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NANOPARTICLE (NP) AS A TARGETING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM TO BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (BBB): A REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHROS:
Bikash Debnath*, Md. JashimUddin, Debasish Maiti
State Biotech Hub, Department of Human Physiology,
Tripura University, Suryamaninagar.
*bikashrips2014@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Central nervous system (CNS) drug development will be biology driven. Due to absence of functional platform for CNS drug targeting since, the large molecules pharmaceuticals cannot be delivered to brain. About 1.5 billion people worldwide are suffering from various type of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Overcome to this problem modern pharmaceutical technology manufacturing the nonaparticles. Properly use of nonamedicines (nanoparticles) is one of the ways to control the CNS disorder in all over world. Nanoparticles are particles between 1 to 100 nm in size. Using nanotechnology it is possible to deliver the drug to the specific site of the tissue across the Blood -Brain Barrier (BBB).Various types of nanoparticle are available for treatment of CNS disorders. These are lipid based nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymer-based nanoparticles etc.


EVALUATION OF ADAPTOGENIC ACTIVITY OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF BREYNIA VITIS-IDAEA (BURM.F) C. FISHER LEAVES BY USING SWIM ENDURENCE TEST

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Manju Gowda M R*, Gnanasekaran D, Ashik navas T, Antony george
Department of Pharmacology, Bharathi College of Pharmacy,
Bharathinagara, Mandya, Karnataka-571422
manjugowdamr@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The present study was under taken to study the Adaptogenic activity of ethanol, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of Breynia vitis-idaea (burm.f) c. fisher. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves. Adaptogenic activity of these extracts were studied using in-vivo Swim Endurance test and compared with the standard Fluoxetin. All the extracts showed significant increase in the swimming time. Adaptogenic nature of the extracts may be attributed to the presence of constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins in plant extracts. This study proven that the potential adaptogenic nature of the extract of Breynia vitis-idaea leaves.


RESOURCES, GUIDANCE, CONTROL AND PREVENTION FOR EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE-AN OVERVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Jadhav Santosh1*, Mali Audumbar1, Tamboli Ashpak2
Department of Pharmaceutics, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade, Sangola-413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India1.
Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade, Sangola-413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India2.
jadhavsan88@gmail.com*

ABSTRACT
Since the current Ebola Virus Disease (also referred to as Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever) outbreak began in Guinea in December of 2013, the outbreak now involves trans-mission in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a zoonosis affecting both human and non-human primates (NHP). Ebola virus (formerly officially designated Zaire Ebolavirus, or EBOV) was first seen infecting humans in African continent; especially  Sudan, Democratic Republican of Congo, Zaire and nearby countries. Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of the Ebola virus. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that this is the largest Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak ever recorded. EVD outbreaks have a case fatality rate ofup to 90%. The research is on-going on development of making vaccine to curb this virus yet licensed success or specific treatment is not achieved.


CHRONOPHARMACOTHERAPY OF HYPERTENSION: TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF TREATMENT ON BLOOD PRESSURE

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ABOUT AUHTORS:
Suresh Rewar1*, Bansal BK1, Singh CJ2, Sharma AK2
1Department of pharmaceutics, Arya College of Pharmacy, Jaipur, Rajasthan India
2Department Of Pharmacology, Arya College of Pharmacy, Jaipur, Rajasthan India
sureshrewar1990@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Chronopharmaceutical drug delivery systems are gaining a lot of interest as they deliver the drug at the right site of action, right time and right amount, as per the pathophysiological needs of the diseases. These systems are basically time-controlled drug delivery systems in which the system controls the lag time independent of environmental factors like pH, enzymes, GIT motility, etc. These systems are designed for chronopharmacotherapy which is based on the circadian rhythm of the body. The effectiveness and toxicity of many drugs vary depending on dosing time associated with 24 hr. rhythms of biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes under the control of circadian clock. The chronobiology of the various common 24-hour BP profiles seen in hypertensive patients in relation to cardiovascular risk and end-organ injury and ultimately the control and normalization of abnormal BP throughout daytime activity and night time sleep. Chronopharmacotherapy provides a means of individualizing the treatment of hypertension according to the circadian BP profile of each patient, and constitutes a new option to optimize BP control and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Various latest and upcoming marketed technologies of Chronopharmaceutical drug delivery used in treatment of hypertension diseases like OROS®, CODAS®, CEFORM®, DIFFUCAPS®, PULSINCAP® etc.


ROLE OF BCG IN TREATMENT OF BLADDER CANCER

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Abhishek Singhal
Department of Pharmacology,
Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Pharmacy, Kondhwa (Bk.),
Pune, Maharastra, India
*abhishekspharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Aim: This review is written to describe the role of immunotherapy in cancer treatment.
Annually, 13,000 deaths result from bladder cancer. Since the first report of intravesical use of BCG in 1976, investigators try to understand the working mechanism of BCG as an antitumour modality. Arbitrarily, BCG therapy consists of a single course of six weekly intravesical instillations. Bacillus Calmette-Gue´rin, an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, was developed by Calmette and Gue´rin with the intention to generate a vaccine against tuberculosis. Extension of BCG treatment (maintenance immunotherapy) is used to increase efficacy.
Results of various experiments describe that after instillation in the bladder, BCG accumulates near the bladder wall and is internalised and processed by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and (high-grade) tumour cells. Then BCG antigens are presented to CD4+ T cells. Then local synthesis of a particular set of cytokines or cell-mediated immune response. NK cells may be involve in tumour cell killing.


DEADLY BUT CURABLE: A REVIEW ON POTENTIAL TREATMENTS FOR EBOLA HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Bushra Shamim
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Hamdard University, New Delhi, India
bushrashamim21@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This is a review article on potential treatments for Ebola virus disease, also known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever. Ebola fever has emerged as one of the deadliest known forms of hemorrhagic fever since discovered in 1976.  Transmission among humans occurs through the exchange of blood and body secretions. The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. In this article experimental treatments like blood, immunological and drug therapies are discussed that are under development


ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF ECHINOSYSTIC ACID RELEVANCE TO CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: AN IN SILICO STUDY

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Monjur Ahmed Laskar*, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury
Bioinformatics Centre, Assam University,
Silchar, Assam, India
monjur@bioinfoaus.ac.in

ABSTRACT
Plants have been used in treating cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and are recognized for their ability to produce secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites obtained from different plants have been the starting material for designing different drugs. Echinosystic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene was isolated and identified from the fruits of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Echinosystic acid has significant cardioprotective effects. Different phytochemicals have been found to be cardioprotective and paved the path towards development of cardioprotective formulations. In the present study we have analyzed the inhibitory potential of Echinosystic acid, on the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) - the enzyme responsible for various cardiovascular diseases.
The study revealed that Echinosystic acidhave high ACE inhibiting potential as compared to other known ACE inhibitors.


FINASTERIDE IN THE TREATMENT OF FEMALE ANDROGENIC ALOPECIA

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Priyanka T*, Giri raja sekhar D, Lekhanth A, Revanth.A
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Annamacharya College of Pharmacy
Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh, India
*priyankat283@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Hair loss in women is twice more distressing in women when compared to men. The most common cause of hair loss in women is Female Androgenic Alopecia (FAGA) which shows Ludwig, Christmas tree, Hamilton pattern. Androgenic alopecia is due to the increased activity of 5α-reductase in the hair follicles which results in the gradual transformation of large, terminal follicles to small, miniaturized follicles. Finasteride is a 5α-reductase II enzyme which inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydro testosterone and is effectively used in the management of the male pattern androgenic alopecia with a dose of 1mg/day but this article mainly reviews the use of Finasteride in the female androgenic alopecia. Studies so far reported increased scalp hair counts, hair density, hair regrowth both by the patient assessment and photographs by the blinded expert panel. Relevant literatures were chosen to determine the efficacy of Finasteride in the treatment of female Androgenic Alopecia.


A REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGY OF COMBINED EDARAVONE AND ARGATROBAN THERAPY IN ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Patel  Divya A*., Varodiya Priyanka S., Raj Hasumati A.
Department of Quality Assurance, Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College,
Kim, Surat, Gujarat, India
divyapatel388@gmail.com, drharaj@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
This review article presents the pharmacology of combined edaravone and argatroban therapy especially in acute ischemic stroke. Edaravone (MCI-186) is a free radical scavenger, a novel neuroprotective agent. Argatroban  is a selective thrombin inhibitor.The antithrombotic agent was used in acute cerebral infarction. If the antithrombotic agent is administered in large quantities, the condition of patient become worse by occurrence of adeverse effect of cerebral haeorrhage. The use of edaravone in combination with antithrombotic agent has been proved to provide beneficial effect in acute ischemic stroke as edaravone has no influence to coagulation of blood and platelets aggregation. The combination therapy has fewer hemorrhagic  adeverse  effect. The mechanism of argatroban and edaravone is quite different. Argatroban, an anti-coagulant drug, directly improves the microcirculation of ischemic brain tissue while edaravone could indirectly attenuated brain edema by protection of endothelial cells damaged by free radicals generated after ischemic insult. The combination of both would have reciprocal and enhanced neuroprotective effects against ischemic insult. Both the drugs were approved by Japanese government and has been used in acute brain infarction in japan. The main objective of this review article is to provide pharmacological information of combined therapy of edaravone and argatroban to researcher in development of combined dosage form of this.


HEPARIN: POWERFUL AND INSTANTANEOUSLY ACTING ANTICOAGULANT

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Amitava Sinha Ray
Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd
West Bengal, India
a.amitava.s@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Anticoagulantis an agent that is used to prevent the formation of blood clots. Anticoagulants, such as heparin or warfarin work on chemical reactions in the body to lengthen the time it takes to form a blood clot. Heparin the anticoagulant drug that is used to prevent blood clots from forming during and after surgery and to treat various heart, lung, and circulatory disorders in human body. Heparin is comparatively a strong acid that forms water–soluble salts. It is used in treatment of venous thrombosis and its extensions, pulmonary embolism (PE), peripheral arterial embolism. Smoking and alcohol may alter response to heparin. Abrupt withdrawal of heparin may precipitate increased coagulability.


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