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S. Ramya Silpa
Department of Pharmacology,
Balaji College of Pharmacy, Anantapur, AP, India.
Prostaglandins are potent bioactive lipid messengers synthesized from arachidonic acid mediated by enzyme COX. Prostaglandins (PGs) play a key role in the initiation of the inflammatory response. Their biosynthesis is significantly increased in inflamed tissue, and they contribute to the development of the cardinal signs of acute inflammation. Although the proinflammatory properties of individual PGs during the acute inflammatory response are well established, their role in the resolution of inflammation is more controversial.
Nandu Kayande1*, Pankaj Kushwah2, D.K. Vir3
1HOD Department of Pharmacology
2Department of Pharmacognosy
3Department of Pharmacology
Nimar Institute of Pharmacy, Dhamnod,
Opp.ITI, Maheshwar Road Dhamnod, Dhar. M.P.454552
The objective of present study was to evaluate in vivo anti-diarrheal potential ofCinnamon leaves. Sample was analyzed for quantities estimation of photochemical and anti-diarrheal activity of aqueous leaf extract, at 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w) was investigated using castor oil induced model. The aqueous leaves extract of Cinnamon leaves (100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three groups of rats (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rat. Two other groups received normal saline (5mg/kg) and Loperamide (2mg/kg) as positive control. The effect of the extract on castor oil-induced diarrhea, gastrointestinal transit and intestinal fluid accumulation (enter pooling) was assessed respectively. In this study, the phytochemical analysis of aqueous leaves extract of Cinnamon leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenols. At oral doses of 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight, the plant extract showed pronounced significant (p<0.05) antidiarrhoeal activity compared to the control group. No mortality and visible signs of general weakness were observed in the rats following the extract administration of up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. The results showed that the aqueous leaves extract of Cinnamonleaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity which supports its use in traditional herbal medicine practice.
Meenu Sharma*, Saroj jain
Hindu college of pharmacy
Panchayat Bhawan, Gohana Road, Sonipat (Haryana)
Amongst various carriers explored for target oriented drug delivery, vesicular, microparticulate and cellular carriers meet several criteria rendering them useful in clinical applications. Lymphocytes, leukocytes, platelets, granulocytes and erythrocytes have been proposed as a cellular carriers. Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells, and have been the most extensively investigated and found to possess great potential in novel drug delivery. The biocompatibility, non- pathogenicity, non-immunogenicity and biodegradability make them unique and useful carriers. The prime function of these RBCs is to transport gases for respiratory processes. Carrier erythrocytes are prepared by collecting blood sample from the organism of interest and separating erythrocytes from plasma. By using various methods the cells are broken and the drug is entrapped into the erythrocytes, finally they are resealed and the resultant carriers are then called "resealed erythrocytes". Erythrocytes have been proposed as a carriers for a wide range of bioactive components including drugs enzymes, pesticides, DNA molecules and others.
Emanual Michael Patelia, Bushra Ahmed, Muhammad Javaid, Jayesh Patel, Rakesh Thakur, Mishra Trinath
Department of Pharmacology, University of Bedfordshire, England,
United Kingdom, LU1 3JU
The identification will be carried out by comparing a potential PCR product obtained from an unknown species with other PCR products specific to 5 known species, using the same five set of pairs of primers specific of these five species respectively. This implies that each PCR product obtained for each species has to be specific to each species and can be considered as a marker in this exercise. This specificity will be based on the uniqueness of the chosen template that is to be used for each PCR. In addition, since the PCR products will not be sequenced, they will be differentiated by their size, which will be identified by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product can only be used as a marker that defines a species if the amplified sequence is unique to this species. Therefore, the first step in this exercise will be to identify a suitable sequence to amplify for each species. Following the identification of a suitable template, the size of the PCR will have to be defined; since the comparative analysis will be based not only on the presence of a product but also its size, all PCR products should have different sizes identifiable on agarose gel. Since the size of a PCR product is defined by the location of primers along the sequence, the second step in this exercise will be to design suitable primers. Finally, having defined specific template and primers for each species, PCR will be carried out using the DNA of unknown species as a template with all five sets of primers so that a successful PCR product and its size would identify the unknown species as one of the five species.
S.O. Pratap1,2, Ruchi Gaur3, R.Stephan4, J.L bhatt3, C.R. Pillai1, Usha Devi1
1Malaria Research Center, New Delhi
2SR Group of Institutions, Jhansi, UP
3ITM University Gwalior, MP
4Government P.G. College Ariyalur, Tamilnadu, India
The natural products are important source of biologically active compounds having potential for developing a novel malaria drug. Malaria is one of the most important infectious vector born parasitic disease caused by Coccidian protozoan parasite of genus Plasmodium carried out by mosquito, invade red blood cells. Malaria is thousand times more complex than any disease. In the current study, a natural ingredient of herb; Dhatura Inoxia is analyzed, for its anti-malarial activity by preparing crude extract of water and ethanol, analyzed on schizont stage of plasmodial life cycle against two Chloroquine strains: sensitive and resistant of Plasmodium falciparum isolates. The results revealed that IC50 values of crude water extract was recorded as; 71± 1.41µg/ml and 105±7.07 while as the ethanol crude extract produced IC50 concentrates: 52±3.53 µg/ml and 59.5± 70 µg/ml against sensitive and resistant P. f. isolates, respectively. The results showed that this herb plant possess significant antiplasmodial activity in terms of IC50 as recorded in this study.
Akshay Rajgaria, Prajna Tripathy
Kanak Manjari Institute of pharmaceutical Sciences.
An aspergilloma, also known as a mycetoma or fungus ball, is a clump of fungus which exists in a body cavity such as the lung. It is associated with the Aspergillus species, but Zygomycota and Fusarium may also form similar structures
Department of Pharmacology,
AFMC, Pune, India
Interleukins are a subset of a larger group of cellular messenger molecules called cytokines, which are modulators of cellular behaviour. On the basis of their respective cytokine profiles, responses to chemokines, and interactions with other cells, these T-cell subsets can promote different types of inflammatory responses. During the development of allergic disease, effector TH2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-32. IL-25, IL- 31, and IL-33 contributes to TH2 responses and inflammation. These cytokines have roles in production of allergen-specific IgE, eosinophilia, and mucus. ILs have role in therapeutics as well as diagnosis and prognosis as biomarker in various conditions. Therapeutic targeting of the IL considered to be rational treatment strategy and promising biologic therapy.
M Sushma*, TVV Vidyadhar, R Mohanraj, M Babu
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (RIPER),
K R Palli Cross, Near S.K University, Anantapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is an irritative bladder syndrome of multifactorial aetiology and is said to be one of the several conditions that causes bladder pain, which is most commonly seen in women than in men. It is of unknown aetiology. But some factors like autoimmune disorder, Genetic predisposition, Gynaecologic surgery in the past, History of recurrent UTIs. The body's immune system attacks the bladder, similar to other autoimmune conditions. The urologist may use a special scope called a cytoscope to look inside your bladder for inflammation, pinpoint bleeding. Management of IC is done by oral therapy of pentosanpolysulphate, Tricyclic anti-depressants, Anti-histamines, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Bladder analgesics. Whereas intravesical therapy Dimethyl sulphoxide, heparin, Bacillus calmette-Guerin
KNOCKDOWN (MICRO-RNA INHIBITING TECHNIQUE) TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATION OF ALPHA-1A ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AND P2X1 RECEPTOR FUNCTIONS
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Emma Spiking
University of Bedfordshire, England,
United Kingdom, LU1 3JU
The new approach regarding the knocking down the protein expression by the use of shmRNA complimentary to the mRNA sequence of the respected protein expression have a major impact on the research area. The knockdown of P2X1 and ADRA1A genes have no effect on chromosomal DNA but have a lack of effect on expression of P2X1 and α1A receptors. The produced genetically engineered male mice can be of 100% infertile. The simple PCR (polymerase chain reaction) based approach can be used for the generation of knockdown cell lines. The Animals should have the treatments according to the guidelines mentioned under international society for applied ethnology. The SIRION biotech have shown the managed shRNA knockdown of about 90% significance interval.
Mr. Yogesh K. Patil
Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology,
Shree Mahavir Institute of Pharmacy,
Atherosclerosis is deposition of fatty substances into the inner wall of blood vessels. Due to deposition of lipid material into blood vessels there is restricted flow to blood to various organs like kidney, heart, lungs etc. To overcome this effect various drugs available in market like statins, fibrates etc. There is also way to clean lipid from inner lining of blood vessels through surgery which is last step of treatment. There are mainly two surgeries available that is bypass surgery of heart and angioplasty.