Pharmacology Articles


About Authors:
Garima Gupta*, Amit Singh
Department of Pharmaceutics,
R.V. Northland Institute,
Greater Noida, G. B. Nagar, U.P.


Technological attempts have been made in the research and development of rate-controlled oral drug delivery systems to overcome physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence times (GRT) and unpredictable gastric emptying times (GET). Conventional oral dosage forms pose low bioavailability problems due to their rapid gastric transition from stomach, especially in case of drugs which are less soluble at alkaline pH of intestine. Similarly, drugs which produce their local action in stomach get rapidly emptied and do not get enough residence time in stomach. So, frequency of dose administration in such cases is increased. To avoid this problem, various efforts have been made to prolong the retention time of drug delivery system. In this review, we will discuss about the various approaches to produce gastro retention of drug delivery system, with current & recent developments of Stomach Specific floating drug delivery system.

A Review on the role of Paclitaxel in Cancer –"Mechanism & Enhanced Bioavailability"

About Authors:
Raj Mukherjee*, Koyel Sen, Dr. Ketousetuo Kuotsu**
* Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University.
** Assistant Professor,
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology,
Jadavpur University.


“Paclitaxel” is a potent mitotic inhibitor acting as anti-neoplastic agent, obtained as complex diterpins, termed “Taxanes” from the barks of Taxus breufolia (Pacific Yew). The oral bioavailability of the drug varies around 6-7% and has a strong protein binding capacity altering between 89% - 98%. Most of these drugs have a central role in metastatic ovarian and breast carcinoma, along with advanced head and neck cancer, small cell lung cancer, esophageal adenocarcinoma, hormone refractory prostate cancer, Kaposi’s Sarcoma and also in the prevention of recurrent narrowing of Coronary Stents. Paclitaxel mainly functions by improvising enhanced stabilization of microtubule polymers during cell division and binds specifically to the beta-tubulin subunits, thus antagonizing disassembly of the key cytoskeletal protein, producing abnormal arrays of microtubules throughout the cell cycle.  Due to the poor aqueous solubility there is a need for the development of alternative formulations of paclitaxel with improved solubility and at the same time devoid of major toxic effects. Various approaches employed so far include cosolvents, emulsions, micelles, liposomes, microsphere nanoparticles, cyclodextrins, pastes, and implants. All these formulations have been prepared with specific aims to enhance bio-stability and  reduce the basic toxic effects of Paclitaxel including low blood count, hair loss, peripheral neuropathy, anthralgias , myalgias, nausea, vommiting,  mouth sores and various hypersensitivity reactions . The drug undergoes extensive CYP-mediated hepatic metabolism (majorly CYP2C8 with specific contributions from CYP3A4), and not more than 10% of a unit dose is excreted in the urine intact. We have tried to answer the probable mechanisms of Paclitaxel and how it can be made more bio-available in order to enhance its anti-cancer activities. Our review revealed the active ingredients that are co-administered with paclitaxel did not improve its functions but blocked the pathways that decreased the function of paclitaxel, since P-glycoproteins itself reduces the accumulation of paclitaxel and might use it as a substrate.


About Authors:
Smriti Rai, Ashok kr. Bhambu, Neelam Sharma, Rupesh Gautam
Department of Pharmacology,
Jaipur college of Pharmacy,
Jaipur, India.

Gastric ulcer is most widespread disease and this is due to imbalance between aggressive and defensive factors. Various parts of plants like root, rhizome, bark, leaves, fruit, flower or even the whole plants are used in the treatment of ulcer by the Indian community especially those belongs to the tribals and rural areas. This is well known that various constituents present in plants like flavanoids are responsible for antiulcer activity.This study is aimed to collect some plants of antiulcer property to provide information regarding to cure  the ulcer. The plants are widely used in treatment of ulcers areBenincasa hispida fruit extract(RS), Aspilia africana,Azima tetracantha, Ficus religiosa,Zingiber officinale, and Ocimum sanctum.

Anti-inflammatory activity of Methanolic extract of Aerial parts of Emblica officinalis on Carragenin induced rat paw edema

About Authors:
Gourab Saha*, Sabitri Bindhani, Niranjan Kumar Manna
Department of Pharmaceutics,
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda,
Berhampur – 760002, Orissa, India


This study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla) in male albino rats after intramuscular administration. This was done using the Carragenin-induced paw edema method (acute inflammatory model).Methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis showed significant anti-inflammatory activity similar to ketoprofen and indomethacin.


About Authors:
*1P.SanilKumar, 1C K. Dhanapal, 2Sandhya Ravi
1Department of Pharmacy,
Annamali University, AnnamaliNager,
Chidambaram, Tamilnadu.
2Lotus Labs Pvt Ltd,
No.07, Jasmabhavan Road, Vasanthanager, Bangalore, Karnataka.


Hospitals are created for cure the disease but not for the spreading of diseases, even though this statement is true to the theoretical concept but it is not possible practically due to various risk factors. The spread of infection in the hospitals occurs due to the microorganism. Nosocomial infections add significantly to the economic burden of managing the underlying disease that has lead to hospitalization of the patient. More than 90% of reported infections are bacterial where as viral, fungal or protozoal infections are less commonly involved in hospital-acquired infections. This project deals with bacterial nosocomial pathogens only, since they are by far major causes of nosocomial infections. Objective of the present study include  the identification, prevention and control of nosocomial infection in our hospitals. The ultimate aim is the reduction of nosocomial infections and their costs. Baseline study for morbidity pattern in the hospitals, finding sources of exogenous and endogenous sources of nosocomial infection. Suggest measures to minimize the nosocomial infections and suggest guidelines for efficacious management of nosocomial infections.


About Authors:
S.Kameshwaran1*, V.Suresh1, M.Mohanraj2
1Department of pharmacology,
JKK munirajah medical research foundation and College of Pharmacy,
B.Komarapalayam, Namakkal, Tamilnadu - 638183
2Marineboitoxinology labs, CAS in marine biology, Annamalai university,
Chidambaram, Tamilnadu-608502

Tecoma stans flowers have been traditionally used for many ailments including cancer. In the present study, anti cancer activity of methanolic flower extract of T.stans (METS) was evaluated using both in vitro and in vivo methods. METS was subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical investigations by using standard procedures. In vitro antitumor activity of METS was evaluated by the MTT assay methodusing Vero and HEP-2 cell lines. Then the extract subjected to in vivo anti cancer activity using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor model. The activity was assessed Increase in life span, average increase in body weight, changes in food intake, tumor volume, tumor weight, viable cell count, non viable cell count, PCV, Total cell count and hematological studies. The potency of the extract was compared with standard 5-flurouracil (20 mg/kg i.p.).In in vitro anti cancer activity METS exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against both cell lines even at different concentrations. Oral administration of METS at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/Kg, significantly (p < 0.001) increased the survival time, non viable cell count and decreased the average body weight and food intake, viable cell count of the tumor bearing mice. After 14 days of inoculation, METS was able to reverse the changes in the hematological parameters, protein and PCV consequent to tumor inoculation.The results indicate that METS possess significant antitumor activity on dose dependent manner.


About Authors:
Dinesh Kumar Jain*, Gajanan Darwhekar, Kapil Mahesh Dutt Swami
College of Pharmacy,
IPS Academy, Rajendra Nagar,
AB Road, Indore.
M.P. India.


Dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis are the common clinical conditions caused by increased growth of fungi and bacteria on the scalp which results in abnormal proliferation, scaling and flaking of scalp epidermis. In present study an attempt was made to develop hair styling gel of Fluconazole, zinc pyrithione and their combination using different concentration of carbopol 940. The formulations were evaluated and compare for rheology, pH, active content, in vitro drug release, ex vivo drug release, in vitro antidandruff activity and in vivo antidandruff activity. All the formulation are homogenous, transparent and stable but formulation HG1, HG7 and HG11 shows high clarity, optimum rheology, high drug content and  drug release, so these three formulations were evaluated for in vitro antidandruff activity. HG11 shows higher zone of inhibition then HG1 and HG7 therefore HG11 was selected for skin irritation test, in vivo study and stability study. HG11 does not show any skin irritation hence it could be an effective formulation for treatment of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis as compare to other.


About Authors:
Kapil Sharma*, Priyanka sharma**
*Yaresun Pharmaceutical Pvt Ltd,India
** Student, Rajasthan, India


The mammalian intestinal tract contains a complex and diverse society of both pathogenic and non pathogenic bacteria. Most research to date has focused on the mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria achieve their detrimental effect. However, more recent research has unveiled a glimpse into the mechanism of action and potential therapeutic role of indigenious non pathtogenic microorganisms (probiotic).
Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic are moving from snake oil into the mainstream of medical therapy. This evolution has been facilitated by our ever increasing understanding of the mechanism of action of these agents and by the development of molecular method for analyzing and identifying complex bacterial community within the mammalian intestine.1, 2


About Author:
Brijesh Borad,
The University of London Metropolitan University,
London, UK

Abstract :-
Breast cancer is widely spreaded type of cancer in women and responsible for high number of cancer death in women. Taxol has been already approved to be used for breast cancer by FDA. There have been several studies on the anti tumor activities of Vitamin E Succinate (VES) as complementary and alternative medicine. In present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of taxol-VES combination on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines in comparison with taxol alone. MCF-7 cells are preffered because of higher sensitivity to estogens. MCF-7 cells were sub cultured in according to specifications of aseptic conditions by incubating at 37οC and 5%CO2. Cells were seeded in 24 well plate with culture medium and different concentration of different drug regimen ( taxol alone, VES alone, taxol-VES combination) for 72hrs. Cell viability can be checked by MTT cell viability assay. MTT assay uses a MTT dye which acts as a substrate for viable cell reductase enzyme. This enzyme reduces MTT yellow dye to purple colour formazan which is in proportional to viable cell eventually. The intensity of purple colour was measured by measuring absorbances at 570nM using spectrophotometer. The results of the study were plotted as %cell viability Vs concentration for each of three drug regimen. IC50 values for each drugs were calculated. Graphical and statistical analysis of results concluded that taxol-MCF combination has more inhibitory effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines when treated for 72hrs in comparison with taxol alone and statistical analysis had concluded that results were significant enough to accept clinically to use in stratagic breast cancer therapy management.

Evaluation of Antipyretic Activity of Ethanolic rhizome extract of Curcuma amada

About Authors:
Department of Pharmacology
P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy,
Andhra Pradesh, India.

Objective -
The objective of the present work was to study the antipyretic activity of rhizome Curcuma amada Linn. belonging to family Zingiberaceae, known as “Amargandha” in Sanskrit & “Mamidiallam” in Telugu Materials & Methods: The ethanolic extract was taken for the study and evaluated for antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in Wister strain albino rats. The ethanolic extract at a dose of 100mg/kg & 200mg/kg were evaluated for antipyretic activity. Result - The extract of Curcuma amada plant showed a significant (P < 0.01) dose dependent antipyretic effect in yeast induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. Conclusion - The ethanolic extract of Curcuma amada Linn. plant have significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug. So. It can be recommended for further studies.