, in under developed countries mostly children are effected with HDV (emedicine.medscape.com).

PATHOLOGY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a single standard linear RNA with positive seneschal belongs to the picornaviridae family in humans the viral/virus replication depends upon hepatocytes uptake and synthesis.it is accumulated in the liver cells.
HBV has eight genotypes and four genes its consists of following
* Surface antigen for the viral envelope
* Pre-core antigens and nucleocapsid core antigen
* X-gene
* P-gene for DNA POLYMERASE
When the HBV produce the antigen in the blood, then immune system to produce antibodies against antigen to disappear (Richard,2008). hepatitis E is an evolving disease (Sandra Rodriguez,2012). the pathophysiology is not completely understood, the virus is reached to the liver but exact mechanism not known, the HVE replicated in Gastrointestinal tract it before enter to the liver(Sébastien lhomme,2016).

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT editor-in-chief@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE


Pages

FIND MORE ARTICLES