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Pharmacognosy Articles


STANDARDIZATION OF IMPORAL, VIVATI AND TEERANKOTTAI LEHYAMS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
P. Devi1, R. Meera2*, P. Rajasoundarapandian2, Madhavanmallayasamy2
1Department of pharmacognosy, K.M.College of pharmacy,
2Researcher, Radianz, Healthcare private Limited,
Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
*meeraharsa23@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Objective:
Imporal, Vivati and Teerankottai Lehyams were prepared by ayurvedic formulary and were analysed.
Materials and Methods:
Lehyams conjunction with ingredients such as kadukkai, tetrankottai, chebula, impural, verpatti, pacum pal, panankarkantu, catipattiri, valmilaku,catikkay, terrankottai, tipple, milakucukku, kadukkai, tanrikkay, cirrarakottai, nellikkay, cirakam, carkkarai, honey and ghee in different proportions.
Results:
The Loss on drying, Total ash, Acid insoluble ash, Alcohol soluble extractive, Water soluble extractive, Saponification value and Sugar content were determined respectively. The preliminary phyto chemical investigation shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponin, tannins and flavonoids.
Conclusion:
Increase the medicinal properties against appetizer, cough and tuberculosis by preparing like this herbal products.


A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PLANTS AFFECTING AMNESIA ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED MODEL

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Yash Prashar*, N.S Gill, Sahil Kakkar
Rayat Institute of Pharmacy; Railmajra,
District SBS Nagar, Punjab, India
yashprashar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Scopolamine a cholinergic antagonist may cause amnesia in human and animal models. Amnesia induced by Scopolamine has been widely used to understand the biochemical and behavioral changes in rodents. This model can be used to describe the therapeutic targets of memory impairment. In this model the Scopolamine decreases the central cholinergic neuronal activity, block muscarinic receptor and induces oxidative stress. Cholinesterase inhibitors (Donepezil, tacrine, galantamine, and rivastigmine are widely used in the treatment of amnesia. These inhibitors showed non-significant effects. Therefore, herbal medicine can be the sources for the treatment of memory loss due to their Antiacethylcholine esterase and antioxidant activities. In this paper introducing the medicinal plants and their components affecting amnesia on the scopolamine induced model are discussed.


DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SCOPOLIN IN CONVOLVULUS PLURICAULIS CHOIS

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Babu Lal
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Indo-Soviet Friendship College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, India.
Babulalgughria@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A simple, selective, precise and robust high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of scopolin, in Convolvulus pluricaulis, commonly known as shankhpushpi. Aluminium backed pre-coated TLC plates (Silica gel 60F-254) of 0.2 mm thickness, were utilized to perform chromatography. The plates were developed up to 90 mm distance in twin trough glass chamber, saturated for 10 min with mobile phase system (Chloroform: methanol, 8.5:1.5, v/v). The system produces a sharp and well-defined peak for scopolin (Rf value; 0.30 ± 0.02). Scopolin was quantified in various test samples (extracts and marketed formulation) at absorbance maxima of 340 nm with the help of CAMAG TLC scanner III. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots (concentration Vs peak area) showed good linearity (r2 = 0.9992 ± 0.0002) in the concentration range of 20-160 ng spot−1. The method was validated in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The statistical analysis of the results, indicate that the proposed method is specific, accurate and precise. Further, this method can be used for the standardization of shankhpushpi and its formulations.


ISOLATION OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS FROM THE STEM BARK OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LINN.

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Vijay Kumar MMJ1*, Eswarappa B2, Yadav D. Bodke3, Jayadevaiah KV1, Basavaraja HS1
1PG Dept. of Pharm.Chemistry, SJM College of Pharmacy, SJMIT Campus, Chitradurga, Karnataka, INDIA.
2Dept. of PG Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, Sir MV Govt. Science College, Bommanakatte, Bhadravathi, Karnataka, INDIA.
3Dept. of PG Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Karnataka, INDIA
*vijaykumarmmj@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT
Fractionation of crude petroleum ether extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn (Caesalpiniaceae) led to the isolation of heptatricontan-12, 13-diol, friedelin, n-docosanoic acid, stigmasterol, β-sitosteryl, n-hexadecanoic acid, lupeol. Eriodictyol & Quercetin were isolated from methanolic extract. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, 1H NMR and MASS. Eriodictyol was isolated for the first time from this plant.


PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF CROTALARIA BURHIA

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Balram Soni*
Psychiatric Centre, S.M.S. Medical College,
Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
*brpharma@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
Methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extract of Crotalaria burhia (whole plant) were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus using cup plate agar diffusion method. The 4 extracts tested, the methanol extract presented the best results. Various investigations like physicochemical standards, preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant was carried out, and the salient qualitative parameters were reported. The present paper deals with the investigation of various photochemical present in various extract and in vitro antibacterial activity. It is concluded that the plant studied may be a source of antibacterial agent.


PHYTOCHEMICAL, IN VITRO AND IN SILICO EVALUATION ON CLITORIA TERNATEA FOR ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Nadia Shahnas*, Akhila.S
Department of pharmaceutical chemistry,
University College of Pharmacy (RIMSR),
Puthupally, Kottayam
nadiya.ameer@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex, multifactorial, progressive, neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting the elder population and is estimated to account for 50–60% of dementia cases in persons over 65 years of age. Natural products, including plants, animals and minerals have been the basis of treatment of human diseases. Secondary metabolites have been the most successful source of potential drug leads and continue to provide unique structural diversity in comparison to standard combinatorial chemistry, traditional medicinal practices have formed the basis of early medicines followed by subsequent clinical, pharmacological and chemical studies which provides opportunities for discovery for many novel low molecular weights lead compounds. In silico approach has been of great importance as a versatile tool to develop fast and accurate target identification and prediction method for the discovery. Traditionally docking was used as computational tool for screening databases of natural products to mine a set of a few candidate drug-like compounds. Reverse docking was a comparatively new application of docking in which a database of proteins (drug targets) was docked against a set of natural products to predict binding affinities. Therefore, plant extracts may in future provide more effective medicines than the single purified natural products of modern medicine, in some cases. Studies on identification of compounds from traditionally used medicinal plants to cure neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries is increasing scientific interest in recent years as this a major concern in public. In Ayurveda the roots, seeds and leaves of Clitoria ternatea have been widely used as brain tonic and believed to promote memory and intelligence. Hence the present study was designed to assess the Alzheimer’s activity of Clitoria ternatea and to identify and isolate the major bioactive constituent attributing the activity.


IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTACID POTENTIAL OF CURCUMA LONGA LINN

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
DK Vir1*, Nandu Kayande1, Pankaj Kushwah2
1Department of Pharmacology
2Department of Pharmacognosy
Nimar Institute of Pharmacy, Dhamnod,
Dhar, Madhya Pradesh, India
*dkvir007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The study was aimed to evaluate the antacid properties of Curcuma Longa Linn rhizomes aqueous extract under simulated conditions. Fresh rhizomeof Curcuma Longa Linn was homogenized and dried under shade and thus mass obtained was powdered, weighed and subjected for the evaluation of antacid profile of the drug antacid properties of Curcuma Longa Linn was evaluated using carbondioxide evolution method & Rossette Rice test. The Curcuma Longa Linn rhizome extract showed significant results for antacid effect (P < 0.05) at different doses and the results obtained were comparable to that of standard NaHCO3. The results of the present study suggest that extract of  curcuma longa linn significantly neutralized acid and showed resistance against change in pH and also illustrate good antacid property The extract of curcuma longa linn, has shown to possess significant carminative and antacid property.


EVALUATION OF THE SYNERGIC ANTIPROLIFERATIVE AND CYTOSTATIC EFFECTS OF ANANAS COMOSUS, CITRALLUS LANATUS AND CITRUS SINENSIS JUICE

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Enegide Chinedu1*, Arome David1, Solomon F. Ameh1, Ugochi Ilomuanya2
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology), University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
2Department of Food Science & Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Nigeria
chinex.snow@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Background:
The World Health Organization (WHO) has named cancer as one of the most significant cause of death presently, with about 6 million reported deaths in 1996, 11.4 million deaths in 2004, 7.6 million deaths in 2008 and 8.2 million deaths in 2012. However, present postulations reveal that there might be an escalation of cancer mortality to about 15 million by 2030, if the progression of the ailment is not checked. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the synergic antiproliferative and cytostatic effects of these fruit (Ananas comosus, Citrullus lanatus and Citrus sinensis) juices. Materials and Method: The study was performed on rapidly proliferating seeds of Sorghum bicolor and the resulting mean radicle lengths (mm) were taken after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Result: The seeds treated with methotrexate showed a significant (P<0.05) inhibition of radicle length growth throughout the experiment, compared with the control seeds radicle. The rate of inhibition after 72 hours was 85.39%. The juice doses of 20 and 40% showed a significant (P<0.05) inhibition of seeds radicle length throughout the 72 hours of study. The inhibition rate was however higher after 72 hours with percentage inhibition of 87.19% at 20% juice concentration and 99.50% at 40% concentration. However, juice concentrations of 60 and 80% gave a cytostatic effect (i.e no radicle growth) throughout the study. Conclusion: The study has shown that A. comosus, C. lanatus and C. sinensis mixed juice has a potential for eliciting antiproliferative and cytostatic effects on rapidly proliferating cells.


BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND TRADITIONAL USES OF RUDRAVANTI (CRESSA CRETICA): A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Nishant Verma 1*, K.K. Jha1, Rajesh Sharma1, Sudhir Chaudhary2, Ajai Kr. Singh3, Arvind Kumar 4
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, T. M. College of Pharmacy, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, MIET, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Gandhi College of Pharmacy, Karnal, Haryana, India
4Department of Quality Assurance, Onco Therapies Limited (A Mylan Company), Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

* nishantvermamiet@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Since long, the ayurvedic period, the herbal drugs were the sole source of medication for majority of population pertaining to the holistic approaches consisting of easier method of uses and better results. Despite vast continuous developments in the drug therapy, herbal sources are still of great importance and nearly 60% of the world’s population continuously using such drugs. These are not only used for primary healthcare in rural areas in developing countries, but also in developed countries as well where modern medicines are predominantly available. In spite of industrious and versatile unbroken advancements in ayurvedic medicines of the present therapeutic arena, still a huge number of herbal origins leading to a vast variety of flora remains unexplored that could be utilized in the treatments for several afflictions i.e. diabetes mellitus, hepatitis, inflammation, cirrhosis of lever, cancers etc. Hence the satisfactory and safer solution to these problems of the public health care requires tremendous attention of the researchers to explore out medicinally efficacious plants and isolate potent molecules from them. Evaluation of such molecules could generate broader spectrum of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters with least toxicity. Cressa cretica (Linn) belonging to family Convolvulaceae. It is commonly known as Rudravanti. Traditionally root and leaves of Cressa cretica are commonly used as expectorant and antibilious agent. It is a holophytic dwarf shrub used in folklore medicine. This article gives the updated information on its properties.


PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION ON FRUITS OF GMELINA ARBOREA

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Daya L. Chothani1, N. M. Patel2
1B. K Mody government pharmacy college, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2Sri B.M. Shah College of Pharmacy, Modasa, Gujarat, India
daya.herb@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of present study was to carry out pharmacognostic and physicochemical evaluation of fruits of Gmelina arborea. Fresh fruits and dried powder of the fruits were studied by morphology, microscopy, qualitative chemical test and florescence analysis of powdered drug. Other physicochemical parameters were also performed as per WHO guide lines. The detailed microscopy revealed the presence of stone cells, vascular strand and pitted parenchyma. Physicochemical parameters and florescence analysis were also studied. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, saponins, sterols, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. The result of these studies could be useful for identification and standardization of Gmelina arboreafruits.


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