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Pharmacognosy Articles


STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF VIGNAMUNGO LINN.HEPPER ( FAMILY-LEGUMINOSAE)

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Fatema Nasrin1*, Saikat Ranjan Paul2, Sonia Zaman2, Sabiha Ferdowsy Koly2
1Senior Lecturer,  Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka-1213
2Lecturer, Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka-1213
nasrin_0209@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
In the present study the antimicrobial & cytotoxic activity of crude methanolic extracts of leaves and stems of VignaMungoLinn. Hepper (Family-Leguminosae)were studied. Antimicrobial activity was tested against eleven important pathogenic bacteria including both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and two common fungi. The bacteria are B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, S. typhi, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae Vibrio mimicus and V. parahemolyticus. Disc diffusion technique was used for invitro antibacterial and antifungal screening. Here kanamycin disc (30mg /disc) was used as standard for antibacterial study. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity against most of the bacterial strains with an average zone of inhibition of 10-20mm. The tested fungi are Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The extracts showed very good antifungal activity with an average 15 -19 mm zone of inhibition. The methanolic extracts of leaves of V. mungo  showed maximum activity (19 mm, zone of inhibition)  against Bacillus  megaterium (19mm) with Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 64mg/ml. The maximum zone of inhibition for the methanolic extracts of  stems was found 20mm  against Shigellaboydii with MIC values of 64mg/ml. Cytotoxicity test was also studied by Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay and compare with LC50 values of standard vincristin sulphate as a positive control. The results illustrated significant cytotoxicity against A. salina, with LC50 0.67μg/ml, 4.52 μg/ml and 3.25 μg/ml for vincristine sulphate as standard, leaves and stems extracts, respectively. Further pharmacological investigations are required to understand the underlying mechanism of these pharmacological activities.


EVALUATION OF ADAPTOGENIC ACTIVITY OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF BREYNIA VITIS-IDAEA (BURM.F) C. FISHER LEAVES BY USING SWIM ENDURENCE TEST

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Manju Gowda M R*, Gnanasekaran D, Ashik navas T, Antony george
Department of Pharmacology, Bharathi College of Pharmacy,
Bharathinagara, Mandya, Karnataka-571422
manjugowdamr@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The present study was under taken to study the Adaptogenic activity of ethanol, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of Breynia vitis-idaea (burm.f) c. fisher. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves. Adaptogenic activity of these extracts were studied using in-vivo Swim Endurance test and compared with the standard Fluoxetin. All the extracts showed significant increase in the swimming time. Adaptogenic nature of the extracts may be attributed to the presence of constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins in plant extracts. This study proven that the potential adaptogenic nature of the extract of Breynia vitis-idaea leaves.


PLANT SPECIES USED BY LOCALS AS ETHANO - MEDICINE IN GOHAR TEHSIL, DISTT. MANDI REGION OF NORTH WESTERN HIMALAYA

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Monika Rana*1, Atul Kabra1, Ruchika Kabra1, Meenakshi Rana2, Vinay Dhatwalia3
1 Department of Pharmacy, Abhilashi university, Chailchowk, Mandi (H.P)
2 HIPER college of Pharmacy, Nadaun, (H.P)
3 Abhilashi College of Pharmacy, Mandi (H.P)
*sairana.rana43@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Objective:
An exhaustive ethno medicinal investigation of plants was carried out in Gohar Tehsil of Distt. Mandi.
Methods:
The paper encompasses 38 medicinal plants, collected from forest of Chailchowk and its adjoining areas, and authenticated. The information was collected from local people. This study reveals the status of ethno-medicinal plants and their importance preserved by locals of Gohar Tehsil of Distt. Mandi.
Results:
Total 38 medicinal plants were studied in the forest of Chailchowk Village and its adjoining areas of Gohar Tehsil are very valuable medicinal plants which are already known for their numerous medicinal values.
Conclusion:
This study will assist the forest, pharmaceutical firm, medicos and wild life manager in their efforts for improving the public health service and medicinal plant wealth of the area.


STANDARDIZATION OF IMPORAL, VIVATI AND TEERANKOTTAI LEHYAMS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
P. Devi1, R. Meera2*, P. Rajasoundarapandian2, Madhavanmallayasamy2
1Department of pharmacognosy, K.M.College of pharmacy,
2Researcher, Radianz, Healthcare private Limited,
Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
*meeraharsa23@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Objective:
Imporal, Vivati and Teerankottai Lehyams were prepared by ayurvedic formulary and were analysed.
Materials and Methods:
Lehyams conjunction with ingredients such as kadukkai, tetrankottai, chebula, impural, verpatti, pacum pal, panankarkantu, catipattiri, valmilaku,catikkay, terrankottai, tipple, milakucukku, kadukkai, tanrikkay, cirrarakottai, nellikkay, cirakam, carkkarai, honey and ghee in different proportions.
Results:
The Loss on drying, Total ash, Acid insoluble ash, Alcohol soluble extractive, Water soluble extractive, Saponification value and Sugar content were determined respectively. The preliminary phyto chemical investigation shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponin, tannins and flavonoids.
Conclusion:
Increase the medicinal properties against appetizer, cough and tuberculosis by preparing like this herbal products.


A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PLANTS AFFECTING AMNESIA ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED MODEL

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Yash Prashar*, N.S Gill, Sahil Kakkar
Rayat Institute of Pharmacy; Railmajra,
District SBS Nagar, Punjab, India
yashprashar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Scopolamine a cholinergic antagonist may cause amnesia in human and animal models. Amnesia induced by Scopolamine has been widely used to understand the biochemical and behavioral changes in rodents. This model can be used to describe the therapeutic targets of memory impairment. In this model the Scopolamine decreases the central cholinergic neuronal activity, block muscarinic receptor and induces oxidative stress. Cholinesterase inhibitors (Donepezil, tacrine, galantamine, and rivastigmine are widely used in the treatment of amnesia. These inhibitors showed non-significant effects. Therefore, herbal medicine can be the sources for the treatment of memory loss due to their Antiacethylcholine esterase and antioxidant activities. In this paper introducing the medicinal plants and their components affecting amnesia on the scopolamine induced model are discussed.


DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SCOPOLIN IN CONVOLVULUS PLURICAULIS CHOIS

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Babu Lal
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Indo-Soviet Friendship College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, India.
Babulalgughria@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A simple, selective, precise and robust high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of scopolin, in Convolvulus pluricaulis, commonly known as shankhpushpi. Aluminium backed pre-coated TLC plates (Silica gel 60F-254) of 0.2 mm thickness, were utilized to perform chromatography. The plates were developed up to 90 mm distance in twin trough glass chamber, saturated for 10 min with mobile phase system (Chloroform: methanol, 8.5:1.5, v/v). The system produces a sharp and well-defined peak for scopolin (Rf value; 0.30 ± 0.02). Scopolin was quantified in various test samples (extracts and marketed formulation) at absorbance maxima of 340 nm with the help of CAMAG TLC scanner III. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots (concentration Vs peak area) showed good linearity (r2 = 0.9992 ± 0.0002) in the concentration range of 20-160 ng spot−1. The method was validated in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The statistical analysis of the results, indicate that the proposed method is specific, accurate and precise. Further, this method can be used for the standardization of shankhpushpi and its formulations.


ISOLATION OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS FROM THE STEM BARK OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LINN.

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Vijay Kumar MMJ1*, Eswarappa B2, Yadav D. Bodke3, Jayadevaiah KV1, Basavaraja HS1
1PG Dept. of Pharm.Chemistry, SJM College of Pharmacy, SJMIT Campus, Chitradurga, Karnataka, INDIA.
2Dept. of PG Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, Sir MV Govt. Science College, Bommanakatte, Bhadravathi, Karnataka, INDIA.
3Dept. of PG Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Karnataka, INDIA
*vijaykumarmmj@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT
Fractionation of crude petroleum ether extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn (Caesalpiniaceae) led to the isolation of heptatricontan-12, 13-diol, friedelin, n-docosanoic acid, stigmasterol, β-sitosteryl, n-hexadecanoic acid, lupeol. Eriodictyol & Quercetin were isolated from methanolic extract. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, 1H NMR and MASS. Eriodictyol was isolated for the first time from this plant.


PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF CROTALARIA BURHIA

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Balram Soni*
Psychiatric Centre, S.M.S. Medical College,
Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
*brpharma@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
Methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extract of Crotalaria burhia (whole plant) were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus using cup plate agar diffusion method. The 4 extracts tested, the methanol extract presented the best results. Various investigations like physicochemical standards, preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant was carried out, and the salient qualitative parameters were reported. The present paper deals with the investigation of various photochemical present in various extract and in vitro antibacterial activity. It is concluded that the plant studied may be a source of antibacterial agent.


PHYTOCHEMICAL, IN VITRO AND IN SILICO EVALUATION ON CLITORIA TERNATEA FOR ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Nadia Shahnas*, Akhila.S
Department of pharmaceutical chemistry,
University College of Pharmacy (RIMSR),
Puthupally, Kottayam
nadiya.ameer@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex, multifactorial, progressive, neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting the elder population and is estimated to account for 50–60% of dementia cases in persons over 65 years of age. Natural products, including plants, animals and minerals have been the basis of treatment of human diseases. Secondary metabolites have been the most successful source of potential drug leads and continue to provide unique structural diversity in comparison to standard combinatorial chemistry, traditional medicinal practices have formed the basis of early medicines followed by subsequent clinical, pharmacological and chemical studies which provides opportunities for discovery for many novel low molecular weights lead compounds. In silico approach has been of great importance as a versatile tool to develop fast and accurate target identification and prediction method for the discovery. Traditionally docking was used as computational tool for screening databases of natural products to mine a set of a few candidate drug-like compounds. Reverse docking was a comparatively new application of docking in which a database of proteins (drug targets) was docked against a set of natural products to predict binding affinities. Therefore, plant extracts may in future provide more effective medicines than the single purified natural products of modern medicine, in some cases. Studies on identification of compounds from traditionally used medicinal plants to cure neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries is increasing scientific interest in recent years as this a major concern in public. In Ayurveda the roots, seeds and leaves of Clitoria ternatea have been widely used as brain tonic and believed to promote memory and intelligence. Hence the present study was designed to assess the Alzheimer’s activity of Clitoria ternatea and to identify and isolate the major bioactive constituent attributing the activity.


IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTACID POTENTIAL OF CURCUMA LONGA LINN

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
DK Vir1*, Nandu Kayande1, Pankaj Kushwah2
1Department of Pharmacology
2Department of Pharmacognosy
Nimar Institute of Pharmacy, Dhamnod,
Dhar, Madhya Pradesh, India
*dkvir007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The study was aimed to evaluate the antacid properties of Curcuma Longa Linn rhizomes aqueous extract under simulated conditions. Fresh rhizomeof Curcuma Longa Linn was homogenized and dried under shade and thus mass obtained was powdered, weighed and subjected for the evaluation of antacid profile of the drug antacid properties of Curcuma Longa Linn was evaluated using carbondioxide evolution method & Rossette Rice test. The Curcuma Longa Linn rhizome extract showed significant results for antacid effect (P < 0.05) at different doses and the results obtained were comparable to that of standard NaHCO3. The results of the present study suggest that extract of  curcuma longa linn significantly neutralized acid and showed resistance against change in pH and also illustrate good antacid property The extract of curcuma longa linn, has shown to possess significant carminative and antacid property.


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