A REVIEW ON THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALS OF BERGENIA LIGULATA WALL

 

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Poonam Verma*, Bhuwan Chandra Joshi, Nitisha Negi
ISF College of Pharmacy,
Moga, Punjab
bhuwan.joshi000@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Bergenia ligulata
Wall also known as Pashanbhedain Indian system of medicine. Etymologically, the name Pashanbheda means that which breaks or destroys stones. Bergenia ligulata Wall is perennial herb that grows wild in stones and rocks. This plant has been recognized for dissolving kidney stone along with various biological activities, proving its several traditional uses. Bergenia ligulata Wall is a herb mainly found in Himalayan valley. Since it imparts different properties i.e. diuretic, anti diabetic, astringent, cardio tonic, wound healer, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, anti cancer, antiprotozoal,  anti-inflammatory, kidney stone due to certain phytochemical constituents Bergenin, Tannic acid, Gallic acid, Stigmesterol, β-Sitosterol, catechin, (+)-Afzelechin, 1, 8-cineole, Isovalaric acid, (+)-(6S)-parasorbic acid, Arbutin, Phytol, Caryophyllene, Damascenone, β-eudesmol, 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, (Z)-asarone, Terpinen-4-ol, Paashaanolactone present in it. The aim of present article is to explore the medicinal importance of the plant Bergenia ligulata wall.


REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1900

INTRODUCTION
Bergenia ligulata
Wall(Saxifragacea) is a perennial herb. It is main botanical source of Pashanbheda. It is also known as silabheda, Pashana, Zakhmehayat, Asmaribheda, Ashmabhid, Ashmabhed, Nagabhid, Upalbhedak, Parwatbhed. Pashanbheda is a drug mentioned in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for various ailments but mainly as a diuretic and kidney stone. In India Bergenia ligulata wall grows at high altitudes between 1800-5100 meters in Himalayas usually in rocky areas and cliffs. (1-5,12)

Bergenia ligulata wall whole plant is used for kidney and bladder stones, urinary problems. (8,9,27-32) It  has been reported to exhibit various pharmacological activities and thus has several traditional uses. It is used as an antidiabetic, antipyretic.(33-35). Bergenia ligulata wallused as diuretic,(36-39) hepatoprotective, alcoholic extracts of Bergenia ligulata wall showed anticancer, antiprotozoal, diuretic, cardiovascular, antilithiatic(8,40,41) litholytic property, anti-inflammatory. (42,43) Animals study for the activity of calcium oxalate growth inhibition,  calcium oxalate inhibition, diuretic,  hypermagneseuric and antioxidant effect.(3,15,44)


Various medicinal books mentioned Bergenia ligulata wall as a drug treating different diseases described as below:

Ayurveda: Leaf juice in urinary troubles, cold, hemorrhagic disease, distension of stomach and epilepsy.

Sushruta Samhita: In stones and sugars.

Charak Samhita: Useful in urinary complaints and stones.

Unani: In dissolving stones.

Chakradatta: In urinary troubles and stones.

Rajnighantu: In urinary disease.

Bhavaprakash: Astringent, bitter and sweet, purifies the urinary bladder.

Bergenia ligulatawallroot, rhizome, and whole plant is used for kidney and bladder stones, urinary problems.(8-11)

SCINTIFIC CLASSIFICATION
Kingdom
- Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom- Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

Superdivision- Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division- Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class- Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons

Subclass- Rosidae

Order– Rosales

Family - Saxifragaceae – Saxifrage family

Genus - Bergenia Moench – elephant-ear

Species- Bergenia ligulata (wall)

VERNACULAR NAMES
Assamese
: Patharkuchi, Bengali: Patharkuchi,Himasagara, Patrankur, Gujrati: Pashanbheda, Pakhanbheda, Hindi:Pakhanabheda, Silphara, Patharcua, Pakhanabhed, Silpbheda,silparo, Dakachru, Kannada: Alepgaya, Pahanbhedi, Hittaga, Pasanaberu, Hittulaka, Kashmiri: Pashanbhed, Malayalam: Kallurvanchi, Kallurvanni, Kallorvanchi, Marathi: Pashanbheda,  Mizoram: Khamdamdawi, Pandamdawi, Oriya: Pasanbhedi, Pashanabheda, Punjabi: Kachalu, Pashanbhed,

Sanskrit: Asmabhedaka, Silabheda, Pashnabheda, Tamil:Sirupilai, Telugu: Kondapindi

DISTRIBUTION
Bergenia ligulata
wall is distributed in temperate Himalayas and central, East, Western and Asia Tropical i.e. Indian Subcontinent Bhutan; India – Assam, Nepal and Pakistan. It grow well in shady, moist areas of Himalayas (Kumaon to Bhutan), South Tibet, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Darjeeling, Arunachal Pradesh, Gangtok (domesticated) in Sikkim.(3,6,7)

Botanical Identification of Bergenia ligulata wall


A perennial herb, up to 35 cm tall. Root-stock very stout. Stems short, thick, fleshy, and procumbent. Leaves few, spreading, 4-11 x 3-10 cm, glabrous or hirsute, sub-orbicular to orbicular or broadly obovate, base cordate or sometimes rounded, apex rounded or sometimes abruptly acuminate; margin entire to occasionally denticulate at top, fringed with short stiff hairs, both surfaces hairy, becoming almost hairless in age. Petiole 1-2(-5) cm long, glabrous or hirsute, sheathing at the base. Inflorescence a one sided raceme or corymbose, often subtended by an ovate leafy bract; bract glabrous or sparsely ciliate; scape and

inflorescence greenish or pink tinged. Peduncle up to 10 cm long; flowers pink to purplish, pedicellate. Sepals  7 mm long, oblong. Petals 10 x 4 mm, unguiculate, limb orbicular. Filaments 1 cm long, pink to red. Carpels 2. Styles  7 mm long. Carpels and styles green or pinkish. Flowering tem flexible, leafless, 10-25 cm. long. Capsule 13 x 6 mm, including styles. Seeds elongated,  1 mm long, brown, minutely tuberculate.(12-13)

Rhizome, solid, barrel shaped, cylindrical, 1.5-3 cm long and 1-2 cm in diameter with small roots, ridges, furrows and root scars distinct, transversely cut surface shows outer ring of brown coloured cork, short middle cortex, vascular bundles and large central pith, odour, aromatic, taste, astringent.(13,14)

PHYTOCONSTITUENTS:
Bergenia ligulata
wallrhizome has many bioactive chemical constituents such as Paashaanolactone, Arbutin, (+)-AfzelechinBergenin, Catechin and Minerals,Vitamins, Abumin , Glucose , Mucilage, Gallicin,Gallic acid, Starch .(15-19)Seeds of Bergenia ligulata wallcontain Coumarin, Tannic acid, Gallic acid, Minerals and Wax.(20) leaves contain two flavonols, quercetin and kaempferol along with three rhamnosides and afzelin and quercitrin.(12,21)Root of Bergenia ligulata wall showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, steroids, carbohydrates and saponins in  investigation. β-Sitosterol, Stigmesterol, Tannic acid and Gallic acid were isolated.(22)  Parasorbic acid, Isovalaric acid , 1,8- Cineole ,(Z)-Asarone ,  Terpinen-4-ol were the constituents.(23-26)


Figure-: Chemical constituents isolated from Bergenia ligulata wall.

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