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Pharmaceutics Articles


TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS FOR LUNG CANCER

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Abdul Waheed1*, Ankit Gupta2, Parth Patel3
1Department of Pharmacology
2Department of Pharmaceutics
3Department of Drug Regulatory Affair
Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida-125, U.P. (INDIA)
abdul.waheed2050@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
In the present scenario, lung cancer is one of the most prevalent and malignant cancer especially among the smoking group of people. The targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the lungs represents a novel therapeutic approach in lung cancer. Lung is an ideal route for administration of anticancer drug as it provides larger alveolar surface area, low thickness of epithelial barrier & extensive vascularization. Nanoparticles with nanocarriers have possibility of cell-targeted drug delivery with minimal systemic side effect and toxicity. Pulmonary epithelial cell, enzymes, receptors and genes are the target of the targeted drug delivery in lung cancer. This paper reviews the till date targeted drug delivery research performed for the treatment of lung cancer.


DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERISATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF BUCCOADHESIVE BILAYERED TABLETS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kavitha Reddy Jupally*, A.Pavani, R. Raja Reddy, Habibuddin.
Department of Pharmaceutics, Malla Reddy Pharmacy College,
Maisammaguda (via- Hakimpet), secunderabad, Telangana, India.
kavithareddy0811@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Ramipril is a prodrug belonging to the class of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which undergoes extensive hepatic first pass metabolism. The aim of the present study is to develop buccoadhesive bilayered tablet of ramipril  to achieve the greater therapeutic efficacy, to increase the bioavailability, to overcome the first pass hepatic metabolism of the drug. A UV spectrophotometric method has been employed for the estimation of Ramipril at 219 nm. Buccal tablets of Ramipril were prepared by direct compression method using ethyl cellulose as a polymer. The precompression parameters like bulk density, tapped density, carr’s index and angle of repose were determined. The post compression parameters like hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, in vitro dissolution, FTIR studies were carried out to check if any interactions had occurred, results were promising. The optimized formulation was selected based on results and percentage drug release was found to be 92.95 and followed First order, peppas model with Fickian release mechanism.


FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF IBUPROFEN LOADED ETHYL CELLULOSE MICROSPHERES

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Lakshmanarao.R*, Pavani Priya.G, Saikishore.V
Department of pharmaceutics,
Bapatla college of pharmacy, Bapatla-522101, India
rapakalakshmanarao@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Microspheres are well accepted technique to control the drug release from the dosage form to improve bioavailability, reduce absorption difference in patients, reduce the dosing frequency and adverse effects during prolong treatment. The main objective of the present study is to prepare and evaluate ibuprofen  microspheres by solvent evaporation  method, with water insoluble polymers such as Ethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as suspending agent, using as carrier for oral administration in view to achieve oral sustained  release of the drug.  Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and is used in chronic and acute conditions of pain and inflammation. Its biological half-life is 2 ±0.5 hrs. Due to its low biological half-life (2 hrs), it requires frequent administration to maintain plasma concentration. This causes inconvenience to the patient and also leads fluctuations in plasma drug concentration that may cause inferior therapeutic effects or toxic effects. There-fore, development of controlled release dosage forms would clearly be beneficial in terms of decreased dosage requirements, thus increase patient compliance. The formulations were evaluated for particle size distribution analysis, flow properties like Angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner’s Ratio, Carr’s index, Encapsulation efficiency, Scanning electron microscopy,optical electron microscopy and invitro release studies. The optimized formulation showed good invitro sustained  release activity of the drug ibuprofen.


TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY THROUGH CARRIERS: TRANSFERSOMES

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Nirlep kaur
Institute of pharmaceutical sciences,
Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India
Nirlep10@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Delivery of drug through Transdermal route represents a most convenient and novel approach. Transfersomes were found to be more effective as they render controlled release of drug due to depot formation in skin and were more effective in transdermal delivery. Transfersomes are applied to the skin and permeate through the stratum corneum lipid lamellar regions as a result of the hydration and osmotic force in the skin. Transfersomes have been widely used as a novel carrier for transdermal drug delivery. The Transfersomes can be evaluated by in vitro for vesicle shape and size, entrapment efficiency, degree of deformability, number of vesicles per cubic mm. Transfersomes enhances the penetration of most of the low as well as high molecular weight drugs. When tested in artificial systems transfersomes can pass through even tiny pores (100 nm) which are 1500 times smaller. The use of transfersomes carrier results in delivery of high concentration of active agents through the skin, regulated by system composition and their physical characteristics. Thus, this novel technique has got a great potential for overcoming current problems faced by the conventional techniques.


FORMULATION EVALUATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF MEBENDAZOLE COLON TARGETED SUSTAIN RELEASE PELLETS BY EXTRUSION SPHERONIZATION

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Raval Aniket*, Chauhan Sachin P., Sheth A.K, Shah Nirmal, Aundhia Chintan
Department of Pharmacy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University,
At & Po Pipariya, Ta. - Waghodia, Dist. Vadodara, Gujarat, India
aniket_raval2006@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT:
The aim of present investigation is to formulate evaluate and optimization of colon targeted pellets bearing mebendazole, benzimidazole derivative with broad spectrum of anthelminthic activity. It is highly effective against adult and larval stages of ascaris lumbricoids, hook worms and  indicated for the treatment of nematode infestation. Pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization process using microcrystalline cellulose as spheronizing aid, natural polysaccharide pectin as binders in three different percentages i.e 5%, 10% and 15% and glycerine as plasticizer.  Further study was carried out to select the natural polysaccharide for formulation of colon targeted pellets i.e. Pectine, Xanthan gum and Guar gum. The formulation were prepared with optimized constant process parameters i.e. Percentage LOD 10%, Spheronization time 3 minutes and Speed of spheronization 700-1200 rpm. Prepared A1 – A9 batches were then evaluated by their micromeritic properties like tapped density, carr’s index, hausner, S ratio, angle of repose  and characterized by microscopic study, % yield, hardness, friability, % assay and dissolution study was carried out and compared with marketed formulation by statistical analysis similarity factor (f2). The batch A5 is having 10% pectin, 18% MCC and 20% mebendazole shows (22.20±2.05) % carr’s index, (1.22±0.04) hausner’s ratio, (26.65±1.15) angle of repose, (88.2±2.36) % yield, (3.96±0.46) hardness, (0.23±0.03) % friability  (88.47±3.26) % assay and (99.81±3.80) % drug release after 10 hours. Pellets equivalent to 300mg of mebendazole  were then filled in capsules and capsules coated with 12.5% w/v Eudragit S 100 using optimized 4- 5 ml/min spray rate, 15 rpm pan speed and 40±5°C coating inlet temperature and then optimized for % weight gain in four different trials. W2 batch having 10% weight gain were then evaluated by % cumulative drug release, disintegration test in 0.1 N HCl shows (99.73±3.34) % CDR, intact after 12 hours. The pellets of batch A5 and the enteric coated capsule with 10 % weight gain were packed in aluminum pouch and charged for accelerated stability studies at (40°C±2°C) and (75%±5%) RH for 1 month in a stability chamber shows no change in the dissolution profile at (40°C±2°C) and (75%±5%) RH storage condition.


A REVIEW: DETERMINATION OF ITOPRIDE HYDROCHLORIDE IN BIOLOGICAL FLUID AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Asif I Bhim*, Vineet Jain, Hasumati Raj
Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College,
Kim, Gujarat, India
bhimiqbal23@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Itopride Hydrochloride is a novel, synthesized, gastro prokinetic drug, which stimulates gastrointestinal motor activity through the synergistic effects of dopamine D2-receptor blockade and acetylcholine esterase inhibitors. Chemically, it is N-[[4-[2-(Dimethyl amino) ethoxy] phenyl] methyl]-3, 4-dimethoxy benzamide hydrochloride. Benzamide structure, amide and ether linkages in the drug molecule make it susceptible to degradation. Thus a prokinetic drug like Itopride Hydrochloride by virtue of its efficacy and tolerability could be considered as a drug of first choice and a welcome addition to the drug armamentarium for the symptomatic treatment of NUD (non-ulcer Dyspepsia) and other gastric motility disorders including functional bowel disorders. This review consists of various analytical methods for determination of Itopride Hydrochloride in various marketed pharmaceutical preparation and in biological fluids. Analytical method consists of various spectroscopic methods, chromatographic methods and other methods.


ALTERNATIVES TO THE DRAIZE EYE TEST

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Bushra Shamim
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Hamdard University, New Delhi.
bushrashamim21@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Industry and regulatory bodies responsible for public health are actively assessing animal free tests to reduce the requirement for Draize testing. Draize rabbit eye irritation test developed in the 1940’s is even today the only eye toxicity test officially accepted in the OECD countries for regulatory purposes in the classification of slightly and moderately irritating chemicals. The Draize test has been widely criticized for both scientific and ethical reasons, and alternatives have been investigated for several decades. Therefore in an attempt to minimize this conflict alternative methods have been investigated. This article presents those alternative methods that are currently the most developed and the most widely used.


PRODUCT QUALITY COMPLAINT MANAGEMENT IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY – AN OVERVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Himani Devliyal
Department of Pharmacology,
Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
Delhi University, New Delhi
himanidevliyal@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This article covers fundamental basics of product quality complaint. We would learn what product quality is all about, how the product quality complaints are made, processed, investigated and changes implemented. Also we would go through the basics of case processing, how the complaints are classified, categorized based on the priority and then investigated. We would also go through the formal process of responding to the customer and increasing their faith in the company.
A PQP (product quality problem) can be defined as an issue arising due to change in color, odor, appearance, quality, safety and effectiveness of a product. A PQP is a grave concern and is directly related to the efficacy and safety of a drug.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLET OF SILYMARIN

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Brij Mohan*, Seema Saini, NS Gill
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Rayat Institute of Pharmacy, SBS Nagar, Punjab
rana.brijmohan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
In this investigation mouth dissolving tablets of Silymarin were prepared using different superdisintegrants by dry granulation method. Fast dissolving tablets were evaluated for physicochemical properties and in vitro dissolution. The preformulation studies and tablet evaluation test were performed and result were within the limit. The powder blend was evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and Hausner ratio. The powder blend show satisfactory flow properties. The silymarin tablet evaluated for tablet general appearance, hardness test, weight variation and drug content estimation. Oral route is the most preferred route for administration of various drugs because it is regarded as safest most convenient and economical route. Recently researcher develop the new dosage form fast dissolving tablet (FDT) with improve patient compliance and convenience. Fast dissolving tablets which dissolve rapidly in saliva without additional water and chewing. Fast dissolving tablets overcome the disadvantages of conventional dosage form especially dysphagia in pediatric and geriatric patients.
All the formulations shows uniform weight, hardness and friability data indicates good mechanical resistance of the tablet. All the tablets were disintegrated between min. The optimized (F6) formulation showed good disintegration time and release profile with maximum drug being released.


A REVIEW ON GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE (GMP) FOR MEDICINAL PRODUCTS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Vikash Kumar Chaudhari1*, Vijay Yadav2, Praveen Kumar Verma1, Amit Kumar Singh2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
2Department of Pharmacognosy,
Kunwar Haribansh Singh College of Pharmacy, Jaunpur, U.P.
*vikashk464@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Good manufacturing practices (GMP) is a part of quality assurance which ensures that products are consistently produced and controlled to the quality standards appropriate to their intended use and as required by the marketing authorization. GMP guidelines provide minimum requirements for pharmaceutical or a food product manufacturer must meet to assure that the products are of high quality and do not pose any risk to the consumer or public.


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