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A REVIEW OF NATEGLINIDE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Mistry Ripal*, Haresh T. Mulani
Department of Pharmaceutics
Indubhai Patel College of Pharmacy and Research Centre,
Dharmaj, Gujarat
*rx.ripalmistry@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas is no longer able to make insulin, or when the body cannot make good use of the insulin it produces. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. The success of oral hypoglycemic drug therapy is usually based on are storation of normal blood glucose levels. Traditionally, the term oral hypoglycemic was used interchangeably with sulfonylureas, but more recently the development of several new drugs has broadened this designation to include all oral medications for diabetes. Nateglinide, a D-phenylalanine derivative, is a novel insulinotropic drug which has recently been launched as a therapeutic agent for Type II diabetes. Clinical studies have shown that nateglinide induces a rapid onset of insulin release synergistic with meal administration which effectively restores the early phase of insulin secretion. Since the loss of early insulin secretion is thought to play an important role in the development of glucose in tolerance the ability of nateglinide to promote early insulin release is potentially of considerable therapeutic benefit.


HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE: AN UPDATE

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About Author:
Amandeep Kaur
Department of Pharmacology, G.H.G Khalsa College of Pharmacy
Gurusar Sadhar, Ludhiana, Punjab, INDIA
amananny2011@gmail.com

Abstract
Huntington's disease is a complex degenerative disorder that affects the central nervous system. Huntington's disease is an autosomal-dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disorder typically presents during mid-life with a distinct phenotype, including chorea and dystonia, incoordination, cognitive decline, and behavioral abnormalities. HD is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the gene that encodes the protein huntingtin on chromosome 4; this results in progressive atrophy of the striatum as well as cortical and other extra striatal structures. Since 1993, genetic testing has been available to confirm diagnosis in affected adults and for pre-symptomatic testing in at-risk individuals. The review aims majorly on these areas namely: History, etiology, symptoms, pathophysiology, treatment and other aspects of Huntington’s disease.


CEREBRAL AGING AND NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Alok Khunteta1,2, Vikas Pareek2*
1Registrar, Rajasthan Pharmacy Council,
2 Department of Pharmaceutics,
Lal Bahadur Shastri College of Pharmacy,
Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan
* Vikaspareek@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT:
Age-related cognitive decline is a well-known phenomenon, called by various means such as age-associated memory impairment and age associated cognitive impairment. Since cerebral aging is idiopathic, so due to lack of pure reasons it’s diagnosis is typical and also it’s not being recognized at early ages by person too.  As per the reports by 2050, it is anticipated that Americans aged 65 or older will number nearly 89 million people, or more than double the number of older adults in the United States in 2010, these stats are complementary to global scenario. The review is to collectively cast Cerebral aging with reasons and solutions. The detail of theories regarding cerebral aging and its related deficits is provided. Pharmacological action of both Allopathic and Ayurvedic medicines are illustrated. The role of yoga and pranayam being a quencher of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) thus reducing cerebral aging is also provided further in review.


A POTENT TARGET FOR CANCER TREATMENT – TUMOR HYPOXIA NECROSIS: AN OVERVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Pankaj Dinkar Patil*, Raju Tayade
Department of Pharmaceutical sciences and technology,
ICT Mumbai, Maharashtra
pankaj.patil46@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Tumor hypoxia is feature of locally advancing solid tumor and also considered as potential therapeutic challenge. It causes solid tumor resistible to the cancer treatment like radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs. The transcription factor HIF-1 is the major player in the regulation of tumor progression into malignant phenotype. We can target this hypoxic conditions using pathophysiological approach for targeted drug delivery for treatment of cancer. This review will focus on various biological aspects of tumor hypoxia necrosis and approaches for targeting hypoxic tumors. This tumor selective treatment will include bioreductive drugs, gene therapy, and recombinant bacteria.


BRAIN AS A SANCTURIAN SITE IN DRUG DELIVERY APPROACHES TO IMPROVE BIOAVAILABILITY IN BRAIN

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Sagar Vishwanath Sonawane*
Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology,
Institute of Chemical Technology,
Matunga, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
*sssagarvs@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Brain is the highly protected organ of the body by the sanctuary known as blood brain barrier (BBB). BBB comprises of tight junctions formed by the closed fenestration network of astrocytes, pericytes microglial cells and endothelial cells. Thus it is very difficult for drug molecules to cross BBB. Thus various approaches are discussed to overcome this barrier. Disruption of BBB was conventional invasive approach. The permeability of BBB increases in various diseases. This increased permeability of BBB is made use for drug trafficking. With advances in nanotechnology, various nanocarrier systems including Polymeric nanoparticles, Micelle, Dendrimer, Liposomes, Solid lipid nanoparticles, Nanostuctured lipid carriers, nanogels, etc. emerged as potential delivery systems.
Administration of inhibitors of p-glycoprotein with drug is another approach. Making lipophilic prodrugs of active drug substances can also be done.
Recently PEGylation of nanoparticles can be done to improve its half life in the body, known as the stealth technology. Further various receptor mediated processes are made use of for transport of nanocarrier across BBB. In this method the nanocarrier is attached to the targeting ligand thus making it receptor specific. The newer concept of molecular Trojan horses is also discussed. Finally the advantages of intranasal drug delivery are emphasized.


A COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF OXACEPROL AND DIACEREIN IN OSTEOARTHRITIS OF KNEE JOINTS

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Jay Shah1, Nazima Mirza2, Vivek Patel3
1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, A.R.College of Pharmacy and G.H.Patel Institute of Pharmacy,
Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India.
2Department of Pharmacology, Pramukh Swami Medical College, Karamsad, Gujarat
3Department of Orthopedic, Shree Krishna Hospital, Karamsad, Gujarat
shahjayg@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Objectives: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis which has a growing number of patients and having major impact on the quality of life. According to modes of action the drugs for OA are divided into two groups. First group, NSAIDs which provide symptomatic relief but have no influence on progress of the disease and shows higher adverse events. The second group of drugs acts as disease modifying agents. Recent data from clinical trials have demonstrated that agents like Diacerein & Oxaceprol specifically block key disease mechanisms & effectively retard the progression of structural changes in knee OA patients. The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy & safety of Oxaceprol and Diacerein in the patients of Osteoarthritis of Knee joints.
Experimental/ Computational work done: Total 60 patients(4 withdrawn) suffering from mild to moderate OA of knee joint were included from outpatient orthopedic department of Shree Krishna hospital, Karamsad. Twenty eight patients received diecerein(50 mg b.i.d.) and 28 patients were given Oxaceprol(200 mg t.i.d.)  for 10 days and patient responses were measured using VAS and Lequesne scale, before and after drug treatment. Suspected adverse event was evaluated by filling ADR form. Ethical committee approval and patient consents were obtained prior to the beginning of the study.
Results and discussion: The VAS Scale was reduced from 7.321 ± 0.9449 to 4.75 ± 1.146 (Mean±SD) for Diacerein and 6.821 ±1.1564 to 4.321±1.1564 for Oxaceprol. The Lequesne scale was reduced from 6.0±1.054 to 4.21±1.0923 for Diacereine and 6.0±0.8819 to 3.839±1.0475 for Oxaceprol. Both the results were found to be statistically significant. Difference in VAS and Lequesne scale between the Diacerein and Oxaceprol were 0.757 and 0.099 respectively (p >0.05). There was not any Adverse Event reported.
Conclusions: Both the drugs, Diacerein and Oxaceprol, individually and equally effective in Osteoarthritis condition. Both Diacerein and Oxaceprol are found to be safer.


IMPACT OF OBESITY ON PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

About Authors:
Madhuri Sharma*1, KC Mathur1, Rajnee2, Raaz K Maheshwari3
1Department of Physiology, Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan
2Department of Physiology, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan
3Department of Chemistry, SBRM Govt PG College, Nagaur, Rajasthan
*madhurisharma26@gmail.com

Abstract
Pulmonary function test are affected by the obesity. Various studies demonstrate important modifications in the pulmonary function tests of obese adults and adolescents, there is scarce information on obese children, and the findings remain inconclusive. Although there are some studies which demonstrate important modifications in the respiratory pattern of obese children, but there are some contradictory findings. So such type of study should be done which give us different and separate findings for overweight, mild obese, moderately obese, and morbidly obese criteria in obese school children in comparison with age, sex and ethnically matched control group.


DIABETES AND ITS COMPLICATIONS AND SGLT-2 INHIBITORS: A NOVEL THERAPY FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

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About Authors:
Shivkant M. Kide*, Rahul M. Kide, Lokesh T. Thakare, Komal V. Ambulkar
Department of Pharmacology,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research,
Borgaon (Meghe), Wardha-442 001,(M.H.), India.
shivpharma08@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. The pharmacotherapy for type 2 diabetes until the last decade only consisted of biguanides, sulphonylureas, and insulin. The existing therapeutic classes of antidiabetic drugs are not adequately effective in maintaining long-term glycemic control in most patients, even when used in combination. One emerging novel therapeutic class of antidiabetic drugs is sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. SGLT2 accounts for 90% of the glucose reabsorption in the kidney. The SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary excretion of glucose and lower plasma glucose levels in an insulin-independent manner. Forxiga (Dapagliflozin) the most prominent molecule in this class is currently approved by USFDA. Other members of this class (eg, sergliflozin, remogliflozin) are also effective. This class of novel agents can effectively control blood sugar level without producing weight gain or hypoglycemia.


PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS GEARTH PLANT ON ANIMALS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Nandu Kayande1*, Pankaj Kushwah2, D. K. Vir1
1Department of Pharmacology
2Department of Pharmacognosy
Nimar Institute of Pharmacy, Dhamnod,
Opp.ITI, Maheshwar Road Dhamnod, Dhar. M.P.454552
nandu_kayande@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
The main objective of the present work is to find out good pharmacological activities in herbal source with their preliminary phytochemical study, and also it is aimed to investigate of ethanol, and aqueous extracts of dried stem of plant Emblica Officinalis Gearthagainst with Anti-inflammatory and in rats, Analgesic activity in mice and antioxidant in invitro methods. Normally herbal products are free from side effects/adverse effects and they are low cost medicines,which will be beneficial for human being. The main objective of this work is to find active constituents which are potent Anti-oxidant, Anti-inflammatory, analgesic having no or minimum side effects from indigenous plants for the therapeutic management.


INVITRO AND IN VIVO EVALUATION OF ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA LINN IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Nandu Kayande1*, Pankaj Kushwah2
1HOD Department of Pharmacology
2Department of Pharmacognosy
Nimar Institute of Pharmacy, Dhamnod,
Opp.ITI, Maheshwar Road Dhamnod, Dhar. M.P.
nandu_kayande@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The antitumor activity of the ethanolic extract of leaves of boerhaavia diffusa L. (EBD) has been evaluated against Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice at the dose of 250 & 500 mg/kg, body weight. The experimental parameters used were tumour volume, tumour cell count, viable tumour cell count, mean survival time and increase in life span to assess antitumour activity. The extract administered orally for 14 consecutive days to tumor bearing group of animals. The extract increase the life span of DAL treated mice and restore the hematological parameters as compared with the DAL bearing mice in dose dependant manner. The study revealed that the EBD showed significant antitumour activity in tested animal models.


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