A SHORT REVIEW ON ANTI-DIABETIC AGENT

 

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Deepika Gautam1*, Deepti Gautam2
1Department of Chemistry, Lucknow University,
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2Department of Nursing, Era’s Lucknow Medical college and Hospital,
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
*yashdeepika1@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Different type of natural and synthetic agents for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus improve the metabolic profile but do not reestablished normality. They also reduce chronic diabetic complications, but they do not remove completely them. Thus, for the treatment of type2 diabetes mellitus new agents with novel actions are required to complement and extend the capabilities of existing treatments. Insulin resistance and beta-cell failure, which are main cause in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes, in this review we discussed about some natural and synthetic molecule and their targets and some old oral ant diabetic drug and their mode of action.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2252

PharmaTutor (ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 2, Issue 10

Received On: 19/07/2014; Accepted On: 24/07/2014; Published On: 01/10/2014

How to cite this article: D Gautam, D Gautam; A Short Review on Anti-Diabetic Agent; PharmaTutor; 2014; 2(10); 89-105

INTRODUCTION
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by increase glucose level in blood and changes in lipid and protein metabolism[1]. Because the body cannot release or use insulin normally. insulin is a hormones which is released by pancreas. which maintaining sugar level in blood[2]. Diabetes mellitus are of two type one is insulin dependent[3] and another is non-insulin dependent. insulin dependent diabetes called type 1(IDDM), also known as "juvenile diabetes" because it occurs in the young children and adolescents. it is an autoimmune disorder where antibodies are produced against the β cells which release insulin, are destroyed[3]

Non-insulin dependent called type 2 diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes “because occurs in adult. Serious prolong complications include some serious disease like heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes[1] DM can be found worldwide and the population is increasing. According to WHO projections, about 300 million or more people will be affected by diabetes by the year 2025.[4] The estimated number of diabetic patients in 2030 will be more than double that in 2005.[4] according to IDF in 2009 India has  the largest number of people — 50.8 million suffering from diabetes in the world, followed by China (43.2 million) and the United States (26.8 million). India continues to be the "diabetes capital" of the world, and by 2030, nearly 9 per cent of the country's population is likely to be affected from the disease, warns the fourth edition of the World Diabetes Atlas launched by the IDF at the 20th World Diabetes Congress in Montreal, Canada. Worldwide, as of 2013, an estimated 382 million people have diabetes, with type 2 diabetes making about 90% of the cases.[5,6] This is equal about  8.3% of the adults population,[6]equal rates in both women and men.[7] Worldwide in 2012 and 2013 diabetes resulted in 1.5 to 5.1 million deaths per year, making it the 8th leading cause of death.[8,9] Diabetes overall at least doubles the risk of death. The number of people with diabetes is estimated up to rise to 592million by 2035.[10] The economic costs of diabetes globally was estimated in 2013 at $548 billion[9] and in the United States in 2012 $245 billion.[11]

Some Oral anti-diabetic drugs-
Type of anti-diabetic drugs-
· Sulfonylureas/insulin tropics
· Biguanides
· a-Glycosidase inhibitors
· Thiazolidinedione
· DPP-4 inhibitors (Glistens)

Sulfonylureas/insulin tropics-mechanism and targets-
Sulfonylureas reduce the blood glucose level by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreatic β-cell and sensitivity of peripheral tissue to insulin, number of insulin receptor and suppressing gluconeogenesis in the liver

It bind to receptors on the pancreatic β-cell, and block the k+ on these receptor.it reduce potassium conductance and increased insulin secretion.

Side effects-Hypoglycemia,weight gain

Example and their structure-

Biguanides-mechanism and action is not clear,suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis

Side effect-Gastrointestinal disturbances, lactic acidosis

α-Glucosidase inhibitors-it reduce the glucose absorption from upper intestines and do not causes hypoglycemia

Eide effect-Gastrointestinal disturbance

Example and their structure-

Thiazolidinediones- they are agonist at the PPARϒ receptor. It increase insulin mediated glucose transport in to muscle and fat tissue and reduce hepatic gluconeogenesis and lower incidence of hypoglycemia

Side effect-cause severe hepatotoxicity and weight and anemia

Example and their structure-

DPP-4 inhibitors (Gliptins)- Reduce glucagon and blood glucose levels by inhibiting DPP-4

Side effect- Nasopharyngitis, Headache, Nausea, Hypersensitivity, Skin reactions

Example and their structure-

Some anti-diabetic agent -


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