Pharmacology Articles

ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY ON LEAVES OF POLYGONUM GLABRUM WILLD IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL

About Authors:
Deepak singh1*, Arpit Dixit2, Amir khan3, Vikas singh4, Abhishek sachan4
1*Department of Clinical Research, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard nagar, New Delhi-110062
2Business executive at Merck Pvt.ltd, Ghaziabad, India
3Business executive at Cipla Pvt.ltd, Lucknow, India
4Shri RLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Etawah(UP), India
*deep_singh4u21@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The present investigations, which were primarily conducted with the aim of investigating some neuropharmacological activity of Polygonum glabrum (PG), i.e. PG has got anxiolytic activity when tested against open field exploratory behavior, where as elevated plus maze did not show any positive results. The action produced by PG was more than that of diazepam in open field exploratory behaviour. Observations confirms that PG possesses significant antidepressant activity. The observed antidepressant activity of PG was qualitatively comparable to that induced by Imipramine. Pentobarbitone induced hypnosis in mice was significant potentiated by PG.PG at 100 and 200mg/kg, reduced locomotor activity in rats.The PG seems to be little or no motor incoordination effect in mice when tested against rota-rod test.PG had significant analgesic activity which is both centrally and peripherally mediated, when tested against various analgesic models in rodents.The investigations indicates that PG has significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anxiolytic actions, some of these actions, including antidepressant and anxiolytic can be rationalized on the basis of the neurochemical data emanating from this study . The present study indicate that PG can be clinically useful not only in inflammation, pain and fever, and worm infestation but also in depression and anxiety. Clinical studies are required to confirm the above mentioned activities.


GENOTOXICITY

ABOUT AUHTORS
L Reddenna1*, Dr. P. Venkatesh1, K Siva Kumar2, A Sai keshava Reddy2
1* Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Jagan’s College of Pharmacy,
Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Nirmala College of Pharmacy,
Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India
*reddennapharmd@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Genotoxicity describes the possessions of chemical agents that damage the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer. Heritable changes can influence either somatic cells of the organism or germ cells to be passed on to future generations. As a result, many urbane techniques including Ames Assay, in vitro and in vivo Toxicology Tests, and Comet Assay have been developed to evaluate the chemicals probable to cause DNA damage that may lead to cancer. The genotoxic substances provoke damage to the genetic material in the cells through exchanges with the DNA sequence and structure. Genotoxicity testing is to resolve if a substrate will sway genetic material or may cause cancer. Genotoxic Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with the use of one or more genotoxic drugs. The treatment is traditionally part of standardized regime. By utilizing the destructive properties of genotoxins treatments aims to induce DNA damage into cancer cells.


H/H BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM: A RARE BLOOD GROUP

ABOUT AUHTORS
L Reddenna1*, Dr. P. Venkatesh1, K Siva Kumar2, A Sai keshava Reddy2
1* Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Jagan’s College of Pharmacy,
Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India
*reddennapharmd@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The subsistence of a human H/h genetic polymorphism was first recognized by the innovation of an individual devoid of the H antigen on red cells in Bombay who had antibodies in plasma reacting with all the red cells exhibiting the normal red cell ABO phenotypes. These persons were genetically termed as homozygous hh or Bombay phenotype. H-deficient Bombay phenotype is exceptional, since it occurs in about 1 in 10,000 individuals in India and 1 per 1,000,000 individuals in Europe. After the first report of Oh phenotype from Mumbai in 1952 by Bhende, numerous other workers detected this weird phenotype in India. The complexity with the Bombay phenotype is that the individuals having blood group of Bombay phenotype (Oh) can either receive autologous donation or blood from an individual of Bombay phenotype only; no other blood will match in case of an emergency blood transfusion. The aim of present study was to communicate the information about rare blood entity and to review the previous case reports.


CLINICAL PHARMACIST SPECIALIZED CARE IN MANAGEMENT OF CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE - A BRIEF REVIEW

ABOUT AUHTORS
M.S.Umashankar*1, K.S.Lakshmi, A.Bharath Kumar, A.Porselvi
SRM College of Pharmacy,
SRM University, Kattankulathur,
Tamil Nadu, India

*abharatpharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT : 
It is a critical clinical condition in which more abnormalities in cardiac structure and its functions may impact the ineffectiveness of the heart to supply required oxygen to meet the cellular metabolic demands of the body. Heart is covered with protective layers and express the various functions in the body. Clinically cardiac disease prevalence rises with individual age. Cardiac dysfunction happens because of changes in blood volume, and neurohumoral transmission status. These desirable mechanisms to maintain adequate cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. The neurohumoral responses act as compensatory mechanisms and provokes heart failure by increasing ventricular after load and increasing preload,which further elevates the cardiac failure. Health care system with a clinical pharmacist is well allocated to impact the disease management through identification of risk factors, stage of severity, educating the patients and health care practioners and implementing the awareness programmes, modification of life style interventions with in health care system beneficial to the community may reduce the progression of disease severity.


A STUDY ON ROLE OF DOCTOR OF PHARMACY IN IDENTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN AN ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY WARD OF A TERITARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

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About Authors:
M. Manasa Rekha,
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Annamacharya college of Pharmacy,
Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh,  India.
manasarekharoyal@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Clinical pharmacy is the branch of pharmacy in which pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention. Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside hospitals and clinics. Clinical pharmacists often work in collaboration with physicians, nurse practitioners and other healthcare professionals. The Clinical Pharmacist Stating explicitly that the clinical pharmacist cares for patients in all health care settings emphasizes two points: that clinical pharmacists provide care to their patients and that this practice can occur in any practice setting. The clinical pharmacist’s application of evidence and evolving sciences points out that clinical pharmacy is a scientifically rooted discipline the application of legal, ethical, social, cultural, and economic principles serves to remind us that clinical pharmacy practice also takes into account societal factors that extend beyond science.


ADVANCEMENTS IN PHARMACOLOGY AND ITS EFFECT ON 'HEALTH-CARE' INDUSTRY

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Neha Bala, Naresh Mali
*
Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur
Rajasthan,  India
malinaresh888@gmail.com

The tremendous pharmacological advances witnessed during the last few decades have revolutionize virtually all aspects of modern life,including our understanding of disease.New drugs have contributed significantly to the economic impact of new developments in health care.With recognition that the pace of pharmacological development and acquiring of new knowledge will certainly accelerate in the coming years,let us consider what these advances might hold for Pharmacological advancement,Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism


NEUROPROTECTIVE AGENTS, NATURAL PLANT HERBS & DRUGS IN ISCHEMIC STROKE: A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Nesar Ahmad*,Zafar Khan, Noorul Hasan, Abdul Basit, Seikh Zohrameena
Department of Pharmacology,
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Integral University, Lucknow, UP, India
*nesar50@gmail.com

ABSTRACT 
Stroke is a destructive experience which can result in permanent disability in brain. There is no permanent drug which can improve the blood flow at infracted area and also improve the neurological deficit. Due to the lack of treatments available for stroke, many researchers will investigate the suitable plants or drugs for the treatment of this disease. Numerous medicinal plants and herbal drugs are available to treat stroke, some of the plants are Ginkgo biloba, Fructus Chebulae, Pomegranate, Rosa laevigata, Garlic, Leonurus heterophyllus, Olive, Grape, Allium cepa, drugs such as Pravastatin, Senkyunolide I, Phloretin, Mgso4, HAMI 3379, Oleoylethanolamie, scopolamine and mecamylamine, Nitric Oxide, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 3,5,6,7,8,3’,4’-Heptamethoxy flavones, Rosiglitazone, Puerarin, the activity was estimated by parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, Hemispheric swelling index (cerebral edema), H2O2 induced cell injury, OGD-R induced cell injury, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidises, mitochondrial membrane potential, Western blotting assay, ROS scavenging assays, Superoxide anion  scavenging assay, Hydroxyl radical  scavenging assay, H2O2 scavenging assay, Singlet oxygen scavenging assay, Peroxyl radical scavenging assay, Peroxynitrite anion scavenging assay, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, blood–brain barrier integrity, cerebral infarct size, in Situ Apoptosis Detection, Western blotting, SOD, GSH, glutathione peroxidase, and MDA levels, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Lactate dehydrogenase activity assay, Determination of caspase activity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, Determination of choline acetyltransferase activity (ChAT), Cell viability, Oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion assay, Flow cytometry, Immunohistochemistry.  The present review focused on different medicinal plants and drugs that have been tested in Stroke in animal models.


CINNAMON: A MAGICAL DRUG

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Pranav Nayak B*
Srinivas college of pharmacy,
Mangalore, Karnataka India,
*nayak.pranav10@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:
Cinnamon is used as a spice in our day to day life. It is aromatic. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring agent. It has been acquainted as one of the healthiest spices and has medicinal activity. When it is checked for chemical constituents it reveals phenolic flavonoid and carotenoid contents. They contain rich amount of polyphenols which are powerful antioxidants. It inhibits the growth of certain bacteria and fungi. It helps to reduce the blood glucose by increasing insulin in the body by the mechanism of resisting insulin depletion. It interferes with carbohydrate digesting enzyme and reduces degradation of carbohydrate as a result of which it decreases entry of glucose from intestine to blood stream. It reduces the growth of cancer cells. ‘N’ number of pharmacological investigationsconfirmed that the ability of this plant is to exhibit hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and cardioprotective action. This present article will provide you with detailed information on the most of the aspects of cinnamon.


TURMERIC AS MEDICINAL PLANT FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACNE VULGARIS

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Priyanka R. Waghmare1*, Priynka G. Kakade1 , Prashant L. Takdhat2, Ashwini M. Nagrale2, SM Thakare2, MM Parate3
1 Dr. R. G. Bhoyar Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research,
Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Dr. R. G. Bhoyar Institute of Pharmacy,
Wardha, Maharashtra, India
3 Daga Memorial Hospital,
Maharashtra, Nagpur, India

*waghmarepriyancka@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Herbal medicines are gaining increased popularity due to their advantages, such as better patient tolerance, long history of use, fewer side-effects and being relatively less expensive. Furthermore, they have provided good evidence for the treatment of a wide variety of difficult to cure diseases. The skin is the outermost layer of the body that is often easily damaged by environmental factors as well as stress and poor eating habits. Acne vulgaris (or simply acne) is an infectious disease and one of the most prevalent human diseases. Acne is a cutaneous pleomorphic disorder of the pilosebaceous unit involving abnormalities in sebum production and is characterized by both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions. Common therapies that are used for the treatment of acne include topical, systemic, hormonal, herbal and combination therapy. Although here is a wide market for cosmetic products that offers to improve skin problems, nature also provides a solution to these. Although the medical and surgical treatment options are the same, it is these features that should be kept in mind when designing a treatment regimen for acne. Natural treatments for skin that give lasting results are often better than expensive commercial products and cosmetic procedures. One such natural treatment is turmeric powder for skin. Turmeric is considered safe in amounts found in foods and when taken orally and topically in medicinal quantities. Turmeric’s primary biologically active component is curcumin. Research has shown that curcumin has potent antioxidant, wound-healing, and anti-inflammatory properties, which may prove to be therapeutic against acne. This review focuses on the treatment of acne using turmeric as medicinal drug.

 


ADVANCES & CONSIDERATIONS IN PHARMACOTHERAPY OF ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Noorul Hasan*, Mohd. Mujahid, Badruddeen, Nesar Ahmad, Shahla Parveen, Shaikh Zohrameena, Zafar Khan
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Integral University, Lucknow, U.P. (India)
*noorulkhan999@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral condition primarily affecting children but regularly persisting into adolescence and adulthood. The symptoms must present in multiple settings ie home, school, work, be inappropriate for developmental level and interfere with the individual’s level of functioning, social development, learning processes, and quality of life. There are three presentations of ADHD i.e. inattentive, hyperactive and combined. There is a substantial pharmacopoeia available for safe and effective treatment of ADHD. CNS stimulants like methylphenidate, amphetamine are recommended as first-line medication therapy for children. It includes various class of drugs like centrally acting sympathomimetic, anti-psychotic, anti-depressant (SSRI), alph2 agonist and some newer agent like atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD. ADHD remains the only highly prevalent, nondegenerative neuropsychiatric disorder for which effective medications remediate the principal cognitive disturbances in concert with clinical efficacy. Therefore, deeper insight into the neural mechanisms of cognitive remediation may serve to advance treatment development not only in ADHD, but across a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders in which cognitive dysfunction is a cardinal feature and a strong predictor of clinical outcome. All effective medications for ADHD act on one or both of the major catecholamine neurotransmitter systems in the brain. These 2 systems, which arise from subcortical nuclei and use of norepinephrine (NE) or dopamine (DA) as transmitters exert strong modulatory effects on widely distributed cortical–subcortical neural circuits, with important effects on cognition, mood and behavior in both health and illness


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