Pharmacology Articles

CINNAMON: A MAGICAL DRUG

ABOUT AUHTOR
Pranav Nayak B*
Srinivas college of pharmacy,
Mangalore, Karnataka India,
*nayak.pranav10@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:
Cinnamon is used as a spice in our day to day life. It is aromatic. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring agent. It has been acquainted as one of the healthiest spices and has medicinal activity. When it is checked for chemical constituents it reveals phenolic flavonoid and carotenoid contents. They contain rich amount of polyphenols which are powerful antioxidants. It inhibits the growth of certain bacteria and fungi. It helps to reduce the blood glucose by increasing insulin in the body by the mechanism of resisting insulin depletion. It interferes with carbohydrate digesting enzyme and reduces degradation of carbohydrate as a result of which it decreases entry of glucose from intestine to blood stream. It reduces the growth of cancer cells. ‘N’ number of pharmacological investigationsconfirmed that the ability of this plant is to exhibit hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and cardioprotective action. This present article will provide you with detailed information on the most of the aspects of cinnamon.


TURMERIC AS MEDICINAL PLANT FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACNE VULGARIS

ABOUT AUHTORS
Priyanka R. Waghmare1*, Ashwini M. Nagrale1, Priynka G. Kakade1, MM Parate2, SM Thakare1
1 Dr. R. G. Bhoyar Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research,
Wardha, Maharashtra, India

2 Daga Memorial Hospital,
Maharashtra, Nagpur, India
*waghmarepriyancka@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Herbal medicines are gaining increased popularity due to their advantages, such as better patient tolerance, long history of use, fewer side-effects and being relatively less expensive. Furthermore, they have provided good evidence for the treatment of a wide variety of difficult to cure diseases. The skin is the outermost layer of the body that is often easily damaged by environmental factors as well as stress and poor eating habits. Acne vulgaris (or simply acne) is an infectious disease and one of the most prevalent human diseases. Acne is a cutaneous pleomorphic disorder of the pilosebaceous unit involving abnormalities in sebum production and is characterized by both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions. Common therapies that are used for the treatment of acne include topical, systemic, hormonal, herbal and combination therapy. Although here is a wide market for cosmetic products that offers to improve skin problems, nature also provides a solution to these. Although the medical and surgical treatment options are the same, it is these features that should be kept in mind when designing a treatment regimen for acne. Natural treatments for skin that give lasting results are often better than expensive commercial products and cosmetic procedures. One such natural treatment is turmeric powder for skin. Turmeric is considered safe in amounts found in foods and when taken orally and topically in medicinal quantities. Turmeric’s primary biologically active component is curcumin. Research has shown that curcumin has potent antioxidant, wound-healing, and anti-inflammatory properties, which may prove to be therapeutic against acne. This review focuses on the treatment of acne using turmeric as medicinal drug.


ADVANCES & CONSIDERATIONS IN PHARMACOTHERAPY OF ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

ABOUT AUHTORS
Noorul Hasan*, Mohd. Mujahid, Badruddeen, Nesar Ahmad, Shahla Parveen, Shaikh Zohrameena, Zafar Khan
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Integral University, Lucknow, U.P. (India)
*noorulkhan999@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral condition primarily affecting children but regularly persisting into adolescence and adulthood. The symptoms must present in multiple settings ie home, school, work, be inappropriate for developmental level and interfere with the individual’s level of functioning, social development, learning processes, and quality of life. There are three presentations of ADHD i.e. inattentive, hyperactive and combined. There is a substantial pharmacopoeia available for safe and effective treatment of ADHD. CNS stimulants like methylphenidate, amphetamine are recommended as first-line medication therapy for children. It includes various class of drugs like centrally acting sympathomimetic, anti-psychotic, anti-depressant (SSRI), alph2 agonist and some newer agent like atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD. ADHD remains the only highly prevalent, nondegenerative neuropsychiatric disorder for which effective medications remediate the principal cognitive disturbances in concert with clinical efficacy. Therefore, deeper insight into the neural mechanisms of cognitive remediation may serve to advance treatment development not only in ADHD, but across a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders in which cognitive dysfunction is a cardinal feature and a strong predictor of clinical outcome. All effective medications for ADHD act on one or both of the major catecholamine neurotransmitter systems in the brain. These 2 systems, which arise from subcortical nuclei and use of norepinephrine (NE) or dopamine (DA) as transmitters exert strong modulatory effects on widely distributed cortical–subcortical neural circuits, with important effects on cognition, mood and behavior in both health and illness


BASICS OF AGING THEORIES AND DISEASE RELATED AGING - AN OVERVIEW

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Abhijit De*, Chandan Ghosh
Department of Pharmaceutical Science,
Bengal School of Technology, Sugandha,
Hooghly, West Bengal, India
* abhi8981@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. This deterioration is the primary risk factor for major human pathologies including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, several theories and mechanisms have been put to explain the molecular basis of aging. For example, random damage of the DNA of somatic cell is believed to accumulate with increasing age. Free radicals produced during oxidation of metabolites for energy production also damage DNA and proteins.


THERAPEUTIC GASES PHARMACOLOGY AND IT’S ADVANCED DELIVERY

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  ABOUT AUHTORS
AKASH S MALI1,2*,AUDRIUS MARUŠKA2
1University of Würzburg Germany.
2Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania
*Akashmit97@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Pharmaceutical gases molecules (Therapeutic medical Gases) are plays vital role in various disease conditions. In particular, Carbon monoxide, Oxygen, Nitric oxide, Hydrogen sulfide are generated in the human body and mediate signaling pathways as biological messengers and shown pharmacological effects on cardiovascular disorders, nervous system, respiratory track and gastrointestinal disorder. Appropriate oral delivery of gases is challenging concept in front of novel drug delivery system, recently microbubbles, nanobubbles, liposomes, ultrasound technology provides new oral and parenteral delivery platform for therapeutic gases. This review provides pharmacological effects of therapeutic medical gases and its novel delivery aspects.


ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAF EXTRACTS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
JA Sathwara1*, AM Bhandari2
1Department of Pharmacology,
A.R.College of Pharmacy & G.H.Patel Institute of Pharmacy, V.V. Nagar, Anand, Gujarat.
2Department of Clinical Pharmacy,
A.R.College of Pharmacy & G.H.Patel Institute of Pharmacy, V.V. Nagar, Anand, Gujarat.

*jignasa.sathwara@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study was to investigate antiepileptic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii L. Spreng (AEMK) on electrically and chemically induced seizures. The aqueous extract of the leaves of M. koenigii (200 and 300 mg/kg) were studied for its antiepileptic effect on maximal electroshock induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in mice. AEMK (200 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES) as well as protected animals from pentylenetetrazole induced tonic seizures. The results suggest that the aqeous extract of the leaves of M. koenigii may produce its antiepileptic effects via non-specific mechanisms since it reduced the duration of seizures produced by maximal electroshock as well as delayed the latency of seizures produced by pentylenetetrazole.


A Review on chemistry and Pharmacological activity of Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate combine dosage form

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Suleman S. khoja, Parthkumar H. Chauhan, Maulik N. Patel, Harsha D. Jani
Department of Quality Assurance,
Shivam Pharmaceutical Studies and Research Centre, Anand, Gujarat.
premukhoja@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate combination are active contain and approved by CDSCO The two substances belong to different groups of medicines. Cinnarizine  is a part of a group called calcium antagonists.  Dimenhydrinate belongs to a group called antihistamines Also used in Treatment of vertigo symptoms of various origins. exhibits  anti-emetic and antivertiginous  effects through  influencing the chemoreceptor trigger zone in  the  region of the  4th  ventricle.  Dimenhydrinate thus  acts  predominantly on the central vestibular system.  Due to  its calcium  antagonistic properties, cinnarizine acts  mainly  as a vestibular sedative  through inhibition  of  the calcium  influx  into  the vestibular  sensory cells. Cinnarizine thus acts predominantly on the peripheral vestibular system. Both  cinnarizine and  dimenhydrinate  are  known  to  be effective in  the treatment  of  vertigo.  The combination product is more effective than the individual compounds in the population studied.  The product has not been evaluated in motion sickness. Maximum plasma  concentrations  (Cmax)  of  cinnarizine  and diphenhydramine are reached in  humans  within  2  - 4 hours. metabolised  in  the liver. Cinnarizine is  mainly eliminated  via the  faeces (40-60%) and to a lower extent also in  urine, mainly in the form  of  metabolites conjugated  with  glucuronic acid.  The major route  of  elimination  of diphenhydramine is in  the urine


PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA IN LEAD INDUCED CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN ALBINO RATS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
G.Hema Latha1*, MD.Sultan Ali2, C.Vijaya lakshmi  R.Kiran kumar1, C.V.H.Hemavathy1
1 Kottam Institute of Pharmacy, Erravally X Roads, Mahaboob Nagar, Telangana
2 Safa College of Pharmacy, Kurnool, A.P
*hemarayudu19@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Protective effect of ziziphus jujuba  in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in albino rats. The main aim of the present work is to evaluate the Protective effect of Ziziphus jujuba  in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in albino rats. Objectives are to test the  Preliminary phytochemical screening of Aqueous & Petroleum ether extracts of “Ziziphus Jujuba”. Group 1: Control group; Group 2: Animals treated with lead 0.1 ml/100 g body weight i.p; Group 3: Animals treated with Petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba 250mg/kg; Group 4: Animals treated with Petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba 500mg/kg.All the groups were subjected to pre-treatment for a period of 7 days except Control group. To compare the changes in Quantification of infract size in normal and treated groups. To compare the changes in SGOT levels in Control and treated groups. The protective effect of the aqueous extract ,petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba may be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids and tannins. There was a dose dependent increase in cerebral protection in terms of reduction of infarct size of brain tissue and SGOT levels in serum. Furthermore investigation is needed to find out the particular constituent which is responsible this protective activity.


ADR MONITORING: AN ESSENTIAL NEED FOR BETTER HEALTH CARE AND SAFETY

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Annu*, Priyanka
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
*annu.gvm@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is the noxious and unintended response that occurs at the dose of drug normally used for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease. ADRs cause a huge burden on the modern society because of the increase incidence of the morbidity and mortality. ADRs can occur with any class of drugs and the availability of the more and more number of therapeutics increases the risk of ADRs consequently. It has been found that the maximum numbers of ADRs occur more among infants and children and also they are generally more severe as compared to adults. ADRs are of particular interest in today’s practice because clinical trials are done in the limited number of the subjects and therefore the drug which is found safer in the clinical trial may produces serious ADRs. The most common reason for this is that the clinical studies generally have limited sample size and have low statistical power. Therefore the ADRs monitoring is an essential need for the better health care and therefore the health care centre should promotes the spontaneous monitoring, reporting, documentation and prevention of ADRs.


HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF GLIMEPIRIDE BY INDUCING CCL4 HEPATOTOXICITY

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ABOUT AUTHORS
C.V.H.Hemavathy*, B. Raj kumar, R. Kiran kumar, G. Hema latha

Department of Pharmacy,
Kottam Institute of Pharmacy,
Erravally X Roads, Mahaboob Nagar
*hemarayudu19@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Hepatoprotective activity of  by inducing ccl4 hepatotoxicity. To study the hepatoprotective activity of against CCL4 induced hepatotoxcity. To evaluate the mechanism of hepatoprotection in terms of Liver antioxidant mechanism, Histopathological study. The animals were divided into Four groups of  three animals each. Except the normal group all the other groups received ccl4 in at a dose of 0.1 ml/kg by intraperitoneally for 14 days. Normal groups received plain tween 80 orally.  On the 14th day all the rats from all the groups were sacrificed, blood was collected from each animal for serum analysis  and their livers were stored  under freezing conditions for the estimation of endogenous anti oxidants and one sample from each group was stored in 10% formalin for histopathological studies.  In bio-chemical studies- Serum analytical methods (AST), (ALT), (Alk.P), (Bil), (TP), (TC). The present findings observed in this study revealed that,glimepirideis natural antioxidant lignin possess significant antioxidant activity against ccl4 induced hepatotoxicity via antioxidant mechanism. However, further research is required to find out the other possible mechanism of hepatoprotection to conform that  as glimepiridehepatoprotective molecule.


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