Pharmacology Articles


About Authors:
Richa Sood

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis and worsening of heart failure(HF). Recently developed class of drug, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) block the RAS at the receptor level, and may therefore provide more complete blockade. Angiotensin II Receptor type 1 antagonists have been widely used in treatment of diseases like hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic nephropathy. Their beneficial effects are related to inhibition of Angiotensin II by blockade of AT1 receptor. Valsartan is an orally active Angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist which causes reduction in blood pressure and is used in treatment of hypertension. It was first developed by Novartis and has wide market in the developed and the developing countries.

Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic Activity of a Polyherbal Formulation in Alloxan induced Diabetic Rats

S Hamza*, Dr D. K. Suresh, R. Hasan, Md S. Khalid, R. Mistry
Department of Pharmacology,
Luqman College of Pharmacy,
Gulbarga - 585 102,
Karnataka, India.

The study was to assess the antidiabetic activity ofa polyherbal formulation in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic activity of a polyherbal formulation in alloxan induced diabetic rats was assessed using Alloxan β-cytotoxin induced chemical diabetes in a wide variety of wistar albinorats. The polyherbal formulation contains thefollowing plants leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, Ginkgo biloba and plant seeds of Mucuna prurience.The extracts were prepared by continues hot soxhlet extraction using petroleum ether and water. Three different formulations were prepared for the study. The study reveals that the polyherbal formulations of plants leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, Ginkgo biloba and plant seeds of Mucuna prurience have antidiabetic activity and theactionmay be due to the restoration or regeneration of β-cells of pancreas.

Simple spectroscopic Methods for estimating Brain Neurotransmitters, Antioxidant Enzymes of Laboratory animals like Mice: A review

About Authors:
Habibur Rahman1, M.C Eswaraiah2
1Department of Pharmacology,
2Dept. of Pharmacognosy,
Anurag Pharmacy College,
Ananthagiri (V), Kodad (M),
Nalgonda (Dt.), A.P-508206, India

Brain neurotransmitters like Dopamine, serotonin, Adrenaline, Glutamate and enzymes like Acetyl cholinesterase (AchE), Mono amino-oxidase (MAO-A & MAO-B) levels and antioxidant enzymes like Superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase etc play important roles in different complex neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease(AD), Parkinsonism, depression etc. But biochemical estimation of these parameters is very difficult to conduct in simple laboratory. This review is a collection of simple spectroscopic methods to determine the common brain neurotransmitters and antioxidant enzymes.

Evaluation of Anti-diarrhoeal activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of Allophylus serratus against Castor oil-induced diarrhea in wistar rats

1 Department of Pharmacology, P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2 Sri Padmavathi School Of Pharmacy, Tiruchanoor, Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh, India

The ethanolic leaf extract of Allophylus serratus shown significant (p<0.05) antidiarrheal activity on gastrointestinal motility with  castor oil- induced diarrheal model in rats. The results obtained revealed that the leaf extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhoea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine. The extract tested at 200 and 400 mg/kg like the standard drug, loperamide significantly inhibited the frequency of defecation droppings compared to untreated control rats. This result is in support of previous claims in respect of antidiarrhoeal herbs.


About Authors:
A. Srilakshmi, SK. Afsar, B. Priyanka, G. Jyothi Reddy, R.E.Amrutha, B.Jagadeesh babu, C. Raja ram
1. Department of Pharmacology,
P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy,
Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.

ALLOPHYLUS SERRATUS is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various risk factors like analgesia, inflammation, ulcers, and wounds. The aqueous extract of the leaf was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. The extract at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight reduced significantly the formation of oedema induced by formalin. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract had a good analgesic effect characterized by a reduction in the number of writhes when compared to the control. Similarly, the extract caused dose-dependent decrease of licking time and licking frequency in rats injected with 0.05ml of 10% formalin. These results were also comparable to those of ibuprofen, the reference drug used in this study. Acute toxicity test showed that the plant may be safe for pharmacological uses. This study has provided some justification for the folkloric use of the plant in several communities for conditions such as stomachache, pain and inflammations.

Antioxidant activity of fruit extracts of Prunus amygdalus

About Authors:
Devendra Kumar1*, Pragya Seth2
Department of Pharmaceutical technology,
1 Sri Satya Sai collage of Pharmacy Bhopal, India
2 Lakshmi Narayana College of Pharmacy Bhopal, India

Antioxidants play a significant role in protecting the body against free radical damage. Antioxidants refer to a group of compounds that are able to delay or inhibit the oxidation of lipids or other biomolecules and thus, prevent or repair the damage of the body cells that is caused by oxygen. Prunus amygdalus is used in traditional for the cure of ulcer. Since the activity may be correlated with the presence of antioxidant compound were evaluated for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing ability (parameter (FRAP), 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in extract of Prunus amygdalus fruit.


About Authors:
Kapil Patel, Supriya Hazra Das
Department of Pharmacology
Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College,
Kim, Surat – 394118,
Gujarat, India

Peptic ulcer is a condition where benign lesions of gastric or duodenal mucosa occur at a site where the mucosal epithelium is exposed to acid and pepsin, due to imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Acacia leucophloea, a deciduous tree found throughout India is reported to be used in gastric ulcer in traditional medicine. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-ulcer properties of Acacia leucophloea in pylorus ligation ulcer model in rats. Acacia leucophloea was administered for 7 days and on 8th day 30 min prior to the induction of ulcers. Pretreatment with Acacia leaucophloea showed significant ulcer protection against pylorus ligation ulcer model as compared to control. Thus, the ulcer protective and healing effects of Acacia leucophloea may be due to its effect on both offensive and defensive factors. The present findings suggest that Acacia leucophloea has antiulcer properties.

HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE- No Panacea (Cure) yet!

About Authors:
V. Ravi Chandra
Research Associate
B.Pharmacy from Priyadarshini College of pharmacy,
Osmania University,
Hyderabad, AP, INDIA

Huntington's disease is an intricate illness. It is a neurodegenerative, insidious disorder-which means it is harmful and fatal but gradually. The onset of the disease is very late to diagnose the disease. Huntington's disease (HD) also called as ‘Huntington’s Chorea’. Chorea means dance in Greek, which is aftereffect of genetically programmed degeneration of brain cells, called neurons, in certain areas of the brain. This degeneration causes uncontrolled movements, loss of intellectual faculties, and emotional disturbance. By choreic movement physically we can diagnose HD. HD is also a familial disease, passed from parent to child through a mutation in the normal gene. Attempts to study early disease are not unique in neurology (e.g., mild cognitive impairment and vascular cognitive impairment), but studying otherwise healthy-appearing individuals who have nearly 99% certainty of manifesting the symptoms of brain disease does provide distinct but valuable information about the true natural history of the disease. A genetic test, coupled with a complete medical history and neurological and laboratory tests, helps physicians diagnose HD. Presymptomic testing is available for individuals who are at risk for carrying the HD gene. HD occurs in about one out of every 10,000 Caucasian individuals. In India, the cases are unknown because of failure of doctors to diagnose HD as they never seen HD in their practice. Approximately 2.5 times more individuals are at risk for the disorder because of the midlife peak in age at onset.

In-Silico Study of Influences of Electronegativity Features on the Pharmacological and Pharmacokinetic Properties of Salbutamol

About Authors:

The electro negativity of the drug directly resembles its chemical nature towards the receptor. In order to achieve the desired response, the effective binding of drug is necessary. Based on the Lock key theory, every drug having a specific structure so that it can bind to a specific receptor. But for designing more efficient a new chemical entity for receptor as compared to the main drug, there is a requirement of some structural changes in the drug (ligand) molecules under structure activity relationship concept. 
Here an attempt has been made to develop Insilco approach to make some structural changes on the basis of point mutation (changes occurs at a particular point) in the antiasthmatic drug namely salbutamol.
The effect of this mutation on binding affinity of the molecule is studied using docking energy (energy involved in orientation of one molecule to a second are when bound to each other to form a stable complex) calculations and logp values. Here eight different structures of the drug found are more electronegative as compared to the main drug candidate. Mutation was made at C-3a position in place of hydrogen. These were analyzed for binding affinity with target receptor. The mutated molecules which have high logp values and less energy are selected for further adme properties studies. Thus after prediction all adme properties and toxicity studies of the mutated drugs, the best mutation was bromine in place of hydrogen at C-3a position.

Effect of Convolvulus Pluricaulis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder using Animal models

About Authors:
Revathy subramani, Anand M., Muralidharan P.
Department of pharmacology,
C.L. Baid metha college of pharmacy,
Thoraipakkam, Chennai 600097

Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (OCDs) involve habitual, repetitive behaviors that can be bizarre, disruptive and eventually disabling and it is characterized by intrusive thoughts. Aim of this study is to investigate the methanolic extracts of convolvulus pluricaulis (MECP) action on OCD with animal models by using invivo pharmacological evaluations such as Marble burying behavior, Hole board test, Rota-rod test using mice. These tests are well-accepted paradigm to screen anti-compulsive activity and it also reflects an anxiety-like responses. In this study we used seven groups of mice all the three tests were made on the seven groups. First group serves as control. Second and third groups were treated with 15 mg/Kg and 30 mg/Kg of fluoxetine which is a standard drug and also it is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs). Then fourth and fifth groups were treated with 2.5 mg/Kg and 5 mg/Kg of diazepam which is an anxiolytic-sedative drug useful in the symptomatic relief of anxiety and tension states it serves as a negative control. Sixth and seventh groups were treated with 200 mg/Kg and 400 mg/Kg MECP the results show that the MECP can modulate serotonin or dopaminergic levels, which is the major pathway of OCD pathophysiology. Involvement of the serotonergic or dopaminergic receptors for its effect on OCD has been planned based on this study.