Pharmacology Articles


About Authors:
Patel Punita s*, Patel Brilina M, Arora Bhoomi
Institute of clinical research India
ahmedabad, Gujarat

Bullous Pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease appearing predominantly in the elderly. Bullous Pemphigoidcharacterized by an autoimmune response to 2 hemidesmosomal proteins within the dermal–epidermal junction, These proteins, called BP antigen 1 (BPAG1 or AgBP230), and BPAG2 (or AgBP180 or collagen XVII) have respective molecular masses of 230 and 180. While BP180 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with an extracellular domain BP230 localizes intracellularly and associates with the hemidesmosomal plaque. The disease is characterized clinically by tight bullae, with clear content, often large, developing primarily on the edge of erythematous plaques. Intense itching is common. The disease is primarily treated with systemic corticosteroids. Now,The increased knowledge of the development of noveltherapeutic strategies for Bullous Pemphigoids.


About Authors:
Rawat Pinki1*, Rawat Preeti2, Kumar Piyush3 Kanoujia Jovita3, Singh Sangeeta 1
1. Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, Unnao, U.P., India.
2.  L.T.R. College Of Technology, Meerut, U.P., India.
3. Curadev Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Kanpur, U.P., India.


Selective estrogen receptor modulators, called SERMs for short, blocks the naturally circulating estrogen in breast tissues and other estrogen-sensitive tissues in the body. Each estrogen receptor has a slightly different structure, depending on the kind of cell it is in. If a SERM binds to a estrogen receptor, there is no site available for estrogen to bind and it can't attach to the cell. SERMs are called "selective" because they bind to particular estrogen receptors. This selective binding action is sometimes called estrogen inhibition, or estrogen suppression.

Anti-inflammatory activity oflic extract of R Methanooot of Cissampelos pareira on Carragenin induced rat paw edema

About authors:
Gourab Saha*1, Pankaja Senapati1, Narahari Sahu2, Dr. Sambit Parida3
1. Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur – 2, Orissa, India.
2. Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur – 2, Orissa, India.
3. Department of Pharma analysis, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur–2, Orissa, India.


This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira (Abuta) in male albino rats after intramuscular administration. This was done using the carragenin-induced paw edema method. Methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira showed significant anti-inflammatory activity similar to ibuprofen and indomethacin.


About Authors:
Chauhan M.K., Kawadkar J., Kishore R.*, Pathak A.M.
Department of Pharmaceutics
DIPSAR, New Delhi

This paper discussed the problems associated with nasal drug delivery and how it is possible, sometimes by means of quite simple concepts, to improve transport across the nasal membrane. It also described the advantages, barriers, physicochemical factors, and formulation related parameters that affecting the nasal drug delivery and the applications of nasal route for delivery of peptides, proteins, non-peptide drugs, and vaccines.  In this way it is feasible to deliver efficiently challenging drugs such as small polar molecules, peptides and proteins and even the large proteins and polysaccharides used in vaccines or DNA plasmids exploited for DNA vaccines. The transport of drugs from the nasal cavity directly to the brain is also described. Nasal vaccines offer several benefits, such as low enzymatic degradation compared to oral vaccines, and greater acceptability to patients. Nasal vaccines, however, have to overcome several limitations, including mucociliary clearance. Therefore, nasal vaccines require potent adjuvants and delivery systems to enhance their immunogenicity and to protect their antigens.


About Authors:
Bishal Khatiwada1,2, Binita Dhakal1,2, Surya Prasad Sharma1,2, Uddhav Timilsina1
1. Department of Biotechnology,
College for Professional Studies, Kathmandu, Nepal
2. Department of Biotechnology,
Sikkim Manipal University, Gangtok, Sikkim, India

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1310

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which person is characterized by the high blood sugar either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not use the insulin that is produced.[1] The classical symptoms of diabetes are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).[2] Almost one in 10 of the world population already has this condition, or can be expected to develop it during their lifetime, with prevalence rates forecast to double within the next 15 years.[3] According to WHO(2000A.D.), at least 171 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, or 2.8% of the population.[4]


About Authors:
Richa Thakur*, Gaurav Swami, M.S. Rathore, A.K. Sharma
CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Jalandhar, Punjab, India


The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye render this organ exquisitely impervious to foreign substances. The main challenge to the formulator is to circumvent the protective barriers of the eye without causing permanent tissue damage. The newly developed particulate and vesicular systems like liposomes, pharmacosomes and discosomes are useful in delivering the drug for a longer extent and helpful in reaching the systemic circulation. The most recent advancements of the ocular delivery systems provide the delivery of the genes and proteins to the internal structures which were once inaccessible and thus are of great importance in treating the diseases which are caused due to genetic mutation, failure in normal homeostasis, malignancy but also maintaining the physiological function of eye. The review focuses on the developments achieved in this mode of delivery of the drugs along with the pros and cons associated with greater focus on the advanced delivery systems.


Renu Singh*, Saumya Das, Sanjita Das
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, NIET,
Greater Noida, U.P., 201306.


Cognitive deficits have long been recognized as severe and consistent neurological disorders associated with numerous psychiatric and neurodegenerative states such as Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems, and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegerative disorder which affects older individuals and may progress to a totally vegetative state. Atrophy of cortical and sub-cortical areas is associated with deposition of β-amyloid protein in the form of senile plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. There is marked cholinergic deficiency in the brain, though other neurotransmitter systems are also affected. Various measures to augement cholinergic transmitter in the brain have been tried. The relatively cerebroselective anti-ChEs have been approved for clinical use. Nootropic agents are clinically used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities and for improving memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side-effects associated with these agents have made their utility limited. Many experimental models are currently available for the evaluation of agents that affect learning and memory processes. In-vitro methods inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity is measured by determining IC50 with the help of Log probit analysis. In ex-vivo cholinesterase inhibition method the dose response relationship determined for drugs such as physostigmine and tacrine Agents which are H3 receptor agonist are evaluated for [3H] Ach release activity in rat using rat brain slices. The binding affinity of potential nicotinic cholinergic agonist in brain using agonist ligand is determined by [3H]-N- methyl carbamylcholine binding nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat frontal cortex. In In-vivo methods the inhibitory passive avoidance the test are carried on animals to test the learning and memory capacity of animal by suppressing a particular behavior. It includes step down, step through, two compartment test, up-hill avoidance, scopolamine induced test, and ischemia induced amnesia, memory impairments in basal forebrain. In active avoidance conditioned stimulus is given to the animal, which gives noxious stimulus as a result. It includes runway avoidance, shuttle box avoidance, jumping avoidance. In discrimination learning animals have no choice between the conditioned stimuli. Studies on aged monkeys provides additional advantage for neurobehavioral animal model of aging in that many of behavioral processes thought to be affected by aging.


About Author:
Hiren Sakhiya,
M.Sc in Clinical Research Management,
Prist University, Thanjavur,


Diabetes a chronic (lifelong) disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. Diabetes is a common disease in older age, affecting about one in five individuals. In 2000, according to the World Health Organization, at least 171 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, or 2.8% of the population. Its incidence is increasing rapidly, and it is estimated that by 2030, this number will almost double. Diabetes is also associated with mortality and significant morbidity, including neurological disability. Diabetes affects both peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. Neuropathy along with retinopathy and nephropathy appears in late stage of diabetes but effect on cognition starts in early stage of diabetes. Although the effects of diabetes on the peripheral nervous system are well established, the effects of diabetes on the central nervous system have been less clear. Several studies have found that diabetes is related to dementia and cognitive function. It is unclear in which stage of diabetes the cognitive decrements become manifest and how they progress over time. Study is conducted to confirm the association of cognitive function with diabetes.


About Authors:
B. A. Baviskar1, S. S. Khadabadi2, S. L. Deore1*, R. P.Marathe1

1Government College of Pharmacy, Kathora Naka,
Amravati – 444604, MS, INDIA.
2Government College of Pharmacy, Aurangabad Opp. Govt. Polytechnic, Osmanpura,  Aurangabad-431005,
Maharashtra INDIA


Abstract: Topoisomerase is an enzyme that alters/regulates the super coiling of double-stranded DNA by transiently cutting one or both strands of the DNA and hence important target for anticancer activity. The present review articles is focusing a light on points like What is topoisomerase, its types, mode of action of cancer inhibition, Top-I targeted anticancer drugs, Top-II targeted anticancer drugs and Topoisomerase Cellular resistance.