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Khushbu Singh*1, Chandana Majee2
1 M.Pharm ( department of pharmaceutics)
2 Assistant Professor, department of pharmaceutical chemistry.
Noida institute of engineering and technology, noida
Dendrimers are highly branched and monodisperse macromolecules that display an exact and large number of functional groups distributed with unprecedented control on the dendritic framework. Based on their globular structure, compared to linear polymers of the same molecular weight, dendrimers are foreseen to deliver extraordinary features for applications in areas such as cancer therapy, biosensors for diagnostics and light harvesting scaffolds. Of the large number of reports on dendrimer synthesis only a few have reached commercial availability. This limitation can be traced back to challenges in the synthetic paths including a large number of reaction steps required to obtain dendritic structures with desired features. Along with an increased number of reaction steps come not only increased waste of chemical and valuable starting materials but also an increased probability to introduce structural defects in the dendritic framework.Dendrimer chemistry is one of the most fascinating and rapidly expanding areas of modern chemistry. Nanoparticle drug-delivery systems are the popular ones as are able to increase the selectivity and stability of therapeutic agents. However reticuloendothelial system (RES) uptake, drug leakage, immunogenicity, hemolytic toxicity, cytotoxicity, hydrophobicity restrict the use of these nanostructures. These shortcomings are overcome by surface engineering the dendrimer such as Polyester dendrimer, Citric acid dendrimer, Arginine dendrimer, Glycodendrimers, PEGylated dendrimers, etc. The bioactive agents can be easily encapsulated into the interior of the dendrimers or chemically attached i.e. conjugated or physically adsorbed onto the dendrimer surface, serving the desired properties of the carrier to the specific needs of the active material and its therapeutic applications
Sundara Raj Behin1*, Isaac Samraj Punitha2, Sankara Subramaniyan Krishnan3
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Shree Devi college of Pharmacy, Airport Road, Kenjar, Mangalore, Karnataka – 574 142.
2Department of Pharmacognosy, Shree Devi college of Pharmacy, Airport Road, Kenjar, Mangalore, Karnataka – 574 142.
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Paramedical sciences, 395, Sarojini Naidu Road, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu.
Stability indicating assay methods were developed and compared for Cefotaxime Sodium. The influence of temperature and relative humidity on the stability of cefotaxime sodium in continuous infusion was investigated. The physical and chemical stability of cefotaxime sodium was determined at three different temperatures (5°C/60%RH, 25°C/60%RH, and 45°C/75%RH) and changes in the concentration of cefotaxime sodium were followed by HPTLC and microbiological assay methods. The physical stability parameters of colour change and pH were calculated. The drug solutions were clear and pale yellow initially with the intensity increasing by time, eventually becoming reddish yellow. HPTLC analysis indicated that 100mg/ml concentration of cefotaxime sodium maintained adequate stability for 2 hours at 45°C and up to 24 hours at 25°C and up to 5 days at 5°C. By microbiological assay method we found that cefotaxime sodium was stable for three days at 5ºC, one day at room temperature and four hours at 45ºC.
Madhuri D. Ghadage*1, Gajanan H. Banapure2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, SMBT College of Pharmacy, Dhamangaon, Nashik
2H. R. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur Dhule
The controlled release of drugs in slow and sustained manner is one of the major challenges in drug delivery system. Targeting of drug to the particular site is an important aspect of drug delivery system. Carrier technology offers an intelligent approach for drug delivery by coupling the drug to a carrier particle such as microsphere which modulates the release and absorption characteristics of the drug. These delivery systems offer numerous advantages over the conventional dosage forms including improved efficacy, reduced toxicity, and improved patient compliance. Microspheres received much attention not only for prolonged release, but also for targeting of anticancer drugs. In future microspheres will find the central place in novel drug delivery, particularly in diseased cell sorting, diagnostics, genetic materials, targeted and effective drug delivery. The current aim of this review is to study various aspects of the microparticulates drug delivery system including method of formulation, evaluation & characterization.
Badola Ashutosh,* Nishu Sharma
Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology & Science ( SGRRITS ),
Dehradun 248001, Uttarakhand , India
Controlled release local drug delivery systems offer advantages compared to systemic dosage forms for periodontitis. The objective of this research was to design and evaluate sustained release dental films containing drug in a non-biodegradable polymer for targeted delivery of the drug. The polymer ethyl cellulose was used in the formulation of dental films. The dental film was then evaluated for various parameters like thickness, folding endurance, and weight variation, and content uniformity, in vitro and in vivo study. Drug release profile of the dental film showed that the film exerted an initial burst release followed by a sustained release of the drug and the drug release was well above the minimum inhibitory concentration throughout the time of study. The release data obtained were subjected for release kinetics study. The study suggested that the non-biodegradable based dental film is a potential local drug delivery device for the treatment of periodontitis.
Neha singh*1, Chandana Majee2
1.M.Pharm ( Department of Pharmaceutics)
2.Assistant Professor, Departmrnt of pharmaceutical chemistry.
Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology, Noida
In order to achieve a successful colon targeted drug delivery system, a drug needs to be protected from degradation, release and/or absorption in the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and then ensure abrupt or controlled release in the proximal colon. Such a system can be formulated by utilizing microbial triggering degradation of polymer coating/ gastro intestinal (GI) transit time (time dependent)/ pH dependent approach etc. But unfortunately it has been found that colonic microflora, GI transit time and pH varies considerably inside a human system by several factors, in addition to this the native biodegradable polysaccharides which are used widely for the microbial triggering colonic drug delivery system (CDDS), are having high aqueous solubility on account of which a single unit colon targeted drug delivery systems may suffer from dose dumping due to overall catastrophic failure of the film around a monolith, which would then release the whole drug, that may lead to drastically compromised systemic drug bioavailability or loss of local therapeutic action in the colon. This review emphasizes some of the causes which make a single unit dosage form unsuitable for targeting to colon by using microbial triggering/GI transit time/pH dependent approach, and at the same time discusses researches which have been carried out to alleviate these problems by utilizing multiparticulate combined approaches.
Keshava Murthy S R*, Shiva kumar
Provimi Animal Nutrition India Pvt. Ltd.
Bangalore - 560 064 Karnataka INDIA
Reactive oxygen species(ROS) are free radicals which are generated from exogenous factors, where excessive ROS will result in Oxidative stress. These harmful free radicals generated continuously can be counteracted by the antioxidant defense system by the body. Multiple antioxidant methods were used to study the complete profile of an antioxidant compound so to establish a single antioxidant method which can determine the complete nature of antioxidant molecules is of great importance. CUPRAC method which involves the reduction of cupric ion to cuprous by antioxidant compound is found to be advantageous over other commonly followed antioxidant methods. The present review article includes detailed in vitro procedure, principle behind, application of this cuprac method.
*Ramchandra Gupta2, Prabhakar Sharma2, Prakash Pandey2, Pratik Jain1, Ajay Shukla3
1Department of Pharmacognosy,
2Department of Pharmaceutics,
3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
1,2,3Guru Ramdas Khalsa Institute of Science and Technology (Pharmacy) Jabalpur, 483001, M.P.
In the pharmaceutical world, an impurity is considered as any other organic material, besides the drug substance, or ingredients, arise out of synthesis or unwanted chemicals that remains with API’s. Pharmaceuticals impurities are the unwanted chemicals that remain or are generated during the formulation of medicines. The presence and quantity of impurities in pharmaceutical drugs can have a significant impact on their quality and safety, with the continuous pressure for increased industry productivity, there is urgent need for a systematic and comprehensive drug impurity profiling strategy. The impurities present in the drug are adversely affecting the quality of the drug product. There are various types of impurities like starting materials, intermediates, penultimate impurity, by product and degradation product. Impurity profiling helps in detection, identification and quantification of various types of impurities as well as residual solvents in bulk drugs and in pharmaceutical formulations. It is a best way to characterize quality and stability of bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. This review paper deals with the impurity profile of pharmaceuticals.
School of Pharmacy and Emerging Sciences,
Baddi University of Emerging Sciences and Technology,
The success of transdermal drug delivery has been severely limited by the inability of most drugs to enter the skin at therapeutically useful rates. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, microneedles have been fabricated with a range of sizes, shapes and materials. Microneedles have been used for the dermal and transdermal delivery of a broad range of drugs, such as small molecular weight drugs, oligonucleotides, DNA, peptides, proteins and inactivated viruses. Most drug delivery studies have emphasized solid microneedles, which have been shown to increase skin permeability to a broad range of molecules and nanoparticles in vitro. Microneedles inserted into the skin of human subjects were reported as painless. In addition to applications in the skin, microneedles have also been adapted for delivery of bioactives into the eye and into cells. Successful application of microneedles depends on device function that facilitates microneedle insertion and possible infusion into skin, skin recovery after microneedle removal, and drug stability during manufacturing, storage and delivery, and on patient outcomes, including lack of pain, skin irritation and skin infection, in addition to drug efficacy and safety. These results suggest that microneedles represent a promising technology to deliver therapeutic compounds into the skin for a range of possible applications.
Md. Yaqub Khan*, Poonam Gupta, Dr. Dipendu Goswami, Bipin Bihari, Vikas Kumar Verma
Saroj Institute of Technology & Management,
Ahimamau P.O. Arjunganj Sultanpur Road,
Purchase and use of OTC drugs without full knowledge is not only a waste of resources for all stakeholders but can be harmful for consumers. Creating awareness of rational drug use is only possible through continued public education with a broad vision of good health and wellbeing of the society. In developed economies, the four As of marketing has been addressed fairly well but in India, the accessibility and awareness is still on a lower side especially for allopathic OTC drugs. In India, the import, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs and cosmetics are regulated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act (DCA) and its subordinate legislation, the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules (DCR).
The use of nanotechnology in medicine and more specifically drug delivery is set to spread rapidly. Currently many substances are under investigation for drug delivery and more specifically for cancer therapy. Interestingly pharmaceutical sciences are using nanoparticles to reduce toxicity and side effects of drugs and up to recently did not realize that carrier systems themselves may impose risks to the patient. The kind of hazards that are introduced by using nanoparticles for drug delivery are beyond that posed by conventional hazards imposed by chemicals in classical delivery matrices. For nanoparticles the knowledge on particle toxicity as obtained in inhalation toxicity shows the way how to investigate the potential hazards of nanoparticles. The toxicology of particulate matter differs from toxicology of substances as the composing chemical(s) may or may not be soluble in biological matrices, thus influencing greatly the potential exposure of various internal organs. This may vary from a rather high local exposure in the lungs and a low or neglectable exposure for other organ systems after inhalation. However, absorbed species may also influence the potential toxicity of the inhaled particles. For nanoparticles the situation is different as their size opens the potential for crossing the various biological barriers within the body. From a positive viewpoint, especially the potential to cross the blood brain barrier may open new ways for drug delivery into the brain. In addition, the nanosize also allows for access into the cell and various cellular compartments including the nucleus. A multitude of substances are currently under investigation for the preparation of nanoparticles for drug delivery, varying from biological substances like albumin, gelatin and phospholipids for liposomes, and more substances of a chemical nature like various polymers and solid metal containing nanoparticles. It is obvious that the potential interaction with tissues and cells, and the potential toxicity, greatly depends on the actual composition of the nanoparticle formulation. This paper provides an overview on some of the currently used systems for drug delivery.
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