Pharmacological Review On Caesalpinia Crista : An Overview
Vidyabharati college of pharmacy,
In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world.Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae)plant is well known for its medicinal and therapeutic values in Indian Ayurveda.The Indian traditional scriptures as well as the Ayurvedic texts have various references to the use of this plant. The bitter principles Bonducin and Natin are the primary constituent of Caesalpinia crista apart from linolic acid, fatty acid, setasitosterol and different diterpenes which mainly believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic action. The plant has been recommended for the treatment of various diseases and disorders such as Antispasmodic, Malarial fever, leucorrhea, abdominal pain , rheumatoid, arthritis, diabetes,cystic fibrosis, amenorrhoea. The herb is used both, internally as well as externally. The present review attempts to provide comphrensive information on pharmacology, phytochemical study,toxicity, traditional uses and current research prospects of the herb.
Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1175
India has a rich tradition of plant-based knowledge on healthcare. A large number of plants/plant extracts/decoctions or pastes are equally used by tribals and folklore traditions in India for various treatments. Traditional medicine, used widely by rural communities in most developing countries, serves as a mainstay for everyday health care for the majority of the world’s population. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that between 60–80% of the population in most developing countries rely on traditional medicine for their everyday health care. (1) Today the pharmacologically active Ingredients of many ayurvedic medicines are being identified and their usefulness in drug therapy being determined. The therapeutic action of important medicinal plants and its parts used. The pharmacological properties of some ayurvedic crude drugs support for their therapeutic claims. (2) In recent times, researchers focus is increased all over the world and a large collection evidence has collected to show valuable potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Caesalpinia crista belonging to Family: Caesalpiniaceae. Found throughout India and tropical countries of the World. The plant was much confused with Caesalpinia bonducella (Syn. C. bonduc). Beside this species like C. nuga and C. jayoba are also sometimes wrongly designated as synonyms for C. crista. In fact, C. jayoba is an adulterant of C. crista. “Bonducella” the name of the species is derived from the Arabic word “Bonduce” meaning a “little ball” which indicated the globular shape of the seed. (3)
Description Of Plant :
Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae) is a large scandant prickly shrub found throughout the interior parts of India, Sri Lanka and West Indies. It is common in southern parts of India and is often grown as a hedge plant.Caesalpiniais a pantropical genus with 120-130 species, but has a complex taxonomic history. (4) This plant has profound medicinal use and is proved to have adaptogenic activity, anthelmintic activity, anti-inflmmatory activity, antipyretic activity, analgesic activity, anti-amyloidogenic activity, antibacterial activity, antidiabetic activity, antifilarial activity, antioxidant activity, nootropic activity, immunomodulatory activity, hypoglycemic activity and hepatoprotective activity.The macro and microscopical features of the seed, leaf and flowers have been studied.
Leaves: Leaves are with large, leafy, branched, basal appendages; 30-60 cm. long; petioles prickly; stipules a pair of reduced pinnae at the base of the leaf each furnished with a long mucronate point; pinnae 6-8 pairs, 5-7.5 cm. long, with a pair of hook stipulary spines at the base. main leaf axis armed with stout, sharp, recurved spines, divided into 4-8 pairs of secondary branches.Leaflets 6-9 pairs, 2-3.8 by 1.3-2.2 cm., membranous, elliptic-oblong, obtuse, strongly mucronate, glabrous above, more or less puberulous beneath; petioloules very short; stipels of short hooked spines.(5)
Seeds : Seeds are hot and dry , globose or rounded. Seed coat is hard, glossy, and greenish to ash grey in colour. It is traversed by circular and vertical faint markings of the cracks, forming uniform rectangular to squarish rectulations all over the surface Seeds 1-2, oblong, lead-colored, 1.3 cm. long.. A raised hilum with remains of the stalk lies in the centre of the dark spot, at the narrow edge of the seed. The seed is exalbuminous. The kernel surface is furrowed and ridged, hard, pale yellowish – white, circular to oval, flattened and about 1.23- 1.75 cm. in diameter.. A scar of the micropyle lies at one end of the kernel, from where arises a prominent ridge demarking the two cotyledons of the embryo. Plumule radical axis is thick, cylindrical and straight.Taste is very bitter and odour is nauseating and unpleasant.100 seeds weigh from 225 to 250 g. (5), (3)
Flowers: Flowers in dense (usually) long-peduncled terminal and supraaxillary racemes dense at the top, lax downward, 15-25 cm. long; pedicels very short in bud, elongating to 5 mm. in flower and 8 mm. in fruits, brown-downy; bracts squarrose, linear, acute, reaching 1 cm. long, fulvous hair. Calyx 6-8 mm. long, fulvous hairy; lobes obovate-oblong, obtuse. Petals oblanceolate, yellow.Flowering starts in mid August and continues till the second week of April. Maximum flowering takes place between last week of August to September, while it is moderate between January to mid April. During the period between last week of April to first week of August the plant is without flowers. (4), (5)
Testa shows an outer single row of radially elongated, very narrow, transluscent, compactly arranged cells forming a palisade layer (Malpighian layer) passing through which is the 'linea lucida'. These cells appear hexagonal in surface view and possess thick walls (rich in pectin as evident from Chloro-zinc Iodine Test). A sub-epidermal zone of 2 or 3 layers of thick walled bearer cells present, followed by multiple rows of osteosclereids, which progressively increase in size, elongate laterally and have more intercellular spaces towards the inner side; the outer few layers of these osteosclereids contain a brown substance; laterally elongated vascular tissues present in the lower region of this zone. The cells inner to vascular elements gradually compacted and rounded towards the inner margin; cotyledons show an outer single layer of epidermis made of small, isodiametric cells, and inner parenchymatous ground tissue cells rich in fixed oil, and having empty cavities uniformly distributed in them. (6)
Powder - Colour light yellow through mustard to brown, coarse and free-flowing; bitter in taste and possessing tamarind -like odour. Parts of vessels showing scalariform thickenings and groups of narrow, palisade cells with light line are present; groups of cells of height from 150 to 250 µ the sub-epidermal layers of seed coat having 10 to 12 µ, squarish bearer cells and upto 150 µ long osteosclereids; cotyledon cells (upto 35 µ) showing fixed oil when mounted in Sudan III. (6)
Geographical distribution:An armed liana, up to 15 m in height, found up to an altitude of 1,000 m in Himalaya and wild throughout the plains of India and; it is also found in deltaic region of western, eastern and southern India 1. Found particularly along the seacoast throughout the hotter parts of India, Burma and Sri Lanka.(3). A large, woody climber, up to 15 m in height, found growing chiefly on the banks of rivers in tidal forests near the eastern sea coast from Orissa and western sea coast from Konkan southwards and also in the Sunderbans in West Bengal, in Bhopal and Himachal Pradesh.(7)
Active Constituents:There are the various active constituents of the plant found in different part of the plant like stem, fruit, seeds, flowers which shows the immense potential activity. The seeds contain fatty oil which contain glycerides of some acids eg. Palmitic acid, stearic acid, and two phytosterols one having m.p. 122-123 c. and other sitosterol and hydrocarbon m.p. 58-59c. The seeds contain a fairly good percentage of pale yellow thick oil having a disagreeable odours. it has a iodine value 96.1. and saponification value 292.8. The cotyledons of the seed contain, besides starchy matters nonalkaloidal bitter principal soluble in alcohol and chloroform and called Natin, seeds consists of 58 p.c. hard outer shell and 42 p.c. of kernel. A nonalkaloidal bitter principal was obtained from the kernels in the form of a white powder called Bonducin to which the physical properties of the seed are attributed. It was found to be insoluble in water but soluble in oils. (8) Previous chemical studies on Caesalpinia crista have resulted in the isolation of cassane furanoditerpenes and ?avonoids. Recent study has isolated two new homoiso?avonoids, caesalpinianone and 6-O-methylcaesalpinianone along with ?ve known naturalproducts, namely, hematoxylol, stereochenol A, 60-O-acetylloganic acid, 40-O-acetylloganic acid, and 2-O-b-D-glucosyloxy-4-methoxybenzenepropanoic acid. These compounds were identi?ed with the aid of NMR and mass spectral studies. (9) The herb Caesalpinia Crista contains the many diterpenoids from their different part specially from the stem and root. With previously invented cassane butenolide hemiketals, four other cassane diterpenes is isolated. They are the caesalpinolide-C, caesalpinolide-D, caesalpinolide-E and cassane furanoditerpene along with other known compounds.(10), (11) From the stem and roots of Caesalpinia crista isolated the nine new cassane-type diterpenes, named taepeenin A–I, and two new norcassane-type diterpenes, named nortaepeenin A–B,were isolated from the along with three known diterpenes: vinhaticoic acid, methyl vinhaticoate and ent-11b-hydroxy-rosa-5,15-diene. Their structures is determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the structure of taepeenin A was con?rmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. (12) Recently four flavonoids compound have been isolated from the flower of caesalpinia crista 3,5,7,3’,4’ pentahydroxy flavones-3-O-ß-D-Xylopyronosyl-7-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (A).,4’-hydroxy 5,7-dimethoxy flavones 4-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-α-L-rhamnopyroside (B), 5-2’-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy isoflavone (C), and 3-5-7,3’,4’,5’-hexahydroxy flavones (D) by various colour reaction, chemical degradation, and spectral analysis. (13) From the CH2Cl2 extract of seed kernels of Caesalpinia crista, five new cassane-type diterpenes, caesalpinins MA- ME (1 5), and three new norcassane-type diterpenes, norcaesalpinins MA-MC (6 8), have been isolated, together with 12 known cassane-type diterpenes, 14(17)-dehydrocaesalmin F, caesaldekarin e, caesalmin B, caesalmin C, caesalmin E, 2-acetoxy-3-deacetoxycaesaldekarin e, 2-acetoxycaesaldekarin e, caesalpinin C, 7-acetoxybonducellpin C, caesalpinin E, norcaesalpinin B, and 6-acetoxy-3-deacetoxycaesaldekarine. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data. (14)
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