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Pharmacognosy Articles


REVIEW: TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN THE TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Sezal1*, Vaibhav Walia2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences MDU Rohtak, Haryana
2Division Pharmacology, G.V.M. College of Pharmacy, Sonepat, Haryana
rk1891987@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Depression is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by depressed mood, anhedonia, loss of energy and low self esteem. Nitric oxide (NO) is the smallest biologically active molecules which plays an important role in the intracellular signaling. NO negatively controls the levels of 5-HT. Inhibition of NO synthases (NOS) which are responsible for the production of NO; may exert antidepressants like action. Thus, NO is involved in the pathogenesis of depression and the agents which suppress the NO production exerts antidepressants like effect. Tinospora cordifolia commonly named as “Guduchi” belonging to family Menispermaceae; has been reported of its strong free radical scavenging properties against superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radicals (OH), NO, and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-). Thus the aim of the present manuscript is to demonstrate the role of NO in depression and how Tinospora cordifolia exerts beneficial effects in the patients of depression.


IN VITRO MEMBRANE STABILIZING AND INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF STREBLUS ASPER LOUR

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Fatema Nasrin1*, Nabila Mahrin2, Nisrat Jahan1, Yesmin Begum1, Senjuti Majumder1
1Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka
2Pharmacology labortory, Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka
nasrin_0209@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
We aimed at assessing the effect of methanolic extract of Streblus asper in human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization and insecticidal (on the stored grain pest, Trogoderma  granarium Everts) as studies. The membrane stabilizing activity was assessed by using erythrocyte in hypotonic solution and heat induced was compared with acetyl salicylic acid. The extract at the doses of  200, 400 and 800 μg/ml significantly inhibited heat induced lysis of the human red blood cell membrane with values of 46.53%, 56.52% and 65.14%, respectively. The results of hypotonic solution induced lysis showed that S. asper has significant reduction (P≤0.01) in inflammation i.e. 40.8 % (400 µg/ml) and 50.8 % (800 µg/ml) as compared to the standard drug, acetyl salicylic acid, which was 62.96 % in insecticidal assay the extract showed dose dependent paralyzing effect and mortality of T.  granarium Everts. All the doses of crude extracts exhibited concentration and time dependent insecticidal activity.


STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF VIGNAMUNGO LINN.HEPPER ( FAMILY-LEGUMINOSAE)

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Fatema Nasrin1*, Saikat Ranjan Paul2, Sonia Zaman2, Sabiha Ferdowsy Koly2
1Senior Lecturer,  Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka-1213
2Lecturer, Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka-1213
nasrin_0209@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
In the present study the antimicrobial & cytotoxic activity of crude methanolic extracts of leaves and stems of VignaMungoLinn. Hepper (Family-Leguminosae)were studied. Antimicrobial activity was tested against eleven important pathogenic bacteria including both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and two common fungi. The bacteria are B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, S. typhi, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae Vibrio mimicus and V. parahemolyticus. Disc diffusion technique was used for invitro antibacterial and antifungal screening. Here kanamycin disc (30mg /disc) was used as standard for antibacterial study. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity against most of the bacterial strains with an average zone of inhibition of 10-20mm. The tested fungi are Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The extracts showed very good antifungal activity with an average 15 -19 mm zone of inhibition. The methanolic extracts of leaves of V. mungo  showed maximum activity (19 mm, zone of inhibition)  against Bacillus  megaterium (19mm) with Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 64mg/ml. The maximum zone of inhibition for the methanolic extracts of  stems was found 20mm  against Shigellaboydii with MIC values of 64mg/ml. Cytotoxicity test was also studied by Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay and compare with LC50 values of standard vincristin sulphate as a positive control. The results illustrated significant cytotoxicity against A. salina, with LC50 0.67μg/ml, 4.52 μg/ml and 3.25 μg/ml for vincristine sulphate as standard, leaves and stems extracts, respectively. Further pharmacological investigations are required to understand the underlying mechanism of these pharmacological activities.


EVALUATION OF ADAPTOGENIC ACTIVITY OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF BREYNIA VITIS-IDAEA (BURM.F) C. FISHER LEAVES BY USING SWIM ENDURENCE TEST

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Manju Gowda M R*, Gnanasekaran D, Ashik navas T, Antony george
Department of Pharmacology, Bharathi College of Pharmacy,
Bharathinagara, Mandya, Karnataka-571422
manjugowdamr@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The present study was under taken to study the Adaptogenic activity of ethanol, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of Breynia vitis-idaea (burm.f) c. fisher. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves. Adaptogenic activity of these extracts were studied using in-vivo Swim Endurance test and compared with the standard Fluoxetin. All the extracts showed significant increase in the swimming time. Adaptogenic nature of the extracts may be attributed to the presence of constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins in plant extracts. This study proven that the potential adaptogenic nature of the extract of Breynia vitis-idaea leaves.


PLANT SPECIES USED BY LOCALS AS ETHANO - MEDICINE IN GOHAR TEHSIL, DISTT. MANDI REGION OF NORTH WESTERN HIMALAYA

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Monika Rana*1, Atul Kabra1, Ruchika Kabra1, Meenakshi Rana2, Vinay Dhatwalia3
1 Department of Pharmacy, Abhilashi university, Chailchowk, Mandi (H.P)
2 HIPER college of Pharmacy, Nadaun, (H.P)
3 Abhilashi College of Pharmacy, Mandi (H.P)
*sairana.rana43@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Objective:
An exhaustive ethno medicinal investigation of plants was carried out in Gohar Tehsil of Distt. Mandi.
Methods:
The paper encompasses 38 medicinal plants, collected from forest of Chailchowk and its adjoining areas, and authenticated. The information was collected from local people. This study reveals the status of ethno-medicinal plants and their importance preserved by locals of Gohar Tehsil of Distt. Mandi.
Results:
Total 38 medicinal plants were studied in the forest of Chailchowk Village and its adjoining areas of Gohar Tehsil are very valuable medicinal plants which are already known for their numerous medicinal values.
Conclusion:
This study will assist the forest, pharmaceutical firm, medicos and wild life manager in their efforts for improving the public health service and medicinal plant wealth of the area.


STANDARDIZATION OF IMPORAL, VIVATI AND TEERANKOTTAI LEHYAMS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
P. Devi1, R. Meera2*, P. Rajasoundarapandian2, Madhavanmallayasamy2
1Department of pharmacognosy, K.M.College of pharmacy,
2Researcher, Radianz, Healthcare private Limited,
Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
*meeraharsa23@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Objective:
Imporal, Vivati and Teerankottai Lehyams were prepared by ayurvedic formulary and were analysed.
Materials and Methods:
Lehyams conjunction with ingredients such as kadukkai, tetrankottai, chebula, impural, verpatti, pacum pal, panankarkantu, catipattiri, valmilaku,catikkay, terrankottai, tipple, milakucukku, kadukkai, tanrikkay, cirrarakottai, nellikkay, cirakam, carkkarai, honey and ghee in different proportions.
Results:
The Loss on drying, Total ash, Acid insoluble ash, Alcohol soluble extractive, Water soluble extractive, Saponification value and Sugar content were determined respectively. The preliminary phyto chemical investigation shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponin, tannins and flavonoids.
Conclusion:
Increase the medicinal properties against appetizer, cough and tuberculosis by preparing like this herbal products.


A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PLANTS AFFECTING AMNESIA ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED MODEL

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Yash Prashar*, N.S Gill, Sahil Kakkar
Rayat Institute of Pharmacy; Railmajra,
District SBS Nagar, Punjab, India
yashprashar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Scopolamine a cholinergic antagonist may cause amnesia in human and animal models. Amnesia induced by Scopolamine has been widely used to understand the biochemical and behavioral changes in rodents. This model can be used to describe the therapeutic targets of memory impairment. In this model the Scopolamine decreases the central cholinergic neuronal activity, block muscarinic receptor and induces oxidative stress. Cholinesterase inhibitors (Donepezil, tacrine, galantamine, and rivastigmine are widely used in the treatment of amnesia. These inhibitors showed non-significant effects. Therefore, herbal medicine can be the sources for the treatment of memory loss due to their Antiacethylcholine esterase and antioxidant activities. In this paper introducing the medicinal plants and their components affecting amnesia on the scopolamine induced model are discussed.


DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SCOPOLIN IN CONVOLVULUS PLURICAULIS CHOIS

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Babu Lal
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Indo-Soviet Friendship College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, India.
Babulalgughria@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A simple, selective, precise and robust high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of scopolin, in Convolvulus pluricaulis, commonly known as shankhpushpi. Aluminium backed pre-coated TLC plates (Silica gel 60F-254) of 0.2 mm thickness, were utilized to perform chromatography. The plates were developed up to 90 mm distance in twin trough glass chamber, saturated for 10 min with mobile phase system (Chloroform: methanol, 8.5:1.5, v/v). The system produces a sharp and well-defined peak for scopolin (Rf value; 0.30 ± 0.02). Scopolin was quantified in various test samples (extracts and marketed formulation) at absorbance maxima of 340 nm with the help of CAMAG TLC scanner III. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots (concentration Vs peak area) showed good linearity (r2 = 0.9992 ± 0.0002) in the concentration range of 20-160 ng spot−1. The method was validated in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The statistical analysis of the results, indicate that the proposed method is specific, accurate and precise. Further, this method can be used for the standardization of shankhpushpi and its formulations.


ISOLATION OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS FROM THE STEM BARK OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LINN.

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Vijay Kumar MMJ1*, Eswarappa B2, Yadav D. Bodke3, Jayadevaiah KV1, Basavaraja HS1
1PG Dept. of Pharm.Chemistry, SJM College of Pharmacy, SJMIT Campus, Chitradurga, Karnataka, INDIA.
2Dept. of PG Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, Sir MV Govt. Science College, Bommanakatte, Bhadravathi, Karnataka, INDIA.
3Dept. of PG Studies and Research in Industrial Chemistry, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Karnataka, INDIA
*vijaykumarmmj@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT
Fractionation of crude petroleum ether extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn (Caesalpiniaceae) led to the isolation of heptatricontan-12, 13-diol, friedelin, n-docosanoic acid, stigmasterol, β-sitosteryl, n-hexadecanoic acid, lupeol. Eriodictyol & Quercetin were isolated from methanolic extract. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, 1H NMR and MASS. Eriodictyol was isolated for the first time from this plant.


PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF CROTALARIA BURHIA

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Balram Soni*
Psychiatric Centre, S.M.S. Medical College,
Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
*brpharma@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
Methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extract of Crotalaria burhia (whole plant) were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus using cup plate agar diffusion method. The 4 extracts tested, the methanol extract presented the best results. Various investigations like physicochemical standards, preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant was carried out, and the salient qualitative parameters were reported. The present paper deals with the investigation of various photochemical present in various extract and in vitro antibacterial activity. It is concluded that the plant studied may be a source of antibacterial agent.


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