Dhaka

SKIN AGING & MODERN AGE ANTI-AGING STRATEGIES

ABOUT AUTHORS
Abdul Kader Mohiuddin, Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
151/8, Green Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka – 1205, Bangladesh

Background
Skin is the barrier that segregates the body from the outer environment. Besides protecting the body from water loss and microorganism infection, it has an important cosmetic role. Young and beautiful appearance may have a positive influence on people’s social behavior and reproductive status. Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen is said to have indulged in daily donkey-milk baths, a practice which apparently required over 700 donkeys to accomplish. The alpha hydroxy acids in the milk is believed to be anti-aging and skin-softening agents. Tang-dynasty ruler and sole female emperor of China, Wu Zetian, maintained a lifelong interest in skincare formulas. She mixed her “fairy powder” (made of carefully harvested and prepared Chinese motherwort) with cold water in order to wash her face each morning. The empress was a famed beauty well into her old age. The most hair-raising entrant in this list, 16th century Hungarian countess Elizabeth Báthory is infamous for being one of the world’s first documented female serial killers. Most of her life is shrouded in mystery and legend—the most famous story being that she would regularly bathe in the blood of her female victims. Mary, Queen of Scots, the ill-fated and attractive adversary of Elizabeth I, spent her sixteenth-century happier days on her estate in Edinburgh, Scotland, where her beauty regimen was said to include white-wine baths. In addition to wine’s antiseptic alcohol content, it was also was thought to improve complexion in general. Crème Céleste, a favorite product of empress Elisabeth (Sisi) of Austria, was a concoction of spermaceti (a wax found in the head of sperm whales), sweet almond oil, and rosewater. She would apply this daily and at night, she was known to coat her face in raw veal and crushed strawberries, kept in place with a custom-made leather mask. The skin folds are indicative of an aged personality, but not youthfulness. So, everyone wants to look younger for whole of the life, which lead to the discovery of many surgical and non-surgical treatment modalities to improve the youthfulness. Since the introduction of Botox in 2002 after FDA approval more aesthetic procedures using Botox were performed by aestheticisms involving plastic surgeons and dermatologists. However, many scientists are now starting to view physical aging as a disease process. The cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in aging reveal an intricate series of signals, markers, and pathways, all of which are programmed to monitor and control the lifespan of a cell as it ages. By studying these molecular events and pathways, the field of anti-aging will be furthered by the use of more and more cosmetics.

ABSTRACT
As the most voluminous organ of the body that is exposed to the outer environment, the skin suffers from both intrinsic and extrinsic aging factors. Skin aging is characterized by features such as wrinkling, loss of elasticity, laxity, and rough-textured appearance. This aging process is accompanied with phenotypic changes in cutaneous cells as well as structural and functional changes in extracellular matrix components such as collagens and elastin. With intrinsic aging, structural changes occur in the skin as a natural consequence of the biological changes over time and produce a certain number of histological, physiological, and biochemical modifications. Intrinsic aging is determined genetically (influence of gender and ethnic group), variable in function of skin site, and also influenced by hormonal changes. Visually it is characterized by fine wrinkles. By comparison, “photoaging” is the term used to describe the changes occurring in the skin, resulting from repetitive exposure to sunlight. The histological, physiological, and biochemical changes in the different layers of the skin are much more drastic. From a mechanical point of view, human skin appears as a layered composite containing the stiff thin cover layer presented by the stratum corneum, below which are the more compliant layers of viable epidermis and dermis and further below the much more compliant adjacent layer of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Upon exposure to a strain, such a multi-layer system demonstrates structural instabilities in its stiffer layers, which in its simplest form is the wrinkling. These instabilities appear hierarchically when the mechanical strain in the skin exceeds some critical values. Their appearance is mainly dependent on the mismatch in mechanical properties between adjacent skin layers or between the skin and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, on the adhesive strength and thickness ratios between the layers, on their bending and tensile stiffness as well as on the value of the stress existing in single layers. Gradual reduction of elastic fibers in aging significantly reduces the skin’s ability to bend, prompting an up to 4-fold reduction of its stability against wrinkling, thereby explaining the role of these fibers in skin aging. Anti-aging medicine is practiced by physicians, scientists, and researchers dedicated to the belief that the process of physical aging in humans can be slowed, stopped, or even reversed through existing medical and scientific interventions. This specialty of medicine is based on the very early detection and prevention of age-related diseases. Physicians practicing anti-aging medicine seek to enhance the quality of life as well as its length, limiting the period of illness and disability toward the end of one’s life. Anti-aging medicine encompasses lifestyle changes (diet and exercise); hormone replacement therapies, as needed, determined by a physician through blood testing (DHEA, melatonin, thyroid, human growth hormone, estrogen, testosterone); antioxidants and vitamin supplements; and testing protocols that can measure not only hormone levels and blood chemistry but every metabolic factor right down to the cellular level.

PATIENT RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT : PATIENT CARE WITH CRM APPROACH

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ABOUT AUTHOR
AK Mohiuddin
Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh,
Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
In the business world, customer relationship management is utilized to hold customer reliability so as to expand income. Healthcare associations can fabricate a similar sort of relationship with patients, and it can likewise offer progressively unmistakable advantages. The principal advantage is by utilizing a similar hospital a patient's treatment history ought to be moderately outstanding by the association. Intermittently, extraordinary hospitals utilize distinctive patient data frameworks which are not constantly perfect with one another. On the off chance that a patient continues changing the hospital, his or her medical record can be dissipated around different destinations. In a perfect world, if the patient is treated by a similar doctor in each visit, that doctor will get progressively comfortable with the patient, which could enhance treatment. The most unmistakable advantage, be that as it may, is time. In the event that the patient goes to a similar doctor inevitably, there is no requirement for long registration toward the start of each visit. In spite of the fact that a developing collection of proof backings the utilization of cell phone short message service (SMS) for increasing physical movement, sustenance, and smoking suspension, past investigations were constrained by an attention on center to upper pay populaces, and have not focused on transcendently country networks outside the healthcare conveyance framework. Hospital websites are considered as a fitting framework for trading data and building up correspondence between patients, hospitals, and medical staff. Website character, website contact intelligence, shopping accommodation, just as consideration and service are the variables to the extent the patient relationship management is concerned. In healthcare situations, patients are considered as the primary customers; in this way, the term Patient Relationship Management (PRM) is utilized in these unique situations. PRM permits healthcare focuses to have a superior understanding into the requirements of patients while giving them better consideration. Thusly, PRM gives a chance to utilize information and data to comprehend customers and to make an incentive with them. The requirement for PRM developed when associations comprehended that it was less exorbitant to keep their present customers, while pulling in another customer would be more-expensive for an association than keeping their present customers.

COMMUNITY LIAISON PHARMACISTS IN HOME CARE

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ABOUT AUTHOR
AK Mohiuddin
Department of Pharmacy,
World University of Bangladesh,
Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
The term “Home-based care” or simply home care may be defined as a wide array of different types of care provided in the home by a wide range of parties. The continuum of different types of home-based care delivered in the home varies in terms of different dimensions, including acuity, type of care provided, and degree of physician involvement. Home-based care includes both formal and informal personal care services, Medicare skilled home health, physician house calls, and even “hospital-at-home” services. Medication-related issues are basic among home care patients who take numerous medications and have complex medical chronicles and medical issues. The objectives of home social insurance administrations are to assist people with improving capacity and live with more prominent freedom; to advance the customer's ideal dimension of prosperity; and to help the patient to stay at home, maintaining a strategic distance from hospitalization or admission to long-term care foundations. Home care is an arrangement of care given by talented experts to patients in their homes under the bearing of a doctor. Home medicinal services administrations incorporate nursing care; physical, word related, and discourse language treatment; and medical social administrations. Doctors may allude patients for home medicinal services administrations, or the administrations might be asked for by relatives or patients. The scope of home human services benefits a patient can get at home is boundless. Contingent upon the individual patient's circumstance, care can extend from nursing care to specific medical administrations, for example, laboratory workups. Basic analyses among home medicinal services patients incorporate circulatory disease, coronary illness, damage and harming, musculoskeletal and connective tissue disease and respiratory disease.

PHARMACO-ECONOMICS: THE COST OF HEALTH

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ABOUT AUTHOR
AK MOHIUDDIN
Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
Pharmacoeconomics has been characterized as the depiction and examination of the cost of medication treatment to healthcare frameworks and society. All the more explicitly, pharmacoeconomic look into is the way toward recognizing, estimating, and contrasting the costs, dangers, and advantages of programs, services, or treatments and figuring out which elective delivers the best wellbeing result for the asset contributed. This data can help clinical chiefs in picking the most cost-effective treatment alternatives. Pharmacoeconomics is a division of results examine that can be utilized to measure the estimation of pharmaceutical care items and services. Pharmaceutical care has been characterized as the mindful arrangement of medication treatment for the reasons for accomplishing unequivocal results.

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Figure 1. Graphical Extract

Materials and Methods:
Research conducted a year-round comprehensive literature search, which included technical newsletters, newspapers journals, and many other sources. The present study was started from the beginning of 2018. PubMed, ALTAVISTA, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of was thoroughly searched. The keywords were used to search for different publishers’ journals like Elsevier, Springer, Willey Online Library, Wolters Kluwer were extensively followed. Medicine and technical experts, pharma company representatives, hospital nurses and chemists were given their valuable suggestions. Projections were based on estimates of drug and therapy related cost, cost of being ill and hospitalization and cost of well-being. Pharmacists role in allied areas of cost calculation and minimizing through ADR management, prevent disease and hospitalization and drug selection were given the highest priority.

IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF GARUGA PINNATA LEAVES

ABOUT AUTHOR
Sonia Zaman
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
sonia_6995@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Garuga pinnata
(family: Burseraceae) has many traditional medicinal uses including as astringent, bronchodilator, stomachic, expectorant, pulmonary infection, antidiabetic etc. The present study is based on this plant to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of G. pinnata leaves. Antimicrobial activity of chloroform extract was evaluated against four Gram positive bacteria Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus and five Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella dysentriae, Vibrio mimicus, and two common fungus Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans by applying disc diffusion method where Kanamycin disc (30 µg/disc) was used as reference standard. The chloroform extract of G. pinnata leaves showed very good antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungus A. niger. The most susceptible microorganism was S. paratyphi (19 mm zone of inhibition) followed by B. subtilis (15 mm zone of inhibition). The antioxidant activity of chloroform extract of G. pinnata leaves was evaluated spectrophotometrically using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for radical scavenging and  ascorbic acid was used as standard. The extract exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 57.06 µg/ml as compared to the IC50 value of the reference standard, ascorbic acid (37.21 µg/ml). The cytotoxic activity of G. pinnata  was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as standard. The chloroform extract revealed significant cytotoxic activity with LC50 of 6.607 µg/ml whereas LC50 of Vincristine sulphate was 6.026 µg/ml.

DETERMINATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LEAVES

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Israt Jahan Bulbul
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
israt_jahanb872@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
A study was conducted to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activitieswith minimum inhibitory concentration and cytotoxic activity of Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitaceae) leaves. In our present study, the antimicroial activity of n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the plant were investigated against a number of pathogenic Gram-positive (Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Sarcina lutea), Gram- negative (Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella boydii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and three funguses (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevesiae). Here the zones of inhibitions for the test samples (500 µg /disc) werecompared with that of reference standard (30 µg /disc) in determining antimicrobial activity. All the extracts showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against all the pathogenic bacteria except A. niger. The highest sensitivity for n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractionswas against gram positive bacteria B.cereus. Almost all the gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungus were inhibited by ethyl acetate extract and showed better activity compared to n-hexane and chloroform extracts. All the three fractions were tested as antifungal against C. albicans and S. cerevesiae. They showed moderate activity against C. albicans whereas a very good activity against S. cerevesiae. But A. niger was not sensitive to the experimental extracts.Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) that is the lowest concentration at which the test sample shows its highest activity against microorganisms was tested by serial dilution method. The MIC for n-Hexane and chloroform extracts was against B. cereus (64 µg /ml).  The ethyl acetate extract exhibited antibacterial activity with MIC of 64 µg /ml against S. aureus, S. luteae, S. boydii, S. dysentereae and V. mimicus. The Brine shrimp lethality bioassay method was used to determine the cytotoxic activity and vincristine sulphate was used as positive control. The LC50 values of standard vincristine sulphate, n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extract were 10.18 µg /ml, 24.71 µg /ml, 19.02 µg /ml and 30.38 µg/ml respectively which indicate the presence of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts are promisingly cytotoxic.

STUDY ON AGARWOOD (AQUILARIA MALACCENSIS) TO EVALUATE ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF N – HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Yesmin Begum
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka
yesumyta@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The present research aims to investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of different leaf extracts of Aquillaria malaccensis. Antibacterial tests were done by Disc diffusion method using Kanamycin as standard. The chloroform extract showed good antibacterial activity against Shigella boydii and Escherichia coli with 19 mm and 17 mm zone of inhibition respectively. All other extracts showed mild to moderate antibacterial activity against other bacteria with 7 – 16mm zone of inhibition. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by using DPPH spectrophotometrically and ascorbic acid was used as standard. All three extracts showed significant antioxidant activities having IC50 value of 38.96 µg/ml, 39.63 µg/ml and 64.75 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, n –hexane and chloroform extracts respectively.

ANTIBACTERIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA LEAVES

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Israt Jahan Bulbul*, Khadiza-tul-Kubra, Mohita Chowdhury Shimu
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
*israt_jahanb872@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of T. cucumerina (Cucurbitaceae). Disc diffusion technique was used for in vitro anbacterial screening against gram positive, gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Here kanamycin disc (30 mg/disc) was used as standard. The chloroform and the n-hexane extract of T. cucumerina showed moderate antibacterial activity with the average zone of inhibition 7-13 mm and 7-9 mm respectively. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay method was used to determine the cytotoxic activity and vincristine sulphate was used as positive control. Among the extractives the chloroform soluble fraction demonstrated the highest cytotoxic activity with LC50 17.09 µg/ml which indicates the compounds present in the chloroform extract are promisingly cytotoxic. Antioxidant activity test of the crude extracts were assessed by means of DPPH free radical scavenging method where ascorbic acid was used as standard. The ethyl acetate fraction of T. cucumerinashowed strongest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 52.18 µg/ml.Incase of phenolic content, the n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of T. cucumerina revealed 18.79, 31.33 and 29.04 mg of GAE / gm of extractives, respectively.

ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF TREWIA NUDIFLORA

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Yesmin Begum
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
yesumyta@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of the study is to verify the traditional uses of different parts of Trewia nudiflora. Leaves, fruits, twigs & seeds of T. nudiflora were extracted with ethanol to evaluate antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.  Antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of different parts of T. nudiflora was revealed by disc diffusion method using kanamycin as standard. The leaf extract showed very good activity against Shigella dysenteriae with 37.5 mm zone of inhibition and moderate activity against Pseudomonas aeroginosa with 16.5 mm. The fruit extract also showed very good activity against Shigella boydii with 22.5 mm zone of inhibition. The twig extract also showed very good activity with 20mm zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeroginosa andthe seed extract showed moderate antibacterial activity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by using DPPH spectrophotometrically and ascorbic acid was used as standard. Among all the parts, the twig extract showed highest antioxidant activity having an IC50 value of 35.51µg/ml. The leaf, twig  and fruit extracts showed significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 9.17 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml and 10.53 µg/ml, respectively evaluated by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as standard.

IN VITRO MEMBRANE STABILIZING AND INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF STREBLUS ASPER LOUR

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Fatema Nasrin1*, Nabila Mahrin2, Nisrat Jahan1, Yesmin Begum1, Senjuti Majumder1
1Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka
2Pharmacology labortory, Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka
nasrin_0209@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
We aimed at assessing the effect of methanolic extract of Streblus asper in human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization and insecticidal (on the stored grain pest, Trogoderma  granarium Everts) as studies. The membrane stabilizing activity was assessed by using erythrocyte in hypotonic solution and heat induced was compared with acetyl salicylic acid. The extract at the doses of  200, 400 and 800 μg/ml significantly inhibited heat induced lysis of the human red blood cell membrane with values of 46.53%, 56.52% and 65.14%, respectively. The results of hypotonic solution induced lysis showed that S. asper has significant reduction (P≤0.01) in inflammation i.e. 40.8 % (400 µg/ml) and 50.8 % (800 µg/ml) as compared to the standard drug, acetyl salicylic acid, which was 62.96 % in insecticidal assay the extract showed dose dependent paralyzing effect and mortality of T.  granarium Everts. All the doses of crude extracts exhibited concentration and time dependent insecticidal activity.

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