ALLICIN: AS A NOVEL PHYTOMOLECULE IN MODERN PHARMACY
Marvinkumar I. Patel*, Jyoti P. Patel, Ravi P. Patel, Hitesh P. Patel
Nootan Pharmacy College,
Allicin is a novel molecule obtain from garlic. It is a molecule which is biologically active and give a good activity again so many disease in the treatment. It has mainly the virtu of killing the microorganisms which can not be killed by the regular antibiotics. It is not widely used in the pharmafield till today but widely used as food supplement but it has a wide scope to use as a novel tool to treat gastric cancer and microbial infection.
Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1312
Garlic is probably one of the earliest known medicinal plants. Its bulbs (cloves) had been used as a cure-all in ancient Egypt and are mentioned in the Ebers Papyrus, one of the earliest treatises on medicinal plants. In the Ayurvedic medical texts of ancient India, garlic was recommended against leprosy. Garlic is still popular as a cure all among the traditional healing traditions of Mexico, as well as a health supplement in the United States.
Sulfur containing compounds. Alliin, is converted to the anti-microbially active allicin, when the bulb is cut or bruised. Ajoene, which is a secondary degradation product of alliin, is presumably the most active compound responsible for the antithrombotic activity of garlic1. The fresh bulb contains alliin, alicin and volatile oils. When the garlic clove is crushed, the odorless compound alliin is converted to allicin, via the enzyme a0llinase. Allicin gives garlic its characteristic pungent smell.Vitamins and minerals2.
Trace elements: selenium and germanium3.
Figure:1 Structure of Allicin
Applications in Herbal Therapy
• Antilipidemic4: Garlic purportedly lowers circulating triglycerides, and cholesterol, although certain garlic preparations were not effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in children. Alliin, one of its sulfur containing compounds, apparently has an inhibitory effect upon key enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, such as HMG Co A reductase. A meta analysis of selected clinical trials employing garlic preparations showed significant reduction on total serum cholesterol levels in human subjects.
• As a potential treatment against atherosclerosis, although some research suggests effects are negligible5.
• Antiseptic, antifungal and antimicrobial, both internally as well as externally. Some of garlic’s constituents possess broad-spectrum antibiotic effects6.
• As prophylactic treatment against the common cold7.
• Raw and cooked garlic, as well as other preparations, are sometimes used to treat various vaginal infections , although raw garlic applied as a vaginal suppository can be potentially irritating to mucous membranes.
• Against gastrointestinal parasites of humans and animals, albeit with variable results.
• For the treatment of ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori , although no conclusive evidence exists of its effectiveness at this time8.
• Against venomous stings from insects and other arthropods , as well as an insect repellant.
• As a preventive against stomach, colon and other types of cancers, due to possible immune enhancing and antitumorigenic effects of its sulfur containing compounds8.
• By acting on certain forms of Cytochrome P450 and some of its detoxifying activities, allyl sulfides may inhibit the metabolism of certain chemical carcinogens, such as nitrosamines, for example, although some researchers state that garlic’s potential anticancer effects may be due to its content of the trace mineral selenium9.
• Garlic has also been shown to have antioxidant properties, which could have a protective nature against gastrointestinal neoplasias.
• Ajoene, a constituent of garlic, may have an application in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). This compound was shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of several human leukaemia CD34-negative cells including HL-60, U937, HEL and OCIM-1.
• To treat hypertension and reduce the risk of other cardiovascular disease10.
• Garlic possesses a mild diuretic action11.
• Against blood clots (antiplatelet action) due in part to the compounds alliin and ajoene, which have fibrinolytic activity. Ajoene inhibits thromboxane synthesis through the inhibition of the cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes12.
• For the treatment of hepatopulmonary syndrome 13.
• Against heavy metal poisoning14.
• Due to its hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties, garlic may be useful as coadjuvant therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and some of its physiological complications, although more clinical studies in humans are needed in order to fully assess its efficacy. Allicin, garlic’s active ingredient, competes with insulin for hepatic insulin-activating sites15.
• Aged garlic extract possesses antioxidant properties, which could be useful in the treatment of sickle-cell anemia16.
• Garlic compounds may also have neuroprotectant effects , as well as a protective effect against the effects of certain anti tumor drugs 17.
• Research in Thailand showed that treatment with an enteric garlic-coated Thai garlic extract additional to dietary advice did not produce any significant changes in lipid levels in subjects with hypercholesterolemia18.
• Researchers in Russia have found that dietary supplement containing garlic may be effective in the management of chronic atrophic gastritis, a precursor of stomach cancer; as well as to relieve the symptoms of benign breast disease. It is important to note that various garlic products may differ widely in their biochemical composition, and hence, may possess different pharmacological properties, depending upon the method of processing or preparation. This accounts for the accompanying differences in efficacy19.
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