You are herePharmacology Articles

Pharmacology Articles


A REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGY OF COMBINED EDARAVONE AND ARGATROBAN THERAPY IN ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE

ABOUT AUTHORS
Patel  Divya A*., Varodiya Priyanka S., Raj Hasumati A.
Department of Quality Assurance, Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College,
Kim, Surat, Gujarat, India
divyapatel388@gmail.com, drharaj@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
This review article presents the pharmacology of combined edaravone and argatroban therapy specialy in acute ischemic stroke. Edaravone (MCI-186) is a free radical scavenger, a novel neuroprotective agent. Argatroban  is a selective thrombin inhibitor.The antithrombotic agent was used in acute cerebral infarction. If the antithrombotic agent is administered in large quantities, the condition of patient become worse by occurrence of adeverse effect of cerebral haeorrhage. The use of edaravone in combination with antithrombotic agent has been proved to provide beneficial effect in acute ischemic stroke as edaravone has no influence to coagulation of blood and platelets aggregation. The combination therapy has fewer hemorrhagic  adeverse  effect. The mechanism of argatroban and edaravone is quite different. Argatroban, an anti-coagulant drug, directly improves the microcirculation of ischemic brain tissue while edaravone could indirectly attenuated brain edema by protection of endothelial cells damaged by free radicals generated after ischemic insult. The combination of both would have reciprocal and enhanced neuroprotective effects against ischemic insult. Both the drugs were approved by Japanese government and has been used in acute brain infarction in japan. The main objective of this review article is to provide pharmacological information of combined therapy of edaravone and argatroban to researcher in development of combined dosage form of this.


HEPARIN: POWERFUL AND INSTANTANEOUSLY ACTING ANTICOAGULANT

ABOUT AUTHOR
Amitava Sinha Ray
Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd
West Bengal, India
a.amitava.s@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Anticoagulantis an agent that is used to prevent the formation of blood clots. Anticoagulants, such as heparin or warfarin work on chemical reactions in the body to lengthen the time it takes to form a blood clot. Heparin the anticoagulant drug that is used to prevent blood clots from forming during and after surgery and to treat various heart, lung, and circulatory disorders in human body. Heparin is comparatively a strong acid that forms water–soluble salts. It is used in treatment of venous thrombosis and its extensions, pulmonary embolism (PE), peripheral arterial embolism. Smoking and alcohol may alter response to heparin. Abrupt withdrawal of heparin may precipitate increased coagulability.


ANTACIDS: HEART BURN OTC DRUGS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Tribhuvan Patel*, Virendra Kr. Baheliya, Rajesh Kr. Prajapati, Vivek Kr. Yadav, Avanish Kr. Yadav, Pramod Kr. Jaiswal
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Kunwar Haribansh Singh College of Pharmacy, Jaunpur, U.P.
*vikashk464@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Antacids are chemical substances which neutralizing the acid that causes heartburn. By reducing the acidity, the acid is less able to irritate the esophagus. The effect of antacids on the stomach is due to partial neutralisation of gastric hydrochloric acid and inhibition of the proteolytic enzyme, pepsin. There are commonly used self-prescribed medications.  Antacids are available many forms such as suspensions, chewable tablets and liquid gels. They consist of calcium carbonate and magnesium and aluminum salts in various compounds or combinations. Antacids are used for gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, stress gastritis, pancreatic insufficiency, non-ulcer dyspepsia, biliary reflux, bile acid mediated diarrhoea, constipation, osteoporosis, urinary alkalinisation and chronic renal failure as a dietary phosphate binder.


A REVIEW ON EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Rathore KS*, Roshan Keshari, Annu Rathore, Divya Chauhan
BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
kamalsrathore@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The Ebola virus (formerly officially designated Zaire ebolavirus, or EBOV) was first seen infecting humans in African continent; especially Sudan, Democratic Republican of Congo, Zaire and nearby countries. Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of the Ebola virus. In the current outbreak, most cases are the result of human-to-human transmission, when there is direct contact with bodily fluids, secretions, the mucous membrane or broken skin of an infected person. The disease typically occurs in outbreaks in tropical regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. But now, the virus seems to have enthralled the global interest due to its lethal prospective. EVD outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 90%. The research is ongoing on development of making vaccine to curb this virus yet licensed success or specific treatment is not achieved. Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care.


SNAKE BITE ITS FIRST AID & ANTI SNAKE VENOM (ASV): DETAILS GUIDELINES

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Amitava Sinha Ray
B.Pharmacy, DPM
RANBAXY LABORATORIES LTD.
West Bengal, India
a.amitava.s@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Snakebite is an injury caused by a bite from a snake. It can be dangerous and life threatening if the snake will venomous. India is the top country having the highest no. of death due to snake bite. Some specific venomous snake is responsible for this death. Till now people are not serious about that. Most of the people don’t know just the first aid of snake bite. After a snake bite most village people are going to unqualified person and quacks for treatment not to hospital, this is one of the most serious causes of death. People should be aware about the sign and symptoms of snake bite and at least the first aid treatment of snakebite. In this type of emergency victim should be admit to nearest hospital and Anti Snake Venom (ASV) is very much necessary to save the patient life.


CASE REPORT ON OGILVIE’S SYNDROME: A RARE CLINICAL ENTITY

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Jyothi.P, A.Sireesha, D.Venugopal*, J.Jyothi
Department of Pharmacy Practice, P. RamiReddy Memorial College of Pharmacy,
Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.
venugopal.pharmd@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This is a syndrome of acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction associated with massive dilation, usually of the colon, but also of the small intestine. It describes the phenomenon of an acute colonic pseudo-obstruction without a mechanical cause. Mechanical obstruction is absent and there is parasympathetic nerve dysfunction. It was first described by Sir William Ogilvie in 1948, an English surgeon who was also an examiner for Oxbridge and wrote papers on fractures and hernias. It is a relatively rare condition. Males are more commonly affected than females. It is more common in the elderly. An imbalance in the autonomic innervations (sympathetic over activity and parasympathetic suppression) has been thought to be the pathophysiological factor in the causation of this condition. Reported here is a case of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction which developed in a female patient of age 45 with hypertension and histerectomy was made 25 years back and was treated conservatively. The patient stool culture should be done periodically and if any infectious agents were found should be monitored and appropriate treatment has to be done. It usually responds to non-operative therapy, but occasionally requires surgical intervention.


DIABETIC FOOT ULCER: A SERIOUS PROBLEM FOR DIABETIC PATIENT

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Amitava Sinha Ray
RANBAXY LABORATORIES LTD.
West Bengal, India
a.amitava.s@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Diabetes is a major problem across the world also it is a serious problem in India. Diabetes Mellitus is a silent killer of human body. Several types of complication are occurred in diabetic patient. One of the serious complications is Diabetic foot ulcer. Generally occurred due to breakdown in the skinand subcutaneous tissue also muscle. It will be more dangerous if it will become infected. Sometimes it is also needed to cut down the leg by surgery to prevent the spread of infection. A diabetic patient should take care for his foot to avoid this type of complication, also should be more care full to the management of blood sugar in normal level.


MEDICATION ERROR - MAJOR PROBLEM IN HEALTHCARE PRACTICE

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Dinesh Kumar Meena
Department of Pharmacy,
Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar, Tamil Nadu.
*dinesh8989pharmd@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A medication error is the failure of treatment process that may be harmful for the patient. A medication error can occur in deciding which medicine and dosage regimen to use, prescription writing, manufacturing the formulation, administrating the medicine, monitoring therapy. Avoiding medication error is important for the safety of patient as well as better therapeutic outcomes. Medication error may not be clinically significant on many occasions but they have serious economic consequences like extended hospital stays, additional treatment and malpractice litigation. Medication error are well known problem in hospitals. Medication error and adverse drug reactions are one of the main causes for adverse events in hospital leading to disability and death. Pharmacist is responsible for the safe and appropriate use of medication in all pharmacy practice settings. As the part of the multidisciplinary health care team, the pharmacist role is to cooperate to establish patient-specific drug therapy regimens designed to achieve predefined therapeutic outcomes without subjecting the patient to undue them. As pharmacist becomes more involved in patient – specific care, technician is asked to perform tasks that have previously been restricted to pharmacists. As their responsibilities expand, technician need to be aware of the significance and cause of medication errors and to recognize their role in preventing those errors.


PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF AEGLE MARMELOS: A MINI REVIEW

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Sampat Kumar Kundu1, Shatabisha Bhattacharjee1, *Kuntal Pal2
1 Gurunanak Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Sodepur, West Bengal, India
2 Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Rajiv Gandhi South Campus, Banaras Hindu University, Barkachha, Mirzapur
kuntalpal20@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Ayurvedic plants have shown their effects on various kind of diseases. Those properties of the plants are sublimed in some molecules in the plants, which can be extracted out by performing various kind of processes (eg. Soxhlation, Percolation). Many plants which are used by the human being in daily life, also have some effects in curing some disease conditions. Likewise in our current review Aegle marmelos (Beal) have Antidiarrhoeal, Antidiabetic activities etc. Many Pharmacological Activities have been revealed & organized in this review article, but there have a wide scope of research to perform on this plant.


EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF MIMOSA PUDICA LINN. WITH IMIPRAMINE AND FLUOXETINE ON RESERPINE-INDUCED BEHAVIOURAL DESPAIR IN RATS

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Mayuri Lawar1, Varsha Shende1*, Suvarna Ingle2, Monali Sanghvi1, Naeem Hamdulay1
1Department of Pharmacology, Sinhgad College of Pharmacy, Post-Graduate Research Department, Off Sinhgad road, Vadgaon (Bk), Pune, Maharashtra, India.  
2Department of Pharmacology, Indira College of Pharmacy, New Pune Mumbai Highway, Tathwade, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
*shende.varsha@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Depression and related mood disorders are among the world’s greatest public health problems. Mimosa pudica L. (MP), a creeping perennial herb exhibits analgesic, anxiolytic, diuretic, antiasthmatic, hepatoprotective activities. Although, previous study reveal antidepressant like effects of aqueous extract of MP at behavioral levels, but antidepressant like effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Mimosa pudica L. (HEMP) and its combinational effect with standard antidepressant drugs at behavioral and biochemical level is not scientifically evaluated. Hence, the present investigation evaluates the antidepressant activity of HEMP and its interaction with fluoxetine and imipramine in reserpine-induced behavioural despair in rats and the potential mechanism involved in HEMP action. HEMP at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o., fluoxetine at 5 & 20mg/kg p.o., imipramine at 5 & 15mg/kg p.o. and reserpine 6mg/kg i.p. were administered to different groups of rat (n=6). After reserpine treatment, rats were subjected to forced swimming test followed by assessment of locomotor activity. Rats were sacrificed after behavioural study for estimation of serotonin, monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels in rat brain. Results demonstrate that combination of subeffective doses of HEMP, fluoxetine and imipramine reduced the duration of immobility in forced swimming test, increased serotonin and decreased MAO-A and MAO-B enzyme levels in reserpine treated rats. These findings suggest that combination of HEMP with standard drugs in subeffective doses can exert potential antidepressant like effect through modulation of brain serotonergic system and MAO inhibition.


FIND MORE ARTICLES

Subscribe to RSS headline updates from:
Powered by FeedBurner