“The Unknown Mystery of Death - Risk Factor for Development of Cancer Cervix in Indian Women.”

 

About Author: Rinki Verma (Research fellow)
Institute of Medical science (CEMS)
Banaras Hindu University
Varanasi - 221005

Abstract
India, the disease accounts for an estimated 24 percent of India’s cancer cases among women and additionally 74,000 indian women die annually from the disease, which results from the abnormal growth of cells in the cervix (the narrow opening of the uterus or womb). Cervical cancer is the most common disorder among middle-aged women which increased the mortality rate  in  Indian rural women as compared urban due to lack of  their awareness and  don’t acquire appropriate education .  Uncontrolled growth (cancer) in the cervix is not a single type. It is not usually associated with hereditary genetic factor but also a number of other factors (Chemical, Physical , environmental and biological ) indirectly heighten the risk of cervical cancer by increasing the likelihood that a woman will contract an HPV infection. These factors include early age at first intercourse and multiple sex partners. National Cancer Control Program emphasizes the importance of early detection and treatment. But the country has no organized screening program, and many Indian women lack information about the disease and access to prevention and treatment facilities. Therefore, it is most of important to reduced rate of women mortality through proper management.

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1096

I. Introduction:
India is one of the countries where women and men have the same life expectancy. But there are still problems with women’s health life expectancy in Indian women due to high rate of mortality, particularly during childhood and in their reproductive age.
The discrepancy has been noticed over the dominance on males over the females. A health problem with Indian women is intrinsically linked to their socio economic status in society also. Research on women’s status are overlooked. The socio economic factors are so strong for son dominancy which can easily be recognized by high dowry death, molestations of daughters. The best example recently we have noticed that even government fail to comprehensible the women bill in the parliament due to empowerment of male dominancy in the government. All of these factors exert a negative impact on the health status like depression. Although, Indian women’s facing most common problems in the country are hypertension, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis besides this tropical diseases such as malaria and filarial infection. The other severe disorders are infertility, malignancies both common, cervical cancer and breast cancer, Table-1 depict the cause of mortality rate in different part of the country due to different diseases base on socio-economic status.

Table-1. Prevalence (%) of mortality caused by cervical cancer in the country.

S.N

Causes disease

World

Frequency (%)

Low income country Frequency (%)

Middle income country Frequency (%)

High income country Frequency (%)

1

Ischaemic heart disease

12.2

8.7

14.8

15.8

2

Stroke

11.1

6.1

16.4

11.2

3

Low respiratory infection

7.3

11.4

0.0

4.0

4

COPD*

5.1

3.3

7.8

3.1

5

Diarrhoeal diseases

3.8

7.0

------

----

6

HIV/AIDS

3.7

6.1

2.4

------

7

Diabetes mellitus

2.3

-----

2.6

3.0

8

Premature and low birth weight

2.1

3.3

-----

-----

9

Neonatal infection(Pulmonary disease)

2.0

3.5

------

-----

10

Hypertensive heart disease

1.9

-----

2.8

2.2

11

Trachea,bronchus and lung cancer

-----

-----

1.7

3.9

12

 

Colon and rectum   cancer

-----

-----

 

----

 

1.2

Source WHO. *CPOD= Chronic pulmonary disease

II. What is Cervix?
The cervix (means neck in Latin) is part of a woman's reproductive system and the lower, narrow part of uterus (a hollow, pear-shaped organ), is found in a woman's lower abdomen, between the bladder and the rectum. The vagina leads to the outside of the body as shown in fig.1. During pregnancy, the cervix is tightly closed to help keep the baby inside the uterus. At the time of birth, the cervix opens to allow the baby to pass through the vagina.

Fig- 1.Human female reproductive system showing structure of cervix

III. Background Information:
Earlier age of scientific era with advantage of technology the first out growth was abnormal in the year 1930s by Scientist Dr. Richard Shope of the Rockefeller University studied wild rabbits that had developed "horns," which upon further analysis was caused by a virus that could be transmitted and later confined by malignant. This research eventually led to the discovery that cervical cancer was caused by a papillomavirus. Study was further confirmed by Dr. Shope and Dr. Harald zur Hausen's in 1980s by the using of the DNA technology.
The Greek physician in 400 B.C., Hippocrates wrote about the disease and even attempted to treat the cancer with a procedure known as the trachelectomy; through this procedure he couldn’t eliminate the cancer. Again in the 1940s, the procedure was improved in which cervix part removed from the uterus. Cancer of the uterine cervix is the second-most common malignant tumour in the World . Mostly  it appears in woman aged between 50 to 55 years of an individulas.The exact cause of cervical cancer was unknown until the 20th century. After some time, scientists have been discovered the causes of cervical cancer, they found that the cervical cancer caused by exposure to the human papilloma virus (HPV).In1980s, it was declared that they are affected only in the presence of HPVs.

IV. Epidemiology:
Globally and perspectively, “epidemiology play a large role in a comprehensive cancer centre and research on women health problem to established the association between risk factors of an individual cancer and their association with other factor. Traditionally, these include case series, case–control studies, cohort studies, and intervention studies. Most studies conducted before the availability of HPV, DNA detection systems identified as key risk factors several variables including the sexual behaviour of our Indian women and of their partners. According to the most recent data, about 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer registered worldwide each year and majority of them occurs in developing countries. The women due to cervical cancer approximately 50% annually, among them > 80 % are belong to developing countries; this may be because of high cost for the treatment of identified cervical cases according to the study of World Bank in 1993.

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Job Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE


Pages

FIND MORE ARTICLES