Pharmacological Review On Caesalpinia Crista : An Overview

About Authors:
Sudhir Ghawade,
Vidyabharati college of pharmacy,
Amravati

Abstract:
In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world.Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae)plant is well known for its medicinal and therapeutic values in Indian Ayurveda.The Indian traditional scriptures as well as the Ayurvedic texts have various references to the use of this plant. The bitter principles Bonducin and Natin are the primary constituent of Caesalpinia crista apart from linolic acid, fatty acid, setasitosterol and different diterpenes  which mainly believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic action. The plant has been recommended for the treatment of various diseases and disorders such as Antispasmodic, Malarial fever, leucorrhea, abdominal pain , rheumatoid, arthritis, diabetes,cystic fibrosis,  amenorrhoea. The herb is used both, internally as well as externally. The present review attempts to provide comphrensive information on pharmacology, phytochemical study,toxicity, traditional uses and current research prospects of the herb.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1175

Introduction:
India has a rich tradition of plant-based knowledge on healthcare. A large number of plants/plant extracts/decoctions or pastes are equally used by tribals and folklore traditions in India for various treatments. Traditional medicine, used widely by rural communities in most developing countries, serves as a mainstay for everyday health care for the majority of the world’s population. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that between 60–80% of the population in most developing countries rely on traditional medicine for their everyday health care. (1) Today the pharmacologically active Ingredients of many ayurvedic medicines are being identified and their usefulness in drug therapy being determined. The therapeutic action of important medicinal plants and its parts used. The pharmacological properties of some ayurvedic crude drugs support for their therapeutic claims. (2) In  recent  times, researchers focus is increased  all  over  the  world  and  a  large collection evidence  has  collected  to  show valuable  potential  of medicinal  plants  used  in  various  traditional  systems. Caesalpinia crista belonging to Family: Caesalpiniaceae. Found throughout India and tropical  countries  of  the World. The plant was much confused with Caesalpinia bonducella  (Syn.  C. bonduc). Beside this species like C. nuga and C. jayoba are also sometimes wrongly designated as synonyms for  C. crista. In fact, C. jayoba is an adulterant of C. crista. “Bonducella”  the name of  the  species  is derived  from  the  Arabic  word  “Bonduce”  meaning  a  “little  ball” which indicated the globular shape of the seed. (3)

Description Of Plant :
Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae) is a large scandant prickly shrub found throughout the interior parts of India, Sri Lanka and West Indies. It is common in southern parts of India and is often grown as a hedge plant.Caesalpiniais a pantropical genus with 120-130 species, but has a complex taxonomic history. (4) This plant has profound medicinal use and is proved to have adaptogenic activity, anthelmintic activity, anti-inflmmatory activity, antipyretic activity, analgesic activity, anti-amyloidogenic activity, antibacterial activity, antidiabetic activity, antifilarial activity, antioxidant activity, nootropic activity, immunomodulatory activity, hypoglycemic activity and hepatoprotective activity.The macro and microscopical features of the seed, leaf and flowers have been studied.

Macroscopic Characteristics
Leaves:  Leaves  are with  large,  leafy,  branched,  basal appendages; 30-60 cm. long; petioles prickly; stipules a pair  of  reduced  pinnae  at  the  base  of  the  leaf  each furnished  with  a  long  mucronate  point;  pinnae  6-8 pairs,  5-7.5  cm.  long,  with  a  pair  of    hook  stipulary spines  at  the  base.  main  leaf  axis  armed  with  stout, sharp,  recurved  spines,  divided  into  4-8  pairs  of secondary branches.Leaflets  6-9  pairs,  2-3.8  by  1.3-2.2  cm., membranous,  elliptic-oblong,  obtuse,  strongly mucronate,  glabrous  above,  more  or  less  puberulous beneath;  petioloules very short; stipels of short hooked spines.(5)

Seeds : Seeds are hot and dry , globose or rounded. Seed coat is hard, glossy, and greenish to ash grey  in  colour.  It is traversed  by circular  and  vertical  faint  markings  of  the  cracks, forming uniform rectangular to squarish rectulations all over  the  surface  Seeds  1-2,  oblong,  lead-colored,  1.3 cm. long.. A raised hilum with remains of the stalk lies in the centre of the dark spot, at the narrow edge of the seed. The seed is  exalbuminous.  The  kernel  surface  is furrowed  and  ridged,  hard,  pale  yellowish  –  white, circular  to oval,  flattened and about 1.23- 1.75 cm.  in diameter.. A scar of the micropyle lies at one end of the kernel, from where arises a prominent ridge demarking the two cotyledons of the embryo. Plumule radical axis is thick,  cylindrical  and  straight.Taste is  very bitter and odour is nauseating and unpleasant.100 seeds weigh from 225 to 250 g. (5), (3)

Flowers: Flowers in dense  (usually)  long-peduncled terminal and supraaxillary racemes dense at the top, lax downward, 15-25 cm. long; pedicels very short in bud, elongating  to  5  mm.  in flower  and  8  mm.  in fruits, brown-downy; bracts squarrose,  linear, acute, reaching 1 cm. long,  fulvous hair. Calyx 6-8 mm. long, fulvous hairy; lobes obovate-oblong, obtuse. Petals oblanceolate, yellow.Flowering starts in mid August and continues till the second week of April. Maximum flowering takes place between last week of August to September, while it is moderate between January to mid April. During the period between last week of April to first week of August the plant is without flowers. (4), (5)

Microscopic character
Testa shows an outer single row of radially elongated, very narrow, transluscent, compactly arranged cells forming a palisade layer (Malpighian  layer) passing  through which  is  the  'linea  lucida'.  These cells appear hexagonal   in surface view and possess thick walls (rich in pectin as evident  from Chloro-zinc Iodine Test). A sub-epidermal zone of 2 or 3 layers of thick walled bearer cells present, followed by multiple rows of osteosclereids, which     progressively increase in size, elongate laterally and have more intercellular spaces towards the inner side; the outer few layers of these osteosclereids contain  a  brown  substance;   laterally  elongated vascular   tissues  present   in  the   lower region  of   this   zone.  The   cells   inner   to   vascular   elements  gradually   compacted   and rounded towards the inner margin; cotyledons show an outer single layer of epidermis made of small, isodiametric cells, and inner parenchymatous ground tissue cells rich in fixed oil, and having empty cavities uniformly distributed in them. (6)

Powder - Colour light yellow through mustard to brown, coarse and free-flowing; bitter in   taste   and   possessing   tamarind   -like   odour. Parts   of   vessels   showing   scalariform thickenings and groups of narrow, palisade cells with light line are present; groups of cells of height from 150 to 250  µ the sub-epidermal layers of seed coat having 10 to 12 µ, squarish bearer cells and upto 150  µ long osteosclereids; cotyledon cells (upto 35  µ) showing fixed oil when mounted in Sudan III. (6)

Geographical distribution:An armed  liana, up  to 15 m  in height,  found up  to an altitude  of  1,000 m  in Himalaya  and wild  throughout the plains of India and; it is also found in deltaic region of  western,  eastern  and  southern  India  1.  Found particularly along  the  seacoast  throughout  the  hotter parts of India, Burma and Sri Lanka.(3). A large, woody climber, up to 15 m in height, found growing chiefly on the  banks of rivers in tidal forests near the eastern sea coast from Orissa and western sea coast from Konkan southwards and also in the Sunderbans in West Bengal, in Bhopal and Himachal Pradesh.(7)

Active Constituents:There are the various active constituents of the plant found in different part of the plant like stem, fruit, seeds, flowers which shows the immense potential activity. The seeds contain fatty oil which contain glycerides of some acids eg. Palmitic acid, stearic acid, and two phytosterols one having m.p. 122-123 c. and other sitosterol and hydrocarbon m.p.  58-59c. The seeds contain a fairly good percentage of pale yellow thick oil having a disagreeable odours. it has a iodine value 96.1. and saponification value 292.8. The cotyledons of the seed contain, besides starchy matters nonalkaloidal bitter principal soluble in alcohol and chloroform and called Natin, seeds consists of 58 p.c. hard outer shell and 42 p.c. of kernel. A nonalkaloidal bitter principal was obtained from  the kernels in the form of a white powder  called Bonducin to which the physical properties of the seed are attributed. It was found to be insoluble in water but soluble in oils. (8) Previous chemical studies on Caesalpinia crista have resulted in the isolation of cassane furanoditerpenes and ?avonoids. Recent study has isolated two new homoiso?avonoids, caesalpinianone and 6-O-methylcaesalpinianone along with ?ve known naturalproducts, namely, hematoxylol, stereochenol A, 60-O-acetylloganic acid, 40-O-acetylloganic acid, and 2-O-b-D-glucosyloxy-4-methoxybenzenepropanoic acid. These compounds were identi?ed with the aid of NMR and mass spectral studies. (9) The herb Caesalpinia Crista contains the many diterpenoids from their different part specially from the stem and root. With previously invented cassane butenolide hemiketals, four other cassane diterpenes is isolated. They are the caesalpinolide-C, caesalpinolide-D, caesalpinolide-E and cassane furanoditerpene along with other known compounds.(10), (11) From the  stem and roots of Caesalpinia crista isolated the nine new cassane-type diterpenes, named taepeenin A–I, and two new norcassane-type diterpenes, named nortaepeenin A–B,were isolated from the along with three known diterpenes: vinhaticoic acid, methyl vinhaticoate and ent-11b-hydroxy-rosa-5,15-diene. Their structures is determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the structure of taepeenin A was con?rmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. (12) Recently four flavonoids compound have been isolated from the flower of caesalpinia crista 3,5,7,3’,4’ pentahydroxy flavones-3-O-ß-D-Xylopyronosyl-7-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (A).,4’-hydroxy 5,7-dimethoxy flavones 4-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-α-L-rhamnopyroside (B), 5-2’-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy isoflavone (C), and 3-5-7,3’,4’,5’-hexahydroxy flavones (D) by various colour reaction, chemical degradation, and spectral analysis. (13) From the CH2Cl2 extract of seed kernels of Caesalpinia crista, five new cassane-type diterpenes, caesalpinins MA- ME (1 5), and three new norcassane-type diterpenes, norcaesalpinins MA-MC (6 8), have been isolated, together with 12 known cassane-type diterpenes, 14(17)-dehydrocaesalmin F, caesaldekarin e, caesalmin B, caesalmin C, caesalmin E, 2-acetoxy-3-deacetoxycaesaldekarin e, 2-acetoxycaesaldekarin e, caesalpinin C,    7-acetoxybonducellpin C, caesalpinin E, norcaesalpinin B, and 6-acetoxy-3-deacetoxycaesaldekarine. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data. (14)

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