You are hereNanotechnology, an emergent field in drug delivery with potential to alleviate life threatening disease – A REVIEW

Nanotechnology, an emergent field in drug delivery with potential to alleviate life threatening disease – A REVIEW


About Authors:
Aadeshkumar*, Nishantkumar gupta, Dineshkumar gupta
Dept. of pharmacy
BIT meerut, UP
*adesh.adi.chaudhary@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
In recent years there has been a rapid increase in nanotechnology in the fields of medicine and more specifically in targeted drug delivery. The proprietary powder processing techniques use by nanotherapeutics improves the delivery of drug that can not normally taken orally.
It improves
·         Safety and efficacy of low molecular weight drugs,
·         Stability and absorption of proteins that normally cannot be taken orally,
·         Extend the life cycle of existing drug formulation.

At present many substances are under investigation for drug delivery and more specifically for cancer therapy, AIDS and potential to cross the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) has open new ways for drug delivery into the brain. Pharmaceutical sciences are also using nanoparticles to reduce toxicity and side effects of drugs. Nanoparticles are also have the potential as novel intravascular or cellular probes for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes (drug/gene delivery) and nanosize allow access into cell and cell compartment including nucleus. . Discovery of nanomedicine has given rise to nanoparticles through which better target specific drug and gene delivery is possible. In conclusion nanoparticles for drug delivery and imaging have gradually been developed as new modalities for cancer therapy and diagnosis. This review illustrates the emerging role of nanotechnology in drug delivery.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1363

INTRODUCTION
Nanotechnology has become a rapidly growing field with potential applications ranging from electronics to drugs[1]. Richard Feynman introduced the concept of nanotechnology in his pioneering lecture Nanotechnology thus defined as the design and fabrications of materials, devices and systemswith control at nanometer dimensions.Nanotechnology is the disciple of science that deals with molecules of nanometeric size i.e. 10 power -9 of a meter[2]

National Science Foundation and the National Nanotechnology Initiative define nanotechnology as understanding and control of matter at dimensions of 1–100 nm where unique phenomena enable novel applications.Colloidal dispersions comprise particles or droplets in the submicron range « l m in an aqueous suspension or emulsion, respectively[3].

This small size of the inner phase gives such a system unique properties in terms of appearance and application.  There are many specific reasons why nanoscale has become soimportant some of which are as the following:
(i) The quantum mechanical (wavelike) properties of electrons inside matter are influenced by variations on the nanoscale. By nanoscale design of materials it is possible to vary their micro and macroscopic properties, such as charge capacity, magnetization and meltingtemperature, without changing their chemical composition.
(ii) A key feature of biological entities is the systematic organization of matter on the nanoscale. Developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology would allow us to place man-made nanoscale things inside living cells. It would also make it possible to make new materials using the self-assembly features of nature. This certainly will be a powerful combination of biology with materials science.
(iii) Nanoscale components have very high surface to volume ratio, making them ideal for use in composite materials, reacting systems, drug delivery, and chemical energy storage (such as hydrogen and natural gas).
(iv) Macroscopic systems made up of nanostructures can have much higher density than those made up of microstructures. They can also be better conductors of electricity.
This can result in new electronicdevice concepts, smaller and faster circuits, more sophisticatedfunctions, and greatly reduced power consumption simultaneously by controlling nanoscale interaction and complexity.
(v) The particles are too small for sedimentation, they are held in suspension by Brownian motion of the water molecules. They have a large overall surface area and their dispersions provide a high solid content at low viscosity.

Nanoparticles are carriers for conventional drugs as well as for peptides and proteins, enzymes, vaccines, or antigens. According to the process used for the preparation of nanoparticles, nanospheres or nanocapsules can be obtained [4]

Nanotechnology enables us to deliver drug in the form of dendrimers, liposomes, nanoshells, emulsions, nanotubes, quantum dots etc. for the manipulation of various diseases and their metabolic pathway [3] it is of great importance in treatment and diagnosis of cancer. Some recent breakthrough in the form of drug delivery is effective target therapy used in pre-sympathomimetic & diagnosis technique [5]

Drug delivery alternatives
·         Oral Drug Delivery
·          Injection Based Drug Delivery
·          Transdermal Drug Delivery
·          Bone Marrow Infusio
·          Control Release Systems

Targeted Drug Delivery:
a. Therapeutical Monoclonal  
b. Antibodies
c. Liposomes
d. Microparticles
e. Modified Blood Cells
f. Nanoparticles

Implant Drug Delivery System
In addition to the commonly used oral and injectionroutes, drugs can also be administered through other means, including transdermal, transmucosal, ocular, pulmonary, andimplantation. The mechanisms used to achieve alternativedrug delivery typically incorporate one or more of the following materials: biologics, polymers, silicon-based materials, carbon-based materials, or metals. These materials are structured in microscale and, more recently, nanoscale formats.

At present, 95% of all new therapeutic system have poor pharmokinetics and less developed biopharmaceutical properties[6] There is no such medicinal system that delivers drug and distribute therapeutically active drug molecules to the site of action or inflammation without any side effects[7]This problems are overcome by nanotechnology drug delivery system which possess multiple desirable attributes. Nanomedicine has a size such that it can be injected without occluding needles and capillaries which enables targeted drug delivery and medical imaging[8]

Table 1 summarizes the materials and structures currently being investigated at the nanoscale for drug delivery applications.

Nanoscale drug delivery technologies

Drug delivery technology

Materials Nanostructure forms
Biologic

Lipids

Peptides
Nucleic acids
Polysaccharides
Viruses

Vesicles, nanotubes,Rings

Nanoparticles

Polymeric

Poly(lactic acid)

Poly(glycolic acid)
Poly(alkylcyanoacrylate)
Poly(3-hydroxybutanoic acid)
Poly(organophosphazene)
Poly(ethylene glycol)
Poly(caprolactone)
Poly(ethylene oxide)
Poly(amidoamine)
Poly(L-glutamic acid)
Poly(ethyleneimine)
Poly(propylene imine

Vesicles, spheres,
Nanoparticles






Micelles, dendrimers

Silicon based

Silicon
Silicon dioxide
Porous, nanoparticles
Nanoneedles

Carbon based

 Metallic

Carbon
Gold
Silver
Palladium
Platinum
Nanotubes fullerness
Nanoparticles,
nanoshells

The US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), initiated in October 2000, provides a federal vision fornanotechnology-based investment through the coordination of 16 US departments and independent agencies. Ten potential research and development targets by 2015 for the NNI are shown in Table 2 [9]

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Aadesh007 kumar
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Joined: 2012-05-31
thanks to all visiters

all people who like,, please like it and give your comment on this ,, and also provide information related to this,,,

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