Pharmacology Articles

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA IN LEAD INDUCED CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN ALBINO RATS

ABOUT AUTHORS
G.Hema Latha1*, MD.Sultan Ali2, C.Vijaya lakshmi  R.Kiran kumar1, C.V.H.Hemavathy1
1 Kottam Institute of Pharmacy, Erravally X Roads, Mahaboob Nagar, Telangana
2 Safa College of Pharmacy, Kurnool, A.P
hemarayudu19@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Protective effect of ziziphus jujuba  in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in albino rats. The main aim of the present work is to evaluate the Protective effect of Ziziphus jujuba  in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in albino rats.Objectives are to test the  Preliminary phytochemical screening of Aqueous & Petroleum ether extracts of “Ziziphus Jujuba”. Group 1: Control group; Group 2: Animals treated with lead 0.1 ml/100 g body weight i.p; Group 3: Animals treated with Petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba 250mg/kg; Group 4: Animals treated with Petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba 500mg/kg.All the groups were subjected to pre-treatment for a period of 7 days except Control group. To compare the changes in Quantification of infract size in normal and treated groups. To compare the changes in SGOT levels in Control and treated groups. The protective effect of the aqueous extract ,petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba may be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids and tannins. There was a dose dependent increase in cerebral protection in terms of reduction of infarct size of brain tissue and SGOT levels in serum. Furthermore investigation is needed to find out the particular constituent which is responsible this protective activity.


ADR MONITORING: AN ESSENTIAL NEED FOR BETTER HEALTH CARE AND SAFETY

ABOUT AUTHORS
Annu*, Priyanka
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
*annu.gvm@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is the noxious and unintended response that occurs at the dose of drug normally used for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease. ADRs cause a huge burden on the modern society because of the increase incidence of the morbidity and mortality. ADRs can occur with any class of drugs and the availability of the more and more number of therapeutics increases the risk of ADRs consequently. It has been found that the maximum numbers of ADRs occur more among infants and children and also they are generally more severe as compared to adults. ADRs are of particular interest in today’s practice because clinical trials are done in the limited number of the subjects and therefore the drug which is found safer in the clinical trial may produces serious ADRs. The most common reason for this is that the clinical studies generally have limited sample size and have low statistical power. Therefore the ADRs monitoring is an essential need for the better health care and therefore the health care centre should promotes the spontaneous monitoring, reporting, documentation and prevention of ADRs.


HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF GLIMEPIRIDE BY INDUCING CCL4 HEPATOTOXICITY

ABOUT AUTHORS
C.V.H.Hemavathy*, B. Raj kumar, R. Kiran kumar, G. Hema latha

Department of Pharmacy,
Kottam Institute of Pharmacy,
Erravally X Roads, Mahaboob Nagar
*hemarayudu19@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Hepatoprotective activity of  by inducing ccl4 hepatotoxicity. To study the hepatoprotective activity of against CCL4 induced hepatotoxcity.To evaluate the mechanism of hepatoprotection in terms of Liver antioxidant mechanism, Histopathological study. The animals were divided into Four groups of  three animals each. Except the normal group all the other groups received ccl4 in at a dose of 0.1 ml/kg by intraperitoneally for 14 days. Normal groups received plain tween 80 orally.  On the 14th day all the rats from all the groups were sacrificed, blood was collected from each animal for serum analysis  and their livers were stored  under freezing conditions for the estimation of endogenous anti oxidants and one sample from each group was stored in 10% formalin for histopathological studies.  In bio-chemical studies- Serum analytical methods (AST), (ALT), (Alk.P), (Bil), (TP), (TC). The present findings observed in this study revealed that,glimepirideis natural antioxidant lignin possess significant antioxidant activity against ccl4 induced hepatotoxicity via antioxidant mechanism. However, further research is required to find out the other possible mechanism of hepatoprotection to conform that  as glimepiridehepatoprotective molecule.


EMERGENCE OF NOVEL PEPTIDE MOLECULAR CLASS AS ANTIBIOTICS

ABOUT AUTHORS
Akansha Bhandari1, Nitisha Bhandari2*
1
Department of Lifesciences,
Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and Science, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, India
2 Department of Biotechnology, Graphic Era University, Dehradun, India
*nitishabhandari89@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Modern era diseases bring more challenges and hurdles to the rational drug targeting. However chemotherapy is the most affected area as most reports are related to antibiotics resistance. Although some successes are accounted as new molecules and new structures are keep on synthesizing or either isolated. One such example is Teixobactin which is isolated for Eleftheria terrae, which was found to be active against Staphylococcus and Mycobacterium bacteria. The story of Teixobactin isolation could open new horizon and opportunistic ways for future designing of useful drugs against these resistance bacteria. In the similar context we tried to compile the relevant paper that was published in nature in 2015 into a commentary based critical review.


A SHORT REVIEW ON ZIKA VIRUS PAST, PRESENT STRATAGIES AND FUTURE PROSPECTIVES

ABOUT AUTHORS
M .Manasa Rekha1*, A. Bharath Kumar1, T.Mubeena1, C. Gopinath2
1Department of Pharmacy Practice,

Annamacharya college of Pharmacy, Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Department of Phytopharmaceuticals and Pharmacognosy,
Annamacharya college of Pharmacy, Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh, India.
manasarekharoyal@gmail.com

Zika virus(ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus and It is transmitted Aedes mosquitoes like A. aegypti and A. albopictus,which are active at day times[1,2].


REVIEW: COMBINED CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL AND PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE THERAPY IN METABOLIC SYNDROME

ABOUT AUTHORS
Chauhan Sudhanshu*1,2, Savani Pankaj2, Solanki Divya2, Raj Hasumati2, Patel Sagar2
1
Research Scholar 2015, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
2
Department of Quality Assurance,
Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim, Surat, Gujarat, India
* sudhanshuchauhan32@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
This review article presents the pharmacology of combined Candesartan Cilexetil and Pioglitazone Hydrochloride therapy specially in Metabolic syndrome. Candesartan Cilexetil is a antihypertensive agent. Pioglitazone Hydrochloride is a selectively stimulates nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma). The use of Candesartan Cilexetil in combination with Pioglitazone Hydrochloride has been proved to provide beneficial effect (Synergistic effect) in metabolic syndrome. The mechanism of Candesartan Cilexetil and Pioglitazone Hydrochloride is quite different. The combination of both also have anti inflammatory and enhanced organ protective effects. The main objective of this review article is to provide pharmacological information of combined therapy of Candesartan Cilexetil and Pioglitazone Hydrochloride to researcher in development of combined dosage form of this combination.


PHARMACOLOGY OF COMBINED MESALZINE AND RIFAXIMIN THERAPY TO INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Prajapati Krishna V*, Raj Hasumati A, Jain Vinit C, Prajapati Neelam S.
Department of Quality Assurance,
Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim, Surat, Gujarat, India
*krish1112k@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This review article presents the pharmacology of combined Mesalazine and Rifaximin therapy especially in inflammatory bowel disease. Mesalazine is used as in anti-inflammatory agent, Non-Steroidal. Rifaximin is used in Gastrointestinal Agents, Anti-infective agent. The use of Rifaximin in combination with Mesalazine has been proved to provide beneficial effect in inflammatory bowel disease. The mechanism of Mesalazine and Rifaximin is quite different. Mesalamine and Rifaximin are two different types of drugs offering some symptomatic relief to the IBD patients. Mesalamine treats inflammation, whereas, Rifaximin reduces bio burden.
Patent for combination of both drugs were approved by WIPO. The main objective of this review article is to provide pharmacological information of combined therapy of Mesalazine and Rifaximin to researcher in development of combined dosage form of this.


A SHORT REVIEW ON RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA)

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Sabya Sampad Swain, Nadugopal Bhuyan, Chaitanya Prasad Meher
Gayatri institute of science & technology (GIST), Gunupur, Rayagada, Orissa
swainsabhya@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Rheumatoid arthritis is most common disease in India as well as outside India. The Centers for Disease Control and prevention estimates that more than 40 million Americans have some form of arthritis or chronic joint disorder out of them 7 million Americans suffer from arthritis in its most debilitating forms. Arthritis foundation classified rheumatic diseases as inflammatory disorders affecting more & more individuals than any chronic illness. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the United States, affecting about 12% of Americans between the ages of 25 and 74. Rheumatoid arthritis is thought to affect well over 2 million Americans (two to three times more females more than males), whereas juvenile arthritis affects 71,000 children under 16 years of age, 61,000 of whom are females. The presented article is concern with a brief idea about rheumatoid arthritis.


ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF MANGIFERA INDICA ON PARASITAEMIA LEVEL AND BLOOD PROFILE OF PLASMODIUM BERGHEI - INFECTED ALBINO MICE

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ABOUT AUTHORS
*Olayode, Ahmed A1; Saka, Olusola S1; Ajayi, Olusoji C2; Agbaje, Mojeed A1
1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Basic Medical Science
2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
olayodeahmed01@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to assess the effect of Mangifera indica on the percentage parasitaemia and some blood parameters of Plasmodium – infected Albino mice. Forty-two male albino mice, weighing between 20 and 25 g, were used for this research. The mice were randomly assigned into six groupsA, B, C, D, E and F of seven mice each. Group A was the negative control, group B was positive control. Mice in groups C, D and E were orally administered with Mangifera indica extract (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight) respectively for 5 days starting from the 4th day of inoculation while mice in group F were orally administered with Artesunate for 5 days (3 mg/kg b.w on the first day and 1.5 mg/kg b.w for the next 4 days) starting from the 4th day of inoculation. Blood smears were taken every 2 days to check the parasitaemia level for 14-day post-treatment withdrawal period. The extract has a dose dependent reducing effect on the level of parasitaemia. It also showed that the increase in the rate of reticulocytosis and consequent increase in the number of red blood cells in a dose dependent manner.


BIO-MARKERS AND BIO-SENSORS: UNRAVELLING THE MAJOR MECHANISTIC INTERVENTIONS IN CANCER PROGNOSIS

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Rajesh Tiwari
Junior Technical Assistant
Pharmaceutical Science and Natural Products
Central University of Punjab, Bathinda
rajesh.tiwari851@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Biosensors are a tool that combines the biochemical element with a transducer that generates an indication for the identification of disease. Numbers of biosensors are used in different medical application. Biomarker and Biosensors play an important role for early stage exposure of cancer. It is a cost-effective, increased assay speed, resiliency, the ability for multi-target analysis method. Genomic and proteomic molecular tools are also used for the exposure of tumors. These methods produce a molecular mark that provides a new opening for utilizing biosensors and biomarkers. As with many disease conditions, it is not easy to find exact and responsive markers that are associated with only one marker. Different numbers of molecular signatures are used for the diagnosis of cancer, such as proteins, peptides, overexpression gene and gene mutation. This review provides a general idea of the biosensors and biomarkers technology that is currently developed and researched for cancer markers and diagnosis.


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