Pharmacognosy Articles

NEUROPROTECTIVE AGENTS, NATURAL PLANT HERBS & DRUGS IN ISCHEMIC STROKE: A REVIEW

ABOUT AUHTORS
Nesar Ahmad*,Zafar Khan, Noorul Hasan, Abdul Basit, Seikh Zohrameena
Department of Pharmacology,
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Integral University, Lucknow, UP, India
*nesar50@gmail.com

ABSTRACT 
Stroke is a destructive experience which can result in permanent disability in brain. There is no permanent drug which can improve the blood flow at infracted area and also improve the neurological deficit. Due to the lack of treatments available for stroke, many researchers will investigate the suitable plants or drugs for the treatment of this disease. Numerous medicinal plants and herbal drugs are available to treat stroke, some of the plants are Ginkgo biloba, Fructus Chebulae, Pomegranate, Rosa laevigata, Garlic, Leonurus heterophyllus, Olive, Grape, Allium cepa, drugs such as Pravastatin, Senkyunolide I, Phloretin, Mgso4, HAMI 3379, Oleoylethanolamie, scopolamine and mecamylamine, Nitric Oxide, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 3,5,6,7,8,3’,4’-Heptamethoxy flavones, Rosiglitazone, Puerarin, the activity was estimated by parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, Hemispheric swelling index (cerebral edema), H2O2 induced cell injury, OGD-R induced cell injury, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidises, mitochondrial membrane potential, Western blotting assay, ROS scavenging assays, Superoxide anion  scavenging assay, Hydroxyl radical  scavenging assay, H2O2 scavenging assay, Singlet oxygen scavenging assay, Peroxyl radical scavenging assay, Peroxynitrite anion scavenging assay, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, blood–brain barrier integrity, cerebral infarct size, in Situ Apoptosis Detection, Western blotting, SOD, GSH, glutathione peroxidase, and MDA levels, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Lactate dehydrogenase activity assay, Determination of caspase activity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, Determination of choline acetyltransferase activity (ChAT), Cell viability, Oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion assay, Flow cytometry, Immunohistochemistry.  The present review focused on different medicinal plants and drugs that have been tested in Stroke in animal models.


CINNAMON: A MAGICAL DRUG

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Pranav Nayak B*
Srinivas college of pharmacy,
Mangalore, Karnataka India,
*nayak.pranav10@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:
Cinnamon is used as a spice in our day to day life. It is aromatic. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring agent. It has been acquainted as one of the healthiest spices and has medicinal activity. When it is checked for chemical constituents it reveals phenolic flavonoid and carotenoid contents. They contain rich amount of polyphenols which are powerful antioxidants. It inhibits the growth of certain bacteria and fungi. It helps to reduce the blood glucose by increasing insulin in the body by the mechanism of resisting insulin depletion. It interferes with carbohydrate digesting enzyme and reduces degradation of carbohydrate as a result of which it decreases entry of glucose from intestine to blood stream. It reduces the growth of cancer cells. ‘N’ number of pharmacological investigationsconfirmed that the ability of this plant is to exhibit hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and cardioprotective action. This present article will provide you with detailed information on the most of the aspects of cinnamon.


TURMERIC AS MEDICINAL PLANT FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACNE VULGARIS

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Priyanka R. Waghmare1*, Priynka G. Kakade1 , Prashant L. Takdhat2, Ashwini M. Nagrale2, SM Thakare2, MM Parate3
1 Dr. R. G. Bhoyar Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research,
Wardha, Maharashtra, India
2 Dr. R. G. Bhoyar Institute of Pharmacy,
Wardha, Maharashtra, India
3 Daga Memorial Hospital,
Maharashtra, Nagpur, India

*waghmarepriyancka@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Herbal medicines are gaining increased popularity due to their advantages, such as better patient tolerance, long history of use, fewer side-effects and being relatively less expensive. Furthermore, they have provided good evidence for the treatment of a wide variety of difficult to cure diseases. The skin is the outermost layer of the body that is often easily damaged by environmental factors as well as stress and poor eating habits. Acne vulgaris (or simply acne) is an infectious disease and one of the most prevalent human diseases. Acne is a cutaneous pleomorphic disorder of the pilosebaceous unit involving abnormalities in sebum production and is characterized by both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions. Common therapies that are used for the treatment of acne include topical, systemic, hormonal, herbal and combination therapy. Although here is a wide market for cosmetic products that offers to improve skin problems, nature also provides a solution to these. Although the medical and surgical treatment options are the same, it is these features that should be kept in mind when designing a treatment regimen for acne. Natural treatments for skin that give lasting results are often better than expensive commercial products and cosmetic procedures. One such natural treatment is turmeric powder for skin. Turmeric is considered safe in amounts found in foods and when taken orally and topically in medicinal quantities. Turmeric’s primary biologically active component is curcumin. Research has shown that curcumin has potent antioxidant, wound-healing, and anti-inflammatory properties, which may prove to be therapeutic against acne. This review focuses on the treatment of acne using turmeric as medicinal drug.

 


COMPARATIVE DIURETIC STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN IDIVIDUAL AND COMBINATION FORM

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Babar Vishal Bharat.*

Dattakala College of Pharmacy (D. Pharmacy),
Pune,Maharashtra, India
*vishalbabar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
In the present study, the hydroalcoholic extracts of Nycatanthes arbortristis Linn. (Parijatha) and Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Kokila) and combination of these extracts were compared for their diuretic activity using Lipschitz test. Standard drug used was furosemide (100mg/kg body weight) in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. All the extracts significantly increased urine elimination and Na+, K+, and Cl- excretion as compared to normal saline treated groups. The combination of hydroalcoholic extracts of Nycatanthes arbortristis and Hygrophila spinosa in 1:1 ratio showed better diuretic activity. Comparatively the hydroalcoholic extracts of Nycatanthes arbortristis showed more significant activity than Hygrophila spinosa extracts. The result revealed that Nycatanthes arbortristis is having better diuretic activity than Hygrophila spinosa which supports the traditional use of the plant.


IN-VITRO ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF M. AZEDARACH

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 ABOUT AUHTORS
Deepak Chowrasia1*, Nisha Sharma1, Mohammad Arshad2
1 University Institute of Pharmacy,
CSJM University, Kanpur, U.P., India
2Molecular Endocrinology Lab, Department of Zoology,
Lucknow University, Lucknow, U.P., India
* chowrasia.deepak@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Preliminary screening of different crude extract of. M. azedarach was evaluated against human cancer cell lines viz. MCF-7 (breast cancer), SaOS-2 (osteosarcoma), and A431 (epidermoid carcinoma) to search for better herbal based anticancer agent. Solvents used were water, methanol, ethanol, n-butanol, & n-hexane. It has been found that among solvents, methanolic extract of M. azedarach shows comparatively superior activity suggesting presence of phytoconstituents comprising polar functionalities.


EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Deepak Ku. Birla*
Shri Bherulal Pharmacy Institute
Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
deepakbirla7@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Momordica Charantia is the widely consumed fruit in India. The seeds, fruit, leaves, and root of the plant have been used in traditional medicine for microbial infections, sluggish digestion and intestinal gas, menstrual stimulation, wound healing, inflammation, fever reduction, hypertension and have many significant other medicinal effects. Various phytochemicals present in leaves are extracted using soxhelt apparatus with different solvents. The aim of the study is to assess the antibacterial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity was checked against different human pathogens. The antibacterial activity was determined in the extracts using Disc diffusion method. The present study discusses antibacterial activity of Momordica Charantia extracts. Antibacterial activity was tested against (Pseudomonas aureogenosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Shigella flexineri, Bacillus substilis & E.Coli.). The results showed that the remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth was shown against the tested organisms.


COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF CURCUMA LONGA LEAVES AND RHIZOMES

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Seema*, Parminderjit Kaur
Department of Pharmacy,
Rayat Bahra Institute of Pharmacy, Hoshiarpur, Punjab, India
*seemakumar2125@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a perennial herb, belonging to family Zingiberaceae. The rhizomes and leaves of turmeric were extracted separately with ethanol by Soxhlet extraction and the percentage yield of rhizomes and leaves of Turmeric was 12% and 17% yield respectively. The extract of turmeric rhizomes and leaves can increase the bile flow, offer protection of the gall bladder and also the leaf extract possess anticancer properties. The present study was focused on the isolation of curcuminoids by thin layer chromatography using chloroform: ethanol: glacial acetic acid in a ratio of 95: 5: 1. From TLC the better resolution of Rf value was observed in rhizomes at 0.8, 0.66, 0.51 as Curcumin, Demethoxycurcumin, Bisdemethoxycurcumin respectively whereas Rf value of leaves was 0.42 as Bisdemethoxycurcumin, when visualized under 366nm under bright yellow fluorescent. The phytochemical screening of leaf extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and phenols. The ash value of turmeric rhizomes and leaves was 3.33% and 6.67%, acid insoluble value was 1.3% and 2% and water insoluble value was 13.3% 1nd 16.67% respectively. The moisture content of rhizomes and leaves of turmeric in IR- Moisture balance was found to be 0.93 and 0.30 whereas in Tray Drier the moisture balance was 0.46 and 0.27 respectively while the melting point was observed as 160-1630C and 116-1200C respectively which resembles the report of literature (IP, 2007).


QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITE AND INHIBITORY EFFECT OF AZIMA TETRACANTHA LEAVE EXTRACT AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
SANDHIYA.V*1, KAVITHA.C2
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, C.L.Baid metha College Of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, C.L.Baid Metha College Of Pharmacy, Thoraipakkam, Chennai, India
*sandhiyavaithi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The leaves of Azima tetracantha belongs to salvadoraceae family, commonly known as “mulluchangu” in tamil, it is a best known medicinal plant from ancient period. The plant has reported for many pharmacological action such as antifungal, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti inflammatory, anti ulcer, anti arthritic, hypolipidemia etc. The present study was investigated about the characteristics, quantitative estimation and antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha leave in different solvents extract (hexane, chloroform, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water) successfully. In quantitative estimation the leaves of Azima tetracantha shows 48.4 % yield of carbohydrate in water extract, 21%  yield of phenol in ethanol extract and 24%  in ethyl acetate extract and 19% yield of tannin in ethanol extract. In antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha leave two standard drugs are used such as clotrimazole (10 mcg/m1 as standard-1) and ketaconazole (10 mcg/ml as standard -2). The antifungal activity was studied for all extracts in a concentration of 100 mcg/ml, 200 mcg/ml and 400mcg/ml against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The Ethanol extract of a leave of Azima tetracantha in increasing concentration shows prominent activity against Candida albicans compared to other extract. The Hexane, Chloroform and Water extracts of a leave of Azima tetracantha shows moderate activity against Candida albicans compared to ethyl acetate extract. The Ethyl acetate extract shows slight activity against Candida albican scompare to other extracts. There was no activity was observed for various extracts of Azima tetacantha against Aspergillus niger.


PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES FOR STANDARDISATION OF A MEDICINAL SPICE, THE FRUIT OF ILLICIUM VERUM HOOK. F.

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ABOUT AUTHORS
M. A. Rashid*, R. H. Zuberi

Pharmacognosy Section
Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine (RRIUM),
Aligarh, UP, India
* marashid212@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The fruit of Illicium verum Hook. f. of family Magnoliaceae has been utilized therapeutically as medicine as well as a spice. It is used to relieve a number of human ailments, owing to its properties as carminative, stimulant and appetizer. In order to set the quality standards, the market sample of the drug has been identified and standardized on the basis of Pharmacopoeial parameters, such as salient macro and microscopic characters, ash values, solubility, successive extractive values, thin layer chromatographic evaluations and U.V. spectroscopic analysis. Besides qualitative and quantitative estimations, fluorescence analysis of powdered drug has also been carried out in order to set standards for the crude drug.


REVIEW ON: INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS HAVING ANTICANCER PROPERTY

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Nandu Kayande*, Rakesh Patel
Department of Pharmacy,
OPJS University, Churu, Rajasthan, India
* nandu_kayande@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
The traditional Indian medicine - Ayurveda, describes various herbs with anticancer as well as antioxidant properties. Various plant products have been used in treatment of cancer over the years. India is a peninsula of herbal hub, in which ayurvedics system of medicine has flourished as an enlightment in the field of Medicine. Currently medicinal plants have become the paramount source of drug discovery in research for treating diverse form of diseases including Cancer. In this review ayurvedas classical literature and evidence based research data were emphasized to explore the ayurvedic medicinal plants with potent anticancer activity.


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