Pharmacology Articles

THERAPEUTIC GASES PHARMACOLOGY AND IT’S ADVANCED DELIVERY

  ABOUT AUHTORS
AKASH S MALI1,2*,AUDRIUS MARUŠKA2
1University of Würzburg Germany.
2Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania
*Akashmit97@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Pharmaceutical gases molecules (Therapeutic medical Gases) are plays vital role in various disease conditions. In particular, Carbon monoxide, Oxygen, Nitric oxide, Hydrogen sulfide are generated in the human body and mediate signaling pathways as biological messengers and shown pharmacological effects on cardiovascular disorders, nervous system, respiratory track and gastrointestinal disorder. Appropriate oral delivery of gases is challenging concept in front of novel drug delivery system, recently microbubbles, nanobubbles, liposomes, ultrasound technology provides new oral and parenteral delivery platform for therapeutic gases. This review provides pharmacological effects of therapeutic medical gases and its novel delivery aspects.


ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAF EXTRACTS

ABOUT AUTHORS
JA Sathwara1*, AM Bhandari2
1Department of Pharmacology,
A.R.College of Pharmacy & G.H.Patel Institute of Pharmacy, V.V. Nagar, Anand, Gujarat.
2Department of Clinical Pharmacy,
A.R.College of Pharmacy & G.H.Patel Institute of Pharmacy, V.V. Nagar, Anand, Gujarat.

*jignasa.sathwara@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study was to investigate antiepileptic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii L. Spreng (AEMK) on electrically and chemically induced seizures. The aqueous extract of the leaves of M. koenigii (200 and 300 mg/kg) were studied for its antiepileptic effect on maximal electroshock induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in mice. AEMK (200 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES) as well as protected animals from pentylenetetrazole induced tonic seizures. The results suggest that the aqeous extract of the leaves of M. koenigii may produce its antiepileptic effects via non-specific mechanisms since it reduced the duration of seizures produced by maximal electroshock as well as delayed the latency of seizures produced by pentylenetetrazole.


A Review on chemistry and Pharmacological activity of Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate combine dosage form

ABOUT AUTHORS
Suleman S. khoja, Parthkumar H. Chauhan, Maulik N. Patel, Harsha D. Jani
Department of Quality Assurance,
Shivam Pharmaceutical Studies and Research Centre, Anand, Gujarat.
premukhoja@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Cinnarizine and Dimenhydrinate combination are active contain and approved by CDSCO The two substances belong to different groups of medicines. Cinnarizine  is a part of a group called calcium antagonists.  Dimenhydrinate belongs to a group called antihistamines Also used in Treatment of vertigo symptoms of various origins. exhibits  anti-emetic and antivertiginous  effects through  influencing the chemoreceptor trigger zone in  the  region of the  4th  ventricle.  Dimenhydrinate thus  acts  predominantly on the central vestibular system.  Due to  its calcium  antagonistic properties, cinnarizine acts  mainly  as a vestibular sedative  through inhibition  of  the calcium  influx  into  the vestibular  sensory cells. Cinnarizine thus acts predominantly on the peripheral vestibular system. Both  cinnarizine and  dimenhydrinate  are  known  to  be effective in  the treatment  of  vertigo.  The combination product is more effective than the individual compounds in the population studied.  The product has not been evaluated in motion sickness. Maximum plasma  concentrations  (Cmax)  of  cinnarizine  and diphenhydramine are reached in  humans  within  2  - 4 hours. metabolised  in  the liver. Cinnarizine is  mainly eliminated  via the  faeces (40-60%) and to a lower extent also in  urine, mainly in the form  of  metabolites conjugated  with  glucuronic acid.  The major route  of  elimination  of diphenhydramine is in  the urine


PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA IN LEAD INDUCED CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN ALBINO RATS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
G.Hema Latha1*, MD.Sultan Ali2, C.Vijaya lakshmi  R.Kiran kumar1, C.V.H.Hemavathy1
1 Kottam Institute of Pharmacy, Erravally X Roads, Mahaboob Nagar, Telangana
2 Safa College of Pharmacy, Kurnool, A.P
*hemarayudu19@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Protective effect of ziziphus jujuba  in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in albino rats. The main aim of the present work is to evaluate the Protective effect of Ziziphus jujuba  in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in albino rats. Objectives are to test the  Preliminary phytochemical screening of Aqueous & Petroleum ether extracts of “Ziziphus Jujuba”. Group 1: Control group; Group 2: Animals treated with lead 0.1 ml/100 g body weight i.p; Group 3: Animals treated with Petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba 250mg/kg; Group 4: Animals treated with Petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba 500mg/kg.All the groups were subjected to pre-treatment for a period of 7 days except Control group. To compare the changes in Quantification of infract size in normal and treated groups. To compare the changes in SGOT levels in Control and treated groups. The protective effect of the aqueous extract ,petroleum ether extract of Ziziphus Jujuba may be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids and tannins. There was a dose dependent increase in cerebral protection in terms of reduction of infarct size of brain tissue and SGOT levels in serum. Furthermore investigation is needed to find out the particular constituent which is responsible this protective activity.


ADR MONITORING: AN ESSENTIAL NEED FOR BETTER HEALTH CARE AND SAFETY

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Annu*, Priyanka
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
*annu.gvm@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is the noxious and unintended response that occurs at the dose of drug normally used for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease. ADRs cause a huge burden on the modern society because of the increase incidence of the morbidity and mortality. ADRs can occur with any class of drugs and the availability of the more and more number of therapeutics increases the risk of ADRs consequently. It has been found that the maximum numbers of ADRs occur more among infants and children and also they are generally more severe as compared to adults. ADRs are of particular interest in today’s practice because clinical trials are done in the limited number of the subjects and therefore the drug which is found safer in the clinical trial may produces serious ADRs. The most common reason for this is that the clinical studies generally have limited sample size and have low statistical power. Therefore the ADRs monitoring is an essential need for the better health care and therefore the health care centre should promotes the spontaneous monitoring, reporting, documentation and prevention of ADRs.


HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF GLIMEPIRIDE BY INDUCING CCL4 HEPATOTOXICITY

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ABOUT AUTHORS
C.V.H.Hemavathy*, B. Raj kumar, R. Kiran kumar, G. Hema latha

Department of Pharmacy,
Kottam Institute of Pharmacy,
Erravally X Roads, Mahaboob Nagar
*hemarayudu19@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Hepatoprotective activity of  by inducing ccl4 hepatotoxicity. To study the hepatoprotective activity of against CCL4 induced hepatotoxcity. To evaluate the mechanism of hepatoprotection in terms of Liver antioxidant mechanism, Histopathological study. The animals were divided into Four groups of  three animals each. Except the normal group all the other groups received ccl4 in at a dose of 0.1 ml/kg by intraperitoneally for 14 days. Normal groups received plain tween 80 orally.  On the 14th day all the rats from all the groups were sacrificed, blood was collected from each animal for serum analysis  and their livers were stored  under freezing conditions for the estimation of endogenous anti oxidants and one sample from each group was stored in 10% formalin for histopathological studies.  In bio-chemical studies- Serum analytical methods (AST), (ALT), (Alk.P), (Bil), (TP), (TC). The present findings observed in this study revealed that,glimepirideis natural antioxidant lignin possess significant antioxidant activity against ccl4 induced hepatotoxicity via antioxidant mechanism. However, further research is required to find out the other possible mechanism of hepatoprotection to conform that  as glimepiridehepatoprotective molecule.


EMERGENCE OF NOVEL PEPTIDE MOLECULAR CLASS AS ANTIBIOTICS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Akansha Bhandari1, Nitisha Bhandari2*
1
Department of Lifesciences,
Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and Science, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, India
2 Department of Biotechnology, Graphic Era University, Dehradun, India
*nitishabhandari89@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Modern era diseases bring more challenges and hurdles to the rational drug targeting. However chemotherapy is the most affected area as most reports are related to antibiotics resistance. Although some successes are accounted as new molecules and new structures are keep on synthesizing or either isolated. One such example is Teixobactin which is isolated for Eleftheria terrae, which was found to be active against Staphylococcus and Mycobacterium bacteria. The story of Teixobactin isolation could open new horizon and opportunistic ways for future designing of useful drugs against these resistance bacteria. In the similar context we tried to compile the relevant paper that was published in nature in 2015 into a commentary based critical review.


A SHORT REVIEW ON ZIKA VIRUS PAST, PRESENT STRATAGIES AND FUTURE PROSPECTIVES

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ABOUT AUTHORS
M .Manasa Rekha1*, A. Bharath Kumar1, T.Mubeena1, C. Gopinath2
1Department of Pharmacy Practice,

Annamacharya college of Pharmacy, Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2Department of Phytopharmaceuticals and Pharmacognosy,
Annamacharya college of Pharmacy, Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh, India.
manasarekharoyal@gmail.com

Zika virus(ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus and It is transmitted Aedes mosquitoes like A. aegypti and A. albopictus,which are active at day times[1,2].


REVIEW: COMBINED CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL AND PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE THERAPY IN METABOLIC SYNDROME

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Chauhan Sudhanshu*1,2, Savani Pankaj2, Solanki Divya2, Raj Hasumati2, Patel Sagar2
1Research Scholar 2015, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
2Department of Quality Assurance,
Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim, Surat, Gujarat, India
* sudhanshuchauhan32@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
This review article presents the pharmacology of combined Candesartan Cilexetil and Pioglitazone Hydrochloride therapy specially in Metabolic syndrome. Candesartan Cilexetil is a antihypertensive agent. Pioglitazone Hydrochloride is a selectively stimulates nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma). The use of Candesartan Cilexetil in combination with Pioglitazone Hydrochloride has been proved to provide beneficial effect (Synergistic effect) in metabolic syndrome. The mechanism of Candesartan Cilexetil and Pioglitazone Hydrochloride is quite different. The combination of both also have anti inflammatory and enhanced organ protective effects. The main objective of this review article is to provide pharmacological information of combined therapy of Candesartan Cilexetil and Pioglitazone Hydrochloride to researcher in development of combined dosage form of this combination.


PHARMACOLOGY OF COMBINED MESALZINE AND RIFAXIMIN THERAPY TO INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Prajapati Krishna V*, Raj Hasumati A, Jain Vinit C, Prajapati Neelam S.
Department of Quality Assurance,
Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim, Surat, Gujarat, India
*krish1112k@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This review article presents the pharmacology of combined Mesalazine and Rifaximin therapy especially in inflammatory bowel disease. Mesalazine is used as in anti-inflammatory agent, Non-Steroidal. Rifaximin is used in Gastrointestinal Agents, Anti-infective agent. The use of Rifaximin in combination with Mesalazine has been proved to provide beneficial effect in inflammatory bowel disease. The mechanism of Mesalazine and Rifaximin is quite different. Mesalamine and Rifaximin are two different types of drugs offering some symptomatic relief to the IBD patients. Mesalamine treats inflammation, whereas, Rifaximin reduces bio burden.
Patent for combination of both drugs were approved by WIPO. The main objective of this review article is to provide pharmacological information of combined therapy of Mesalazine and Rifaximin to researcher in development of combined dosage form of this.


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