REVIEW ON ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASES AND ITS MEDICATION

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Salman S. Dhankwala*, Ajinkya N. Gavsane, Prithvirj M. Ghuli, Sagar A. Jadhav
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
Appasaheb Birnale College of Pharmacy,
Sangli, Maharashtra, India
*salman.2.dhankwala@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Ischemic heart   diseases are a major public health problem, it includes disorders of the heart and blood vessel. Ischemia is a condition in which the blood flow (and thus oxygen) is restricted or reduced in a part of the body.Cardiac ischemia is the name for decreased blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle It's the term given to heart problems caused by narrowed heart arteries. When arteries are narrowed, less blood and oxygen reaches the heart muscle. This is also called coronary artery disease and coronary heart disease. This can ultimately lead to attack. Ischemia often causes chest pain or discomfort known as angina pectoris. Disease is diagnosed according to medical parameters; following diagnosis of the disease the treatment is started. The treatment is includes in medicines of Heart diseases and is as well as lifestyle.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2584

PharmaTutor (Print-ISSN: 2394 - 6679; e-ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 6, Issue 5

Received On: 02/03/2018; Accepted On: 02/04/2018; Published On: 01/05/2018

How to cite this article: Dhankwala SS, Gavsane AN, Ghuli PM, Jadhav SA; Review on Ischemic Heart Diseases and Its Medication; PharmaTutor; 2018; 6(5); 23-31; http://dx.doi.org/10.29161/PT.v6.i5.2018.23

INTRODUCTION:
Coronary artery diseases are the most common cause of sudden death. These are major health problem throughout the world and a common cause of premature morbidity and mortality, According to World Health Organization (WHO) (Kharade S.M, et al.,2014) .Approximately one third 40 million patient are suffered from these diseases. About 610,000 people die of heart disease in the united states every year–that's an  1 in every 4 deaths. (Erling Falk, et al.,1st edition)

Ischemia is a condition in which the blood flow (and thus oxygen) is restricted or reduced in a part of the body. Cardiac ischemia is the name for decreased blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle. (Schocken DD, et al.,2015), It's the term given to heart problems caused by narrowed heart arteries. When arteries are narrowed, less blood and oxygen reaches the heart muscle. This is also called coronary artery disease and coronary heart disease. This can ultimately lead to heart attack.

In short we can say that ischemia is restriction in blood supply to tissue ,causing shortage of oxygen and needed for cellular metabolism.

Anatomy of an coronary arteries (Erling Falk, et al,.1st edition)
Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. Like all other tissues in the body, the heart muscle needs oxygen-rich blood to function. Also, oxygen-depleted blood must be carried away. The coronary arteries wrap around the outside of the heart. Small branches dive into the heart muscle to bring it blood.

Anatomy of an arteries in Heart

Figure 1: Anatomy of an arteries in H

eartThere is an two types of an arteries:

a) Left main coronary artery (LMCA):
The left main coronary artery supplies blood to the left side of the heart muscle (the left ventricle and left atrium). The left main coronary divides into branches: the left anterior descending artery branches off the left coronary artery and supplies blood to the front of the left side of the heart .The circumflex artery branches off the left coronary artery and encircles the heart muscle. This artery supplies blood to the outer side and back of the heart.

b) Right coronary artery (RCA):
The right  coronary artery supplies blood to the right ventricle, the right atrium, and the SA (sinoatrial) and AV (atrioventricular) nodes, which regulate the heart rhythm. The right coronary artery divides into smaller branches, including the right posterior descending artery and the acute marginal artery. Together with the left anterior descending artery, the right coronary artery helps supply blood to the middle or septum of the heart.

CORONARY HEART DISEASE

Figure 2:Fat Deposits In Plaque (Arteries) Of Heart

Coronary heart disease (CHD), previously called ischaemic heart disease, is when your coronary arteries become narrowed by a gradual build-up of fatty material within their walls. These arteries supply your heart muscle with oxygen-rich blood. ("Coronary heart disease".,2013)

This condition, known as atherosclerosis, is caused by the build up of fatty material called atheroma inside the artery walls. ( Shanthi  Puska.et al.,2011)

In time, your arteries may become so narrow that they cannot deliver enough oxygen-rich blood to your heart. The pain and discomfort you may feel as a result is called angina.

If a piece of atheroma breaks off it may cause a blood clot (blockage) to form. If it blocks your coronary artery and cuts off the supply of oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle, your heart may become permanently damaged. This is known as a heart attack.

Coronary heart disease, sometimes just called heart disease, is caused by a gradual build-up of fatty material leading to the narrowing of coronary arteries. Fatty build-up in the arteries is also known as atherosclerosis. Angina is a symptom of coronary heart disease usually characterized by pain or discomfort in the chest.

When we were formed in 1961 the total number of deaths from coronary heart disease in the UK that year was more than 160,000. But thanks in-part to BHF-funded research this number has halved. In spite of this coronary heart disease is still the single biggest cause of death in the UK. Although the death rate from coronary heart disease has come down, the burden is still great. There are now approximately 2.3 million people living with coronary heart disease in the UK. [WHO Disease and injury country estimates, 2009]

blood flow in  arterial

Figure 3:The interruption of an blood flow in  arterial.
 

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