You are herePharmacology Articles
Mahaveer Kabra*1, Sanjay Bhandari1, Ami Sharma1, Reema Jain2
Department of Pharmacology,
1Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota
2Bhupal Noble’s Institute of Pharmaceutical science, Udaipur
A histamine antagonist is an agent which serves to inhibit the release or action of histamine. Allergies are caused by an excessive response of the body to allergens, such as the pollen released by grasses and trees. An allergic reaction indicates an excessive release, of histamine by the body.Histamine is a natural chemical produced by the immune (disease-fighting) system of the body. The main action of histamine is related to allergies. An allergen is a substance that is not normally harmful, such as pollen, but which causes an overreaction by the immune system in some people.drugs show their action by binding with their specific receptor like H1-receptor antagonists are Diphenhydramine, Meclizine etc. H2-receptor antagonists Cimetidine, Famotidine. All antihistamines are reversible, competitive antagonists at histaminic (H1) receptors. They act by inhibiting binding of circulating histamine to its receptor site, but do not prevent histamine release. Administration of an antihistamine results in inhibition of respiratory, vascular, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle constriction, a decrease in histamine-activated secretions from salivary and lacrimal glands, and anti-inflammatory effects. Antihistamines also decrease capillary permeability, which reduces the wheal and flare response to an allergen, as well as diminishes itching. Competitive inhibition of histamine at H2 receptors of the gastric parietal cells resulting in reduced gastric acid secretion, gastric volume and hydrogen ion concentration reduced. Antihistamines are used as treatment for allergies.
Banwari Lal Gupta
L.R.S. Institute of Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases,
Despite decades of research and drug development for cancer treatment, cancer still remains one of the major causes of human death in the world. An important aspect in cancer therapy is the development of a targeted drug delivery system that decreases the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and other cancer therapies. The current conventional method in treating cancer involves inserting catheters to allow for chemotherapy, to reduce the amount of cancer present, and/or then to surgically remove the tumors, followed by more chemotherapy and radiation sessions.
Research on thermal therapy- the heating of pathological tissue using energy source (radiofrequency, microwave, high-intensity focused ultrasound or laser energy and cryosurgery. There are clear reasons for using hyperthermia in cancer treatment. Treatment at temperatures between 40-44°C is cytotoxic for cells in low pO2 and low pH environmental conditions, which are found specifically within the tumor tissue, due to insufficient blood perfusion. Under such conditions radiotherapy is less effective, and systematically applied cytotoxic agents will reach such area in lower concentrations then in well perfused area. Therefore the addition of hyperthermia to chemotherapy or radiotherapy will result in at least an additive effect. Furthermore, the effects of both radiotherapy and many drugs are enhanced at an increased temperature. Hyperthermia can be allied by several methods such as: local hyperthermia, regional hyperthermia, and whole-body hyperthermia.
Countless researches are on their way, in the relation of improvement of heating techniques, development of hyperthermia planning models and thermometry. The clinical studies have confirmed future expectations of hyperthermiawould be valuable. Hyperthermia is a potential combined approach and deserving more attention for its further development. This article will throw the lights on hyperthermia therapy for improvement of cancer treatment.
Patelia Emanual Michael
Department of pharmacology, University of Bedfordshire,
United Kingdom, LU1 3JU.
Aspirin continues to be evaluated in vitro and in pre-clinical models to help elucidate mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis and the response of tumours to anti-neoplastic agents. Recent randomised evidence from trials primarily designed to prevent cardiovascular disease show a reduction in cancer incidence with long-term follow-up and epidemiological evidence from colorectal and breast cancer studies evaluating the effects of aspirin use after diagnosis suggests that aspirin may have a role in the adjuvant setting. The clinical management of patients is also continually evolving, with new combinations of agents or strategies being assessed; aspirin should not be overlooked in this process because it is neither new nor expensive.
*Ravi Patel, Dr Shori Thakur
Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science Department,
University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
AL10 9AB, United Kingdom
Oxidative stress play important role in the progression of many diseases. Superoxide anion is a key reactive oxygen species (ROS) produce from univalent reduction of oxygen shows cytotoxicity. Superoxide binds to Nitric oxide (NO) and produces peroxynitrite which is a deleterious ROS. Nitric oxide is produced with help of Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) which catalyse the conversion of L-arginine to citrulline. NO is small and produced in gaseous form which helps it in the diffuse from inside and outside of cells. NO has got many functions like vasodilation, nonspecific immunity, neurotransmission and also neurogenic vasodilation. NO produce from endothelial regulates vascular tone by various mechanisms like it produces vasodilation, inhibit platelet activation and leukocytes adhesion, and inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation. Thereby NO plays important role in the progression of atherosclerosis so many researches are going on NO. NO also plays important role in the Inflammation and contribute in the organ failure. There are 3 types of NOS from which iNOS is non calcium dependant and can produces NO at very large level compare to other two types of NOS. DEM (Diethyl maleate) is a glutathione depleting agent which binds to glutathione through transferase reaction. It has been seen that DEM reduces the cytotoxicity induce by LPS, protect local skin inflammation, reduces lung injury and also increase survival rate in cerebral ischemia reperfusion. There by it get attraction of scientist for more research. The main aim of the study is to find out the effect of DEM on iNOS expression and cell viability. Results shows that DEM reduces the nitrite production and iNOS expression in LPS treated macrophages in dose dependant manner whereas it does not show any effect in macrophages not treated with LPS. It shows increase in the cell viability in LPS activated macrophages. These results indicate that a glutathione play regulatory role in iNOS expression but the mechanism underlining this is still unknown.
Mr. Gunjegaonkar shivshankar M., Mr. T.T. shelke
Dept. of Pharmacology, JSPMs Charak College of pharmacy and research,
Wagholi, Pune, Maharashtra
The 21st century has a paradigm shift from allopathic medicinal system to homeopathic and Ayurvedic medicinal system as it is been proved that the adverse effects or unwanted effects associated with the modern synthetic medicines are more than the herbal medicines. Worldwide acceptance of herbal medicine is increasing day by day and its beneficial effects are focused by scientific researches. The herbs play important role in management of diverse group of diseases ranging from acute fever to cardiac complications. The current review is taken with interest to gather the scientific information of plant which shows the hepatoprotective activity. Various scientific research reveals that these medicinal plant did not shows any acute toxicity even in high doses. The preliminary phytochemical studies show the presence of important secondary metabolites like flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, rutin and rotenoids. Triterpenoid etc.
Keshava Murthy S R*, Shiva kumar
Provimi Animal Nutrition India Pvt. Ltd.
Bangalore - 560 064 Karnataka INDIA
Reactive oxygen species(ROS) are free radicals which are generated from exogenous factors, where excessive ROS will result in Oxidative stress. These harmful free radicals generated continuously can be counteracted by the antioxidant defense system by the body. Multiple antioxidant methods were used to study the complete profile of an antioxidant compound so to establish a single antioxidant method which can determine the complete nature of antioxidant molecules is of great importance. CUPRAC method which involves the reduction of cupric ion to cuprous by antioxidant compound is found to be advantageous over other commonly followed antioxidant methods. The present review article includes detailed in vitro procedure, principle behind, application of this cuprac method.
Karri Deviprasanna, Metla Vennela, Bandla Rajyalakshmi
Avanthi institute of pharmaceutical sciences,
Vizianagaram-535003, Andhra Pradesh, india
The recommendation for first line therapy for diabetics remains a metformin. Two or more agents from different pharmacological classes are often needed to achieve adequate blood glucose control. Combination therapy is an important option that combines efficacy of blood glucose reduction and a low side effect profile with convenient once daily dosing to enhance compliance. Combination of anti- diabetics include biguandies+sulfonylureas, biguanides+glitazones, biguandies+α glucosidase inhibitors and miscellaneous combinations.
Scientist-B, Technology Information,
Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC)
New Delhi, India.
The most wonderful creation in the human body is the Brain. Brain is a very complex organ with its major role in the nervous system. The central nervous system (CNS) is made of the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is made of nerves. The entire human body is entangled with nerves for specific functions. Sensory nerves gathers information from all parts of the body from brain to face, ears, eyes, nose, and spinal cord and from the spinal cord to the rest of your body and sends the message to the brain. The main parts of the brain are Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Limbic System and Brain stem.
Master’s In Clinical Biochemistry
University Of Kashmir
There has been increasing public concern that chemicals in the environment are affecting human health by disrupting normal endocrine function. The exposure to these chemicals with steroid-like activity can disrupt normal endocrine function leading to altered reproductive capacity, infertility, endometriosis and breast and uterine cancer. In order to detect and evaluate the safety of such chemicals, several rodent experimental models have been developed. The OECD Enhanced Test Guideline 407 (repeated 28-day oral dose toxicity study) is one of rodent experimental models for detection of endocrine disrupters of these chemicals .
Sanjay Singh Bhandari *, Mahaveer Prasad Kabra, Raman Gupta, Ami Sharma
Kota College of Pharmacy, SP-1, RIICO Industrial Area, Ranpur,
Jhalawar road, Kota, Rajasthan, India – 324009
Damage to cells caused by free radicals is believed play a central role in the aging process and in disease progression. Antioxidants are our first line of defense against free radical damage, and are critical for maintaining optimum health and well being. The need for antioxidants becomes even more critical with increased exposure to free radicals. Pollution, cigarette smoke, drugs, illness, stress, and even exercise can increase free radical exposure. Because so many factors can contribute to oxidative stress, individual assessment of susceptibility becomes important. Many experts believe that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for specific antioxidants may be inadequate and, in some instances, the need may be several times the RDA. As part of a healthy lifestyle and a well-balanced, wholesome diet, antioxidant supplementation is now being recognized as an important means of improving free radical protection.
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