Pharmacology Articles

A STUDY ON ROLE OF DOCTOR OF PHARMACY IN IDENTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN AN ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY WARD OF A TERITARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

About Authors:
M. Manasa Rekha,
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Annamacharya college of Pharmacy,
Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh,  India.
manasarekharoyal@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Clinical pharmacy is the branch of pharmacy in which pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention. Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside hospitals and clinics. Clinical pharmacists often work in collaboration with physicians, nurse practitioners and other healthcare professionals. The Clinical Pharmacist Stating explicitly that the clinical pharmacist cares for patients in all health care settings emphasizes two points: that clinical pharmacists provide care to their patients and that this practice can occur in any practice setting. The clinical pharmacist’s application of evidence and evolving sciences points out that clinical pharmacy is a scientifically rooted discipline the application of legal, ethical, social, cultural, and economic principles serves to remind us that clinical pharmacy practice also takes into account societal factors that extend beyond science.


ADVANCEMENTS IN PHARMACOLOGY AND ITS EFFECT ON 'HEALTH-CARE' INDUSTRY

ABOUT AUHTOR
Neha Bala, Naresh Mali
*
Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur
Rajasthan,  India
malinaresh888@gmail.com

The tremendous pharmacological advances witnessed during the last few decades have revolutionize virtually all aspects of modern life,including our understanding of disease.New drugs have contributed significantly to the economic impact of new developments in health care.With recognition that the pace of pharmacological development and acquiring of new knowledge will certainly accelerate in the coming years,let us consider what these advances might hold for Pharmacological advancement,Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism


NEUROPROTECTIVE AGENTS, NATURAL PLANT HERBS & DRUGS IN ISCHEMIC STROKE: A REVIEW

ABOUT AUHTORS
Nesar Ahmad*,Zafar Khan, Noorul Hasan, Abdul Basit, Seikh Zohrameena
Department of Pharmacology,
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Integral University, Lucknow, UP, India
*nesar50@gmail.com

ABSTRACT 
Stroke is a destructive experience which can result in permanent disability in brain. There is no permanent drug which can improve the blood flow at infracted area and also improve the neurological deficit. Due to the lack of treatments available for stroke, many researchers will investigate the suitable plants or drugs for the treatment of this disease. Numerous medicinal plants and herbal drugs are available to treat stroke, some of the plants are Ginkgo biloba, Fructus Chebulae, Pomegranate, Rosa laevigata, Garlic, Leonurus heterophyllus, Olive, Grape, Allium cepa, drugs such as Pravastatin, Senkyunolide I, Phloretin, Mgso4, HAMI 3379, Oleoylethanolamie, scopolamine and mecamylamine, Nitric Oxide, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 3,5,6,7,8,3’,4’-Heptamethoxy flavones, Rosiglitazone, Puerarin, the activity was estimated by parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, Hemispheric swelling index (cerebral edema), H2O2 induced cell injury, OGD-R induced cell injury, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidises, mitochondrial membrane potential, Western blotting assay, ROS scavenging assays, Superoxide anion  scavenging assay, Hydroxyl radical  scavenging assay, H2O2 scavenging assay, Singlet oxygen scavenging assay, Peroxyl radical scavenging assay, Peroxynitrite anion scavenging assay, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, blood–brain barrier integrity, cerebral infarct size, in Situ Apoptosis Detection, Western blotting, SOD, GSH, glutathione peroxidase, and MDA levels, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Lactate dehydrogenase activity assay, Determination of caspase activity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, Determination of choline acetyltransferase activity (ChAT), Cell viability, Oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion assay, Flow cytometry, Immunohistochemistry.  The present review focused on different medicinal plants and drugs that have been tested in Stroke in animal models.


CINNAMON: A MAGICAL DRUG

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Pranav Nayak B*
Srinivas college of pharmacy,
Mangalore, Karnataka India,
*nayak.pranav10@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:
Cinnamon is used as a spice in our day to day life. It is aromatic. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring agent. It has been acquainted as one of the healthiest spices and has medicinal activity. When it is checked for chemical constituents it reveals phenolic flavonoid and carotenoid contents. They contain rich amount of polyphenols which are powerful antioxidants. It inhibits the growth of certain bacteria and fungi. It helps to reduce the blood glucose by increasing insulin in the body by the mechanism of resisting insulin depletion. It interferes with carbohydrate digesting enzyme and reduces degradation of carbohydrate as a result of which it decreases entry of glucose from intestine to blood stream. It reduces the growth of cancer cells. ‘N’ number of pharmacological investigationsconfirmed that the ability of this plant is to exhibit hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and cardioprotective action. This present article will provide you with detailed information on the most of the aspects of cinnamon.


TURMERIC AS MEDICINAL PLANT FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACNE VULGARIS

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Priyanka R. Waghmare1*, Priynka G. Kakade1 , Prashant L. Takdhat2, Ashwini M. Nagrale2, SM Thakare2, MM Parate3
1 Dr. R. G. Bhoyar Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research,
Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Dr. R. G. Bhoyar Institute of Pharmacy,
Wardha, Maharashtra, India
3 Daga Memorial Hospital,
Maharashtra, Nagpur, India

*waghmarepriyancka@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Herbal medicines are gaining increased popularity due to their advantages, such as better patient tolerance, long history of use, fewer side-effects and being relatively less expensive. Furthermore, they have provided good evidence for the treatment of a wide variety of difficult to cure diseases. The skin is the outermost layer of the body that is often easily damaged by environmental factors as well as stress and poor eating habits. Acne vulgaris (or simply acne) is an infectious disease and one of the most prevalent human diseases. Acne is a cutaneous pleomorphic disorder of the pilosebaceous unit involving abnormalities in sebum production and is characterized by both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions. Common therapies that are used for the treatment of acne include topical, systemic, hormonal, herbal and combination therapy. Although here is a wide market for cosmetic products that offers to improve skin problems, nature also provides a solution to these. Although the medical and surgical treatment options are the same, it is these features that should be kept in mind when designing a treatment regimen for acne. Natural treatments for skin that give lasting results are often better than expensive commercial products and cosmetic procedures. One such natural treatment is turmeric powder for skin. Turmeric is considered safe in amounts found in foods and when taken orally and topically in medicinal quantities. Turmeric’s primary biologically active component is curcumin. Research has shown that curcumin has potent antioxidant, wound-healing, and anti-inflammatory properties, which may prove to be therapeutic against acne. This review focuses on the treatment of acne using turmeric as medicinal drug.

 


ADVANCES & CONSIDERATIONS IN PHARMACOTHERAPY OF ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Noorul Hasan*, Mohd. Mujahid, Badruddeen, Nesar Ahmad, Shahla Parveen, Shaikh Zohrameena, Zafar Khan
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Integral University, Lucknow, U.P. (India)
*noorulkhan999@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral condition primarily affecting children but regularly persisting into adolescence and adulthood. The symptoms must present in multiple settings ie home, school, work, be inappropriate for developmental level and interfere with the individual’s level of functioning, social development, learning processes, and quality of life. There are three presentations of ADHD i.e. inattentive, hyperactive and combined. There is a substantial pharmacopoeia available for safe and effective treatment of ADHD. CNS stimulants like methylphenidate, amphetamine are recommended as first-line medication therapy for children. It includes various class of drugs like centrally acting sympathomimetic, anti-psychotic, anti-depressant (SSRI), alph2 agonist and some newer agent like atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD. ADHD remains the only highly prevalent, nondegenerative neuropsychiatric disorder for which effective medications remediate the principal cognitive disturbances in concert with clinical efficacy. Therefore, deeper insight into the neural mechanisms of cognitive remediation may serve to advance treatment development not only in ADHD, but across a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders in which cognitive dysfunction is a cardinal feature and a strong predictor of clinical outcome. All effective medications for ADHD act on one or both of the major catecholamine neurotransmitter systems in the brain. These 2 systems, which arise from subcortical nuclei and use of norepinephrine (NE) or dopamine (DA) as transmitters exert strong modulatory effects on widely distributed cortical–subcortical neural circuits, with important effects on cognition, mood and behavior in both health and illness


BASICS OF AGING THEORIES AND DISEASE RELATED AGING - AN OVERVIEW

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Abhijit De*, Chandan Ghosh
Department of Pharmaceutical Science,
Bengal School of Technology, Sugandha,
Hooghly, West Bengal, India
* abhi8981@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. This deterioration is the primary risk factor for major human pathologies including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, several theories and mechanisms have been put to explain the molecular basis of aging. For example, random damage of the DNA of somatic cell is believed to accumulate with increasing age. Free radicals produced during oxidation of metabolites for energy production also damage DNA and proteins.


THERAPEUTIC GASES PHARMACOLOGY AND IT’S ADVANCED DELIVERY

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  ABOUT AUHTORS
AKASH S MALI1,2*,AUDRIUS MARUŠKA2
1University of Würzburg Germany.
2Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania
*Akashmit97@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Pharmaceutical gases molecules (Therapeutic medical Gases) are plays vital role in various disease conditions. In particular, Carbon monoxide, Oxygen, Nitric oxide, Hydrogen sulfide are generated in the human body and mediate signaling pathways as biological messengers and shown pharmacological effects on cardiovascular disorders, nervous system, respiratory track and gastrointestinal disorder. Appropriate oral delivery of gases is challenging concept in front of novel drug delivery system, recently microbubbles, nanobubbles, liposomes, ultrasound technology provides new oral and parenteral delivery platform for therapeutic gases. This review provides pharmacological effects of therapeutic medical gases and its novel delivery aspects.


ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAF EXTRACTS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
JA Sathwara1*, AM Bhandari2
1Department of Pharmacology,
A.R.College of Pharmacy & G.H.Patel Institute of Pharmacy, V.V. Nagar, Anand, Gujarat.
2Department of Clinical Pharmacy,
A.R.College of Pharmacy & G.H.Patel Institute of Pharmacy, V.V. Nagar, Anand, Gujarat.

*jignasa.sathwara@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study was to investigate antiepileptic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii L. Spreng (AEMK) on electrically and chemically induced seizures. The aqueous extract of the leaves of M. koenigii (200 and 300 mg/kg) were studied for its antiepileptic effect on maximal electroshock induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in mice. AEMK (200 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES) as well as protected animals from pentylenetetrazole induced tonic seizures. The results suggest that the aqeous extract of the leaves of M. koenigii may produce its antiepileptic effects via non-specific mechanisms since it reduced the duration of seizures produced by maximal electroshock as well as delayed the latency of seizures produced by pentylenetetrazole.


A Review on chemistry and Pharmacological activity of Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate combine dosage form

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Suleman S. khoja, Parthkumar H. Chauhan, Maulik N. Patel, Harsha D. Jani
Department of Quality Assurance,
Shivam Pharmaceutical Studies and Research Centre, Anand, Gujarat.
premukhoja@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate combination are active contain and approved by CDSCO The two substances belong to different groups of medicines. Cinnarizine  is a part of a group called calcium antagonists.  Dimenhydrinate belongs to a group called antihistamines Also used in Treatment of vertigo symptoms of various origins. exhibits  anti-emetic and antivertiginous  effects through  influencing the chemoreceptor trigger zone in  the  region of the  4th  ventricle.  Dimenhydrinate thus  acts  predominantly on the central vestibular system.  Due to  its calcium  antagonistic properties, cinnarizine acts  mainly  as a vestibular sedative  through inhibition  of  the calcium  influx  into  the vestibular  sensory cells. Cinnarizine thus acts predominantly on the peripheral vestibular system. Both  cinnarizine and  dimenhydrinate  are  known  to  be effective in  the treatment  of  vertigo.  The combination product is more effective than the individual compounds in the population studied.  The product has not been evaluated in motion sickness. Maximum plasma  concentrations  (Cmax)  of  cinnarizine  and diphenhydramine are reached in  humans  within  2  - 4 hours. metabolised  in  the liver. Cinnarizine is  mainly eliminated  via the  faeces (40-60%) and to a lower extent also in  urine, mainly in the form  of  metabolites conjugated  with  glucuronic acid.  The major route  of  elimination  of diphenhydramine is in  the urine


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