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ROLE OF BCG IN TREATMENT OF BLADDER CANCER

ABOUT AUTHOR
Abhishek Singhal
Department of Pharmacology,
Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Pharmacy, Kondhwa (Bk.),
Pune, Maharastra, India
* abhishekspharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Aim: This review is written to describe the role of immunotherapy in cancer treatment.
Annually, 13,000 deaths result from bladder cancer. Since the first report of intravesical use of BCG in 1976, investigators try to understand the working mechanism of BCG as an antitumour modality. Arbitrarily, BCG therapy consists of a single course of six weekly intravesical instillations. Bacillus Calmette-Gue´rin, an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, was developed by Calmette and Gue´rin with the intention to generate a vaccine against tuberculosis. Extension of BCG treatment (maintenance immunotherapy) is used to increase efficacy.
Results of various experiments describe that after instillation in the bladder, BCG accumulates near the bladder wall and is internalised and processed by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and (high-grade) tumour cells. Then BCG antigens are presented to CD4+ T cells. Then local synthesis of a particular set of cytokines or cell-mediated immune response. NK cells may be involve in tumour cell killing.


DEADLY BUT CURABLE: A REVIEW ON POTENTIAL TREATMENTS FOR EBOLA HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Bushra Shamim
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Hamdard University, New Delhi, India
bushrashamim21@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This is a review article on potential treatments for Ebola virus disease, also known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever. Ebola fever has emerged as one of the deadliest known forms of hemorrhagic fever since discovered in 1976.  Transmission among humans occurs through the exchange of blood and body secretions. The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. In this article experimental treatments like blood, immunological and drug therapies are discussed that are under development


ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF ECHINOSYSTIC ACID RELEVANCE TO CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: AN IN SILICO STUDY

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Monjur Ahmed Laskar*, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury
Bioinformatics Centre, Assam University,
Silchar, Assam, India
monjur@bioinfoaus.ac.in

ABSTRACT
Plants have been used in treating cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and are recognized for their ability to produce secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites obtained from different plants have been the starting material for designing different drugs. Echinosystic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene was isolated and identified from the fruits of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Echinosystic acid has significant cardioprotective effects. Different phytochemicals have been found to be cardioprotective and paved the path towards development of cardioprotective formulations. In the present study we have analyzed the inhibitory potential of Echinosystic acid, on the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) - the enzyme responsible for various cardiovascular diseases.
The study revealed that Echinosystic acidhave high ACE inhibiting potential as compared to other known ACE inhibitors.


FINASTERIDE IN THE TREATMENT OF FEMALE ANDROGENIC ALOPECIA

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Priyanka T*, Giri raja sekhar D, Lekhanth A, Revanth.A
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Annamacharya College of Pharmacy
Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh, India
giriraj.pharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Hair loss in women is twice more distressing in women when compared to men. The most common cause of hair loss in women is Female Androgenic Alopecia (FAGA) which shows Ludwig, Christmas tree, Hamilton pattern. Androgenic alopecia is due to the increased activity of 5α-reductase in the hair follicles which results in the gradual transformation of large, terminal follicles to small, miniaturized follicles. Finasteride is a 5α-reductase II enzyme which inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydro testosterone and is effectively used in the management of the male pattern androgenic alopecia with a dose of 1mg/day but this article mainly reviews the use of Finasteride in the female androgenic alopecia. Studies so far reported increased scalp hair counts, hair density, hair regrowth both by the patient assessment and photographs by the blinded expert panel. Relevant literatures were chosen to determine the efficacy of Finasteride in the treatment of female Androgenic Alopecia.


A REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGY OF COMBINED EDARAVONE AND ARGATROBAN THERAPY IN ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Patel  Divya A*., Varodiya Priyanka S., Raj Hasumati A.
Department of Quality Assurance, Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College,
Kim, Surat, Gujarat, India
divyapatel388@gmail.com, drharaj@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
This review article presents the pharmacology of combined edaravone and argatroban therapy especially in acute ischemic stroke. Edaravone (MCI-186) is a free radical scavenger, a novel neuroprotective agent. Argatroban  is a selective thrombin inhibitor.The antithrombotic agent was used in acute cerebral infarction. If the antithrombotic agent is administered in large quantities, the condition of patient become worse by occurrence of adeverse effect of cerebral haeorrhage. The use of edaravone in combination with antithrombotic agent has been proved to provide beneficial effect in acute ischemic stroke as edaravone has no influence to coagulation of blood and platelets aggregation. The combination therapy has fewer hemorrhagic  adeverse  effect. The mechanism of argatroban and edaravone is quite different. Argatroban, an anti-coagulant drug, directly improves the microcirculation of ischemic brain tissue while edaravone could indirectly attenuated brain edema by protection of endothelial cells damaged by free radicals generated after ischemic insult. The combination of both would have reciprocal and enhanced neuroprotective effects against ischemic insult. Both the drugs were approved by Japanese government and has been used in acute brain infarction in japan. The main objective of this review article is to provide pharmacological information of combined therapy of edaravone and argatroban to researcher in development of combined dosage form of this.


HEPARIN: POWERFUL AND INSTANTANEOUSLY ACTING ANTICOAGULANT

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Amitava Sinha Ray
Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd
West Bengal, India
a.amitava.s@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Anticoagulantis an agent that is used to prevent the formation of blood clots. Anticoagulants, such as heparin or warfarin work on chemical reactions in the body to lengthen the time it takes to form a blood clot. Heparin the anticoagulant drug that is used to prevent blood clots from forming during and after surgery and to treat various heart, lung, and circulatory disorders in human body. Heparin is comparatively a strong acid that forms water–soluble salts. It is used in treatment of venous thrombosis and its extensions, pulmonary embolism (PE), peripheral arterial embolism. Smoking and alcohol may alter response to heparin. Abrupt withdrawal of heparin may precipitate increased coagulability.


ANTACIDS: HEART BURN OTC DRUGS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Tribhuvan Patel*, Virendra Kr. Baheliya, Rajesh Kr. Prajapati, Vivek Kr. Yadav, Avanish Kr. Yadav, Pramod Kr. Jaiswal
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Kunwar Haribansh Singh College of Pharmacy, Jaunpur, U.P.
*vikashk464@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Antacids are chemical substances which neutralizing the acid that causes heartburn. By reducing the acidity, the acid is less able to irritate the esophagus. The effect of antacids on the stomach is due to partial neutralisation of gastric hydrochloric acid and inhibition of the proteolytic enzyme, pepsin. There are commonly used self-prescribed medications.  Antacids are available many forms such as suspensions, chewable tablets and liquid gels. They consist of calcium carbonate and magnesium and aluminum salts in various compounds or combinations. Antacids are used for gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, stress gastritis, pancreatic insufficiency, non-ulcer dyspepsia, biliary reflux, bile acid mediated diarrhoea, constipation, osteoporosis, urinary alkalinisation and chronic renal failure as a dietary phosphate binder.


A REVIEW ON EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Rathore KS*, Roshan Keshari, Annu Rathore, Divya Chauhan
BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
kamalsrathore@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The Ebola virus (formerly officially designated Zaire ebolavirus, or EBOV) was first seen infecting humans in African continent; especially Sudan, Democratic Republican of Congo, Zaire and nearby countries. Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of the Ebola virus. In the current outbreak, most cases are the result of human-to-human transmission, when there is direct contact with bodily fluids, secretions, the mucous membrane or broken skin of an infected person. The disease typically occurs in outbreaks in tropical regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. But now, the virus seems to have enthralled the global interest due to its lethal prospective. EVD outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 90%. The research is ongoing on development of making vaccine to curb this virus yet licensed success or specific treatment is not achieved. Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care.


SNAKE BITE ITS FIRST AID & ANTI SNAKE VENOM (ASV): DETAILS GUIDELINES

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Amitava Sinha Ray
B.Pharmacy, DPM
RANBAXY LABORATORIES LTD.
West Bengal, India
a.amitava.s@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Snakebite is an injury caused by a bite from a snake. It can be dangerous and life threatening if the snake will venomous. India is the top country having the highest no. of death due to snake bite. Some specific venomous snake is responsible for this death. Till now people are not serious about that. Most of the people don’t know just the first aid of snake bite. After a snake bite most village people are going to unqualified person and quacks for treatment not to hospital, this is one of the most serious causes of death. People should be aware about the sign and symptoms of snake bite and at least the first aid treatment of snakebite. In this type of emergency victim should be admit to nearest hospital and Anti Snake Venom (ASV) is very much necessary to save the patient life.


CASE REPORT ON OGILVIE’S SYNDROME: A RARE CLINICAL ENTITY

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Jyothi.P, A.Sireesha, D.Venugopal*, J.Jyothi
Department of Pharmacy Practice, P. RamiReddy Memorial College of Pharmacy,
Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.
venugopal.pharmd@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This is a syndrome of acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction associated with massive dilation, usually of the colon, but also of the small intestine. It describes the phenomenon of an acute colonic pseudo-obstruction without a mechanical cause. Mechanical obstruction is absent and there is parasympathetic nerve dysfunction. It was first described by Sir William Ogilvie in 1948, an English surgeon who was also an examiner for Oxbridge and wrote papers on fractures and hernias. It is a relatively rare condition. Males are more commonly affected than females. It is more common in the elderly. An imbalance in the autonomic innervations (sympathetic over activity and parasympathetic suppression) has been thought to be the pathophysiological factor in the causation of this condition. Reported here is a case of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction which developed in a female patient of age 45 with hypertension and histerectomy was made 25 years back and was treated conservatively. The patient stool culture should be done periodically and if any infectious agents were found should be monitored and appropriate treatment has to be done. It usually responds to non-operative therapy, but occasionally requires surgical intervention.


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