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PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF BIODEGRADABLE ALBUMIN MICROSPHERES OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM

About Authors:
Renu1*, Shashi Kant2*, Rajendra Yadav3, Amit Kumar Tyagi4
1Faculty of Pharmacy, Shivdan Singh Institute of Technology and Management, Aligarh (U.P)
2Jubilant Chemsys Ltd, Noida,
3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gurukul Kangri University Haridwar, 
4Department of Chemistry, Meerut College, Meerut (U.P)
*shashi.pharma83@gmail.com

ABSTRACT :
Diclofenac is currently the eighth largest-selling drug and the most frequently used NSAID (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) in the world, since its introduction in Japan in 1974. Diclofenac is among the better tolerated NSAIDs. Only major adverse effect of Diclofenac is that it causes direct and indirect irritation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). To reduce the side effects on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and to improve therapeutic efficacy of Diclofenac, it can be formulated in polymeric microspheres.
The use of polymeric carriers in formulations of therapeutic drug delivery systems has gained widespread application, due to their advantage of being biodegradable and biocompatible. Among the microparticulate systems, microspheres have a special importance since it is possible to target drugs and provide controlled release. Diclofenac sodium (DS), is a potent drug in the NSAID group having non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory properties, and is widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. In this present study, it was aimed to prepare microsphere formulations of DS using a natural biodegradable polymer as a carrier for administration to extend the duration period of the dosage form. Microsphere formulations of DS which were prepared were evaluated in vitro for particle size, yield value, encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology, and in vitro drug release.

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A BEGOMOVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH CLERODENDRON INERME

About Authors:
Sanjay Kumar Yadav*1, Anjana Yadav1, Shahana Majumder2
*1Dept of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, B.B.S. Institute of Pharmaceutical & Allied Sciences, Greater Noida, (U.P.), India
1Dept of Biotechnology, Chhatrapati Sahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur, (U.P.), India
2Dept of Biotechnology, Sharda University, School of Engineering and Technology,
Greater Noida, (U.P.), India
*sanjay_yadav3333@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT
Viruses are pathogens with an extremely narrow host range. Their phylogenetic origin is vague, tough it has always been considered that viruses are genes that became vagrant after having excluded themselves of the host’s or a related species’ genome (Anderson et.al., 2004). Viruses are usually units consisting of nucleic acids and coat proteins called capsids. Viroids consist only of RNA, i.e. they contain no protein at all. Except for a few cases, Viruses have no energy metabolism of their own. Consequently, they cannot perform syntheses and are thus unable to replicate themselves. Depending on their host species, it is distinguished between plant viruses multiplying almost exclusively within plant cells, bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) that depend on living bacteria, and animal viruses. The genetic information of viruses is either encoded by single-stranded RNA (Most plant viruses), double-stranded RNA (Wound tumor viruses), single-stranded DNA (Gemini viruses) or double stranded DNA (Cauliflower mosaic virus). Based on the shape of the viruses particle, it is distinguished between rod shaped and icosahedral viruses with a capsid that seem almost spherical. Viruses’ cause many disease in humans of international importance for example  smallpox polio, hepatitis etc. viruses cause also many important plant disease and are responsible for huge loss in crop production and quality in all part of the world. Around 25 years ago, when genomic properties of geminiviruses were studied, many scientists regarded them as ‘friends of humans’, because of their  potential as gene transfer vectors in plant genetic engineering and non-harmful effects on host plants. But far from being friends, these viruses have now emerged as foes and are a serious threat to world agriculture now. Increase in international commodity trade, intercontinental transportation networks and a changing global climate have contribute to the spread of this virus and its whitefly vector (Moffat et.al.,1999).

Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Tablets of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride Using Natural sweetening agent of Stevia Leaf Powder.

About Authors:
Savita bhati*, Vandana Sethi
Lloyd Institute of Management & Technology.
Plot No.-11, Knowledge Park-II,
Greater Noida, U.P.
*savitabhati1987@gmail.com

Abstract:
Taste masking becomes a pre-requisite for bitter drugs to improve the patient compliance especially in the pediatric and geriatric population. Metoclopramide hydrochloride is recommended in dose of 10 to 15 mg four times a day for getting relief from nausea, vomiting, stomach pain and reflux oesophagitis. It finds application in all the categories of patients.In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare bitterless fast dissolving tablet of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride using stevia leaf powder as a taste masking agent. Direct compression was the technique used for preparing taste masked tablets.

Work as Professor, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor & Lecturer in pharmacy @ Llyod Group of institutions

The spark for launching professional education (Management & Pharmacy), both at the undergraduate and post-graduate level at Lloyd has come from Academicians and Business Leaders who felt that the current trend in higher education is only limited to Books, Classes and Exams, that needs to be replaced by more meaningful education so that students are mounded to not only become better professionals but also good human beings at a relatively young age..

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLET OF ATENOLOL USING SUPER DISINTEGRANT - CROSS POVIDONE AND SWEETENING AGENT - SUCRALOSE

About Authors:
Mizna Nigarish*, Vandana Arora Sethi
Lloyd Institute of Management and Technology
Plot no.2 knowledge park-2,
Greater Noida-201306 (U.P)
*mnigarish2@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The present study has been undertaken to prepare fast dissolving tablets of atenolol by direct compression method with a view to enhance patient compliance. The superdisintegrant used in this study was crosspovidone and sucralose as a sweetening agent. A new formulation of atenolol tablet was designed and compressed by direct compressionmethod. Then its physical parameters including hardness, friability, diameter, thickness, disintegration time, dissolution test were performed for evaluation and characterization of this new formulation. It was observed in the result that the tablet formulation F-4 was found to have maximum drug release at the end of 6 minutes and considered as the most effective formulation. It was also concluded that direct compression technique is a useful method for preparing fast dissolving tablets.

TASTE MASKING OF BITTER DRUGS USING DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES FOR BETTER PATIENT COMPLIANCE: AN OVERVIEW

About Authors:
MIZNA NIGARISH*, VANDANA ARORA, SAVITA BHATI
LLYOD INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY
PLOT NO.2 KNOWLEDGE PARK-2
GREATER NOIDA-201306
(U.P)

*mnigarish2@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Taste is an important parameter in administering drugs orally, unwanted or bitter taste is one of the most important formulation problems that are encountered with many drugs and it becomes very necessary for bitter drugs to improve the patient compliance especially in the pediatric and geriatric patients. To overcome with this problem certain taste masking techniques are used in this article, the main aim is to combat with the bitterness using various technologies so as to obtain the desired drug.

REVIEW ARTICLE: Solid Dispersions

ABOUT AUTHORS:
D.PRAVEEN KUMAR*, Vandana Arora
 M.Pharm (Pharmaceutics)
Lloyd Institute of Management & Technology,
Greater Noida,
U.P., India

* praveen_73a@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT
The solubility behaviour of drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects in formulation development. Currently only 8% of the new drug molecules have high solubility and permeability. The solubility behaviour of a drug is key determinant to its oral bioavailability and it is the rate limiting step to absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract. This results in important products not reaching the market or not achieving their full potential. Solid dispersions have attracted considerable interest as an efficient means of improving the dissolution rate and bioavailability of a range of hydrophobic drugs. This article reviews the various preparation techniques for solid dispersion, types of solid dispersions based on molecular arrangement and other aspects such as selection of carriers and methods of characterization and their applications have been discussed.

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AN OVERVIEW ON PRECLINICAL EVALUATION TECHNIQUES OF NOOTROPIC AGENTS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Renu Singh*, Saumya Das, Sanjita Das
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, NIET,
Greater Noida, U.P., 201306.

*renusingh2910@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Cognitive deficits have long been recognized as severe and consistent neurological disorders associated with numerous psychiatric and neurodegenerative states such as Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems, and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegerative disorder which affects older individuals and may progress to a totally vegetative state. Atrophy of cortical and sub-cortical areas is associated with deposition of β-amyloid protein in the form of senile plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. There is marked cholinergic deficiency in the brain, though other neurotransmitter systems are also affected. Various measures to augement cholinergic transmitter in the brain have been tried. The relatively cerebroselective anti-ChEs have been approved for clinical use. Nootropic agents are clinically used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities and for improving memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side-effects associated with these agents have made their utility limited. Many experimental models are currently available for the evaluation of agents that affect learning and memory processes. In-vitro methods inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity is measured by determining IC50 with the help of Log probit analysis. In ex-vivo cholinesterase inhibition method the dose response relationship determined for drugs such as physostigmine and tacrine Agents which are H3 receptor agonist are evaluated for [3H] Ach release activity in rat using rat brain slices. The binding affinity of potential nicotinic cholinergic agonist in brain using agonist ligand is determined by [3H]-N- methyl carbamylcholine binding nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat frontal cortex. In In-vivo methods the inhibitory passive avoidance the test are carried on animals to test the learning and memory capacity of animal by suppressing a particular behavior. It includes step down, step through, two compartment test, up-hill avoidance, scopolamine induced test, and ischemia induced amnesia, memory impairments in basal forebrain. In active avoidance conditioned stimulus is given to the animal, which gives noxious stimulus as a result. It includes runway avoidance, shuttle box avoidance, jumping avoidance. In discrimination learning animals have no choice between the conditioned stimuli. Studies on aged monkeys provides additional advantage for neurobehavioral animal model of aging in that many of behavioral processes thought to be affected by aging.

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A SHORT REVIEW ON STOMACH SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

About Authors:
Garima Gupta*, Amit Singh
Department of Pharmaceutics,
R.V. Northland Institute,
Greater Noida, G. B. Nagar, U.P.

*Garima189@gmail.com

Abstract:
Technological attempts have been made in the research and development of rate-controlled oral drug delivery systems to overcome physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence times (GRT) and unpredictable gastric emptying times (GET). Conventional oral dosage forms pose low bioavailability problems due to their rapid gastric transition from stomach, especially in case of drugs which are less soluble at alkaline pH of intestine. Similarly, drugs which produce their local action in stomach get rapidly emptied and do not get enough residence time in stomach. So, frequency of dose administration in such cases is increased. To avoid this problem, various efforts have been made to prolong the retention time of drug delivery system. In this review, we will discuss about the various approaches to produce gastro retention of drug delivery system, with current & recent developments of Stomach Specific floating drug delivery system.

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