Pharmacology Articles

Pharmacognostical and Pharmacological studies of Holoptelea integrifolia – An overview

About Authors:
Soujanya J, Silambujanaki P, Leela Krishna V
Department of Pharmacology, SRM College of Pharmacy,
SRM University, Kattankulathur-603203,
Kancheepuram Dist.,
Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract
Holoptelea integrifolia, Planch. is a widely used herb in traditional medical systems of India.It is an important pollen allergen of India andsensitizes almost 10% of the atopic population in Delhi.Various parts of Holoptelea integrifolia, a roadside plant, are indicated by Charaka Samhitha, Sushrutha Samhitha and other traditional systems for the treatment of inflammations, acid gastritis, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, intestinal worms, vomiting, wounds, vitiligo, leprosy, filariasis, diabetes, haemorrhoids, dysmenorrhoea and rheumatism.The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its pharmacological, traditional and phytochemical properties

PLANTS AS RICH SOURCE OF ANTIMALIGNANT AGENTS

About Authors:
Das Saumya1*, Basu saumya Priya1, Das Manas Kumar2, Das Sanjita1
1. Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, NIET, Greater Noida, U.P., India.
2. Department of Pharmacy,
IEC-CET,
Greater Noida, U.P.,
India.

Introduction
Cancer has been one of the greatest scourges of mankind since time immemorial. It may be regarded as a series of malignant diseases characterized by (i) abnormal growth of cells (ii) ability to invade adjacent tissues and even distant organs and (iii) the eventual death of the affected patient if the tumor has progressed beyond the stage where it can be successfully removed. The incidence of cancer is expected to rise worldwide notably because of increase in life expectancy, changes in lifestyle patterns and environmental factors. Over the years, an increased understanding of cancer at cellular, molecular and genetic levels is opening up enormous opportunities to interrupt its initiation and progression. Although rapid strides have been made in treatment of cancer, there still remain many stumbling blocks in achieving cancer prevention and cure.

A Review Report on cancer treatment

About Authors:
Jaideep Sharma
Guru jambheshwar university of science & technology    
Hisar,
Haryana

Cancer, known medically as a malignant neoplasm is a term for a large group of different disease, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumours, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. Not all tumours are cancerous. Benign tumours do not grow uncontrollably, do not invade neighbouring tissues, and do not spread throughout the body.
Healthy cells control their own growth and will destroy themselves if they become unhealthy. Cell division is a complex process that is normally tightly regulated. Cancer occurs when problems in the genes of a cell prevent these controls from functioning properly. These problems may come from damage to the gene or may be inherited, and can be caused by various sources inside or outside of the cell. Faults in two types of genes are especially important: ontogenesis, which drive the growth of cancer cells, and tumour suppressor genes, which prevent cancer from developing.

Innovations, newer techniques and recent advances in cancer treatment - a review

About Authors:
Nishant Gupta
Department of pharmaceutics,
B.N. College of pharmacy,
Udaipur-313002,
Rajasthan

ABSTRACT:
Cancer is the leading cause of death in the United States among people younger than 85 years, and for the first time has surpassed heart disease as the number one killer. This worrisome statistic has resulted not from an increase in the incidence of cancer, but because deaths from heart disease have dropped nearly in half while the number of cancer-related deaths has remained about the same. This fact accentuates the need for a new generation of more effective therapies for cancer. Cancer patients are typically exposed to chemotherapy and radiation therapy in separate treatment rounds, doubling their emotional and physical stress. Biopharmaceutical researchers are now working on 887 medicines for cancer, according to a new report by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA). Many are high-tech weapons to fight the disease, while some involve innovative research into using existing medicines in new ways. Few things cause patients more fear and apprehension than a cancer diagnosis. But today—because of early detection and a steady stream of new and improved treatments—cancer increasingly can be managed and even beaten.

Role of chromosomal fragile site in the identification and characterization of human malignancy

About Author: Rinki Verma (Research fellow)
Center of Experimental Medicine and Surgery,
Institute of Medical science
Banaras Hindu University
Varanasi - 221005

Abstract:
In 1965 ,  firstly fragility was reported in cells of  a femeal previously irradiated and described  as non-random human chromosome called “ Fragile sites”  are heritable specific chromosome loci that exhibit an increased frequency of gaps, poor staining, constrictions or breaks when chromosomes are exposed to partial DNA replication inhibition. They constitute areas of chromatin that fail to compact during mitosis. They are classified as rare or common depending on their frequency within the population and are further subdivided on the basis of their specific induction chemistry into different groups differentiated as folate sensitive or non-folate sensitive rare fragile sites, and as aphidicolin, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) or 5-azacytidine inducible common fragile sites. Most of the known inducers of fragility share in common their potentiality to inhibit the elongation of DNA replication, particularly at fragile site loci. There are seven non-similar folate sensitive (FRA10A, FRA11B, FRA12A, FRA16A, FRAXA, FRAXE and FRAXF) and two non-folate sensitive (FRA10B and FRA16B) and  have been molecularly characterized. Due to dynamic mutation formed DNA repeat sequences and  involving the normally occurring polymorphic CCG/CGG trinucleotide repeats at the folate sensitive and AT-rich minisatellite repeats at the non-folate sensitive fragile sites. These rare fragile site FRAXA is the most important fragile site as it is associated with the fragile X syndrome significant to the clinical side and also explained the predisposition of tumors.

Gall Bladder Cancer as a “Silent Killer”

About Author: Rinki Verma (Research fellow)
Institute of Medical science (CEMS)
Banaras Hindu University
Varanasi - 221005

Abstract:
Gallbladder cancer is a comparatively rare cancer and has poor outcome due to their anatomy and location. It has peculiar geographical distribution being common in central and South America, central and eastern Europe, Japan and northern India; it is also common in certain ethnic groups e.g. Native American Indians and Hispanics (Kapoor VK, McMichael AJ ,2003. It is fifteen uncommon cancers in the world with high mortality rate. The diagnosis is made very late due to its silent course. The majority of patients have advanced disease at the time of presentation which carries a poor prognosis. The modes of spread of gall bladder carcinoma are direct, lymphatic, vascular, neural, intraperitoneal and intraductal. Ultra Sound, CT and MRI are helpful in diagnosis and staging of the disease. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment and chemotherapy has a very limited role.

Terminalia arjuna: Phytochemistry, pharmacognosy and pharmacological studies

About Author:
Amol.A.Dambal,
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Govt. College of pharmacy, Kathora naka,
Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA.

ABSTRACT:
The herbal remedies have been employed in various medical systems for the treatment and management of different diseases. The plant Terminalia arjuna has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. The plants contain Arjunilic acid, Triterpine glycosides like Arjunetosides I, II, III, IV, Arjunine and Arjunetein. The bark is rich in Saponnins, natural anti-oxidants (flavonoids-arjunone,arjunolone,leteilin), gallic acid, ellagic acid , phytosterols, rich in minerals like ca,  mg, zn and co, reducing sugars & coloring matter. It has been reported as Cardio tonic, Hepato-protective, Immunomodulatory, Antihyperglycemic, Antihyperlipidemic, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory, Antibacterial and Antiulcer properties.The current study is therefore carried out to provide requisite phytochemical and Pharmacological detail about the plant. The plant is cultivated in different parts of India on a small scale at present However; systematic information on different aspects of this species is not available. In this review, an attempt has been made to present this information.

BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS

About Authors:
Kataria Sahil, Aggarwal Ashutosh, Middha Akanksha, Sandhu Premjeet
Seth G. L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research,
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan,
INDIA

INTRODUCTION
Diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood.
There are three major types of diabetes:
•    Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood. Many patients are diagnosed when they are older than age 20. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause is unknown. Genetics, viruses, and autoimmune problems may play a role.

•    Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. It makes up most of diabetes cases. It usually occurs in adulthood, but young people are increasingly being diagnosed with this disease. The pancreas does not make enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal, often because the body does not respond well to insulin. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it, although it is a serious condition. Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common due to increasing obesity and failure to exercise.

Benzofuran : SAR And Pharmacological activity scaffold

About Authors:
Ali K. Akhtar, Waquar A. Khan,Lubna azmi
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Integral University Lucknow,
India

Abstact:
The broad and potent activity of benzofuran has established it as one of the biological importent scaffold. This article is covered the methods of synthesis of benzofuran and its derivatives, structural activity relationship and pharmacological activities so it is an effort to highlight the importance of the benzofuran in the present context and promise they hold for the future.

Transdermal Drug Delivery System- A Total View

About Authors:
Vinay Mishra, Shilpi Bhargava
Advance Institute of Biotech and Paramedical Sciences,
Kanpur

Introduction:
Delivering medicine to the general circulation through the skin is seen as a desirable alternative to taking it by mouth. Patientsoften forget to take their medicine, and even the most faithfullycompliant get tired of swallowing pills, especially if theymust take several each day. Additionally, bypassing the gastrointestinal(GI) tract would obviate the GI irritation that frequently occursand avoid partial first-pass inactivation by the liver. Further,steady absorption of drug over hours or days is usually preferableto the blood level spikes and troughs produced by oral dosageforms.1

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