Pharma Analysis

Give difference stationary phases used in different modes of HPLC

Q.4.(a) Give difference stationary phases used in different modes of HPLC.
Ans.4. (a)Types of Stationary Phases used in HPLC:
Various stationary phases available for HPLC are  Polystyrene/Divinylbenzene- Based Resins   In ion chromatography, the support material is polystyrene/ divinylbenzene (PS/DVB) based resin that is relatively stable with respect to pH.

Differentiate between PMR and 13 CNMR

Q.3. (b) How will you simplify complicated splitting pattern in PMR? Differentiate between PMR and 13 CNMR.
Ans.3. (b)Introduction:

The complete analysis of a compound is frequently made difficult, when signals overlap and as a result, useful information is often buried due to complexity of the spectrum. In a spectrum several signals may overlap as is the case, e.g., of closely related methylene groups in a molecule. In such a situation an intense, broad and compulsory unresolved signal, termed the methylene envelope may appears between δ 1-2. Another cause of complexity is where a coupling constant is comparable with the chemical shift different between the coupled protons. For these problems following techniques may use to solve them.

How will you differentiate between first order and non-first order PMR spectra

Q.3.(a) How will you differentiate between first order and non-first order PMR spectra
Ans.3. (a)First order spectra:

For a spectrum to be first order, the frequency difference (∆v, in Hz) between any two coupled resonances must be significantly larger than the coupling constant that relates them. A first-order spectrum has ∆v/J >  -63.
First-order resonances have a number of helpful characteristic, some of which are related to the number individual coupling, n:

Explain frequency shift due to inductive and mesomeric effects in IR spectroscopy

Q.2. (b) Explain frequency shift due to inductive and mesomeric effects in IR spectroscopy
(b)Frequency shift due to inductive:
The inductive effects solely depends upon the ‘intrinsic’ tendency of a substituent to either release or withdraw electrons- by definition, its electronegativity acting either through the molecular chain or through space. This effect usually weakens steadily with increasing distance from the substituent

Pharma Analysis

Pharmaceutical Analysis

INTRODUCTION
Pharmaceutical analysis is a branch of practical chemistry that involves a series of process for identification, determination, quantification and purification of a substance, separation of the components of a solution or mixture, or determination of structure of chemical compounds.

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