A REVIEW ON IMMEDIATE RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Mohalkar Rahul1*, Poul Bhagwat2, Patil S.S1, Shetkar M.A1, Dilip Chavan1
1 Department of Quality Assurance, Maharashtra College of Pharmacy, Nilanga
2 Principal of Maharashtra College of Pharmacy, Nilanga,
Latur, Maharashtra, India.
*rahulmohalkar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The oral drug delivery system which includes the solid dosages form such as conventional dosages form and immediate release dosages form. Form last several decades conventional dosage forms like capsule, solid, pills, powder, solution, emulsion, suspension aerosols are used in the various treatments of acute or chronic disease. Today this formulation can be considered as primary pharmaceutical product are mostly seen in overalls market. Tablet is most popular among the all dosages forms today and recently found mostly accepted tablet dosages forms. Because of its convenience easy to administration, convenience of self administration, compactness and easy for the manufacturing. In number of cases immediate onset of action is required than conventional therapy. The basic approach used in development immediate release solid dosages form by using superdisintegrant like sodium starch glycolate (Primogel, Explotab), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) etc. which provides in instantaneous disintegration of tablet after administration. By using various techniques in can be formulate like wet granulation, direct compression etc. Hence its having A new dosage form allows a manufacturer to extend market exclusivity, while offering its patient population a more convenient dosage form or dosing regimen.

While development if immediate release therapy also provides an opportunity for a line extension in the marketplace, wide range this dosage form. As a drug entity nears the end of its patent life, it is common for pharmaceuticals manufacturer to extend to development a given drug entity in a new and improved dosage form. A new dosage form slows a manufacturer to extend market exclusivity, white offering its patient population a more convenient dosages form or dosing regimen.

Pharmaceutical products designed for oral delivery and currently available on the prescription and over-the-counter markets are mostly the immediate release type, which are designed for immediate release of drug for rapid absorption.

Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using fast releasing excipients such as and superdisintegrant sodium starch glycolate (SSG).

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2226

PharmaTutor (ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 2, Issue 8

Received On: 10/06/2014; Accepted On: 16/06/2014; Published On: 01/08/2014

How to cite this article: R Mohalkar, B Poul, SS Patil, MA Shetkar, D Chavan; A Review on Immediate Release Drug Delivery Systems; PharmaTutor; 2014; 2(8); 95-109

INTRODUCTION:1-6
Oral drug delivery system includes conventional dosage form and immediate release dosage form. For last so many decades’ conventional dosage forms like tablets, capsules, pills, powders, solutions, emulsions, suspensions and aerosols are used in the treatment of acute or chronic diseases. Even today these formulations can be considered as primary pharmaceutical product commonly seen in market.

When such a conventional dosage form is administrated, the concentration of such drug in systemic circulation gradually rises to attend a therapeutic range and this concentration is maintained for some timeand finally decreases to sub therapeutic value rendering the drug pharmacologically inactive. Each individual drug has a maximum safe concentration and a minimum effective concentration. Fluctuations in plasma concentration may  mean  that  drug  levels may  swing  too  high  leading  to  toxic/side effects;  alternatively drug may fall too low leading to a lack of efficacy. Further more, the plasma drug concentration in a patient at a particular time depends on the compliance with the prescribed dosage interval.

Hence, the design of effective drug delivery systems has recently become an integral part of the development of new medicines. The  goal  is  to  provide  a  therapeutic quantity of medicine/s to the proper site in the body in order to achieve the desired  effect and maintain  such  effect  for  the  entire  period  of  treatment. A new development namely, immediate release dosage forms, has evolved from the need for a prolonged drug effect, a better control of drug administration and the reduction of side-effects.

Novel drug delivery systems are developed for expanding markets/indications, extending product life cycles and generating opportunities. Oral administration is the most popular route for systemic effects due to its ease of ingestion, pain, avoidance, versatility and most importantly patient compliance. In these solid formulations do not require sterile conditions and are therefore, less expensive to manufacture. Patient compliance, high-precision dosing, and manufacturing efficiency make tablets the solid dosage form of choice. Excipients and equipments choices will be significantly affected should solid dosage form technologies change in response to the unprecedented shifts in the drug discovery such as genomics. The developments of enhanced oral protein delivery technology by immediate release tablets which may release the drugs at an enhanced rate are very promising for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs high molecular weight protein and peptide. The oral route remains the perfect route for the administration of therapeutic agents because the low cost of therapy, manufacturing and ease of administration lead to high levels of patient compliance. Many patients require quick onset of action in particular therapeutic condition and consequently immediate release of medicament is required. It is estimated that 50% of the population is affected by this problem, which results in a high incidence of ineffective therapy.

INTRODUCTION TO IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS:7-8, 10
Immediate release tablets are those which disintegrate rapidly and get dissolved to release the medicaments. Immediate release may be provided for by way of an appropriate pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier, which diluent or carrier does not prolong, to an appreciable extent, the rate of drug release and/or absorption. This term excludes formulations which are adapted to provide for “modified”, “controlled”, “sustained”, “prolonged”, “extended” or “delayed” release of drug.

Release term includes the provision (or presentation) of drug from the formulation to the gastrointestinal tract, to body tissues and/or into systemic circulation. For gastrointestinal tract release, the release is under pH conditions such as pH=1 to 3, especially at, or about, pH=1.

Biopharmaceutics consideration:7-8
When new drug delivery system put on, it is must those to consider Biopharmaceutical factor like metabolism and excretion.

Pharmacokinetics:
In this consideration, study has done absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. After absorption, drug attains therapeutic level and therefore elicits pharmacological effect, so both rate and extend of absorption is important. In conventional dosages form there is delay in disintegration and therefore dissolution is fast. Drug distribution depends on many factors like tissue, disease state, drug interaction etc.

Duration and intensity of action depends upon rate of drug removal from the body or site of action i.e. biotransformation. Decrease in liver volume, regional blood flow to liver reduces the biotransformation of drug through oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis. Excretion by renal clearance is slowed, thus half– life of renal excreted drug increase.

Pharmacodynamic:
· Drug reception interaction impaired in elderly as well as in young adult due to undue development of organ.
·  Decreased ability of the body to respond reflexive stimuli, cardiac output, and orthostatic hypotension may see in taking antihypertensive like Prazosin.
· Decreased sensitivity of the CVS to adrenergic agonist and antagonist.
· Immunity is less and taken into consideration while administered antibiotics.
· Altered response to drug therapy-elderly show diminished bronchodilator effect of theophylline shows increased sensitivity to barbiturates.
· Altered response to drug therapy-elderly show diminished bronchodilator effect of theophylline shows increased sensitivity to barbiturates.
· Concomitant illnesses are often present in elderly, which is also taken into consideration, while multiple drug therapy prescribed.
· Research workers have clinically evaluated drug combination for various classes, cardiovascular agents, diuretics, antihypertensive etc. For immediate release dosages forms. The combination of two or three drug combination choice depends on disease state of the patient.

Problems with Existing Oral Dosage Form:7-8
· Patient may suffer from tremors therefore they have difficulty to take powder and liquids. In dysphasia physical obstacles and adherence to an esophagus may cause gastrointestinal ulceration.
· Swallowing of solid dosage forms like tablet and capsules and produce difficulty for young adult of incomplete development of muscular and nervous system and elderly patients suffer from dysphasia.
· Liquid medicaments (suspension and emulsion) are packed in multidose container; therefore achievement of uniformity in the content of each dose may be difficult.
· Buccal and sublingual formation may cause irritation to oral mucosa, so patients refused to use such medications.
· Cost of products is main factor as parenteral formulations are most costly and discomfort.

Criteria for immediate release drug delivery system:
The case of solid dosage it should dissolve or disintegrate in the stomach within a short period.
· In the case of liquid dosage form it should be compatible with taste masking.
· Be portable without fragility concern.
· It should not leave minimal or no residue in the mouth after oral administration.
· Exhibit low sensitivity to environmental condition as humidity and temperature.
· Be manufactured using conventional processing and packaging equipment at low cost.
· Rapid dissolution and absorption of drug, which may produce rapid onset of action.

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