Vidyabharati college of pharmacy,
In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world.Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae)plant is well known for its medicinal and therapeutic values in Indian Ayurveda.The Indian traditional scriptures as well as the Ayurvedic texts have various references to the use of this plant. The bitter principles Bonducin and Natin are the primary constituent of Caesalpinia crista apart from linolic acid, fatty acid, setasitosterol and different diterpenes which mainly believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic action. The plant has been recommended for the treatment of various diseases and disorders such as Antispasmodic, Malarial fever, leucorrhea, abdominal pain , rheumatoid, arthritis, diabetes,cystic fibrosis, amenorrhoea. The herb is used both, internally as well as externally. The present review attempts to provide comphrensive information on pharmacology, phytochemical study,toxicity, traditional uses and current research prospects of the herb.
Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1175
India has a rich tradition of plant-based knowledge on healthcare. A large number of plants/plant extracts/decoctions or pastes are equally used by tribals and folklore traditions in India for various treatments. Traditional medicine, used widely by rural communities in most developing countries, serves as a mainstay for everyday health care for the majority of the world’s population. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that between 60–80% of the population in most developing countries rely on traditional medicine for their everyday health care. (1) Today the pharmacologically active Ingredients of many ayurvedic medicines are being identified and their usefulness in drug therapy being determined. The therapeutic action of important medicinal plants and its parts used. The pharmacological properties of some ayurvedic crude drugs support for their therapeutic claims. (2) In recent times, researchers focus is increased all over the world and a large collection evidence has collected to show valuable potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Caesalpinia crista belonging to Family: Caesalpiniaceae. Found throughout India and tropical countries of the World. The plant was much confused with Caesalpinia bonducella (Syn. C. bonduc). Beside this species like C. nuga and C. jayoba are also sometimes wrongly designated as synonyms for C. crista. In fact, C. jayoba is an adulterant of C. crista. “Bonducella” the name of the species is derived from the Arabic word “Bonduce” meaning a “little ball” which indicated the globular shape of the seed. (3)
Description Of Plant :
Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae) is a large scandant prickly shrub found throughout the interior parts of India, Sri Lanka and West Indies. It is common in southern parts of India and is often grown as a hedge plant.Caesalpiniais a pantropical genus with 120-130 species, but has a complex taxonomic history. (4) This plant has profound medicinal use and is proved to have adaptogenic activity, anthelmintic activity, anti-inflmmatory activity, antipyretic activity, analgesic activity, anti-amyloidogenic activity, antibacterial activity, antidiabetic activity, antifilarial activity, antioxidant activity, nootropic activity, immunomodulatory activity, hypoglycemic activity and hepatoprotective activity.The macro and microscopical features of the seed, leaf and flowers have been studied.
Leaves: Leaves are with large, leafy, branched, basal appendages; 30-60 cm. long; petioles prickly; stipules a pair of reduced pinnae at the base of the leaf each furnished with a long mucronate point; pinnae 6-8 pairs, 5-7.5 cm. long, with a pair of hook stipulary spines at the base. main leaf axis armed with stout, sharp, recurved spines, divided into 4-8 pairs of secondary branches.Leaflets 6-9 pairs, 2-3.8 by 1.3-2.2 cm., membranous, elliptic-oblong, obtuse, strongly mucronate, glabrous above, more or less puberulous beneath; petioloules very short; stipels of short hooked spines.(5)
Seeds : Seeds are hot and dry , globose or rounded. Seed coat is hard, glossy, and greenish to ash grey in colour. It is traversed by circular and vertical faint markings of the cracks, forming uniform rectangular to squarish rectulations all over the surface Seeds 1-2, oblong, lead-colored, 1.3 cm. long.. A raised hilum with remains of the stalk lies in the centre of the dark spot, at the narrow edge of the seed. The seed is exalbuminous. The kernel surface is furrowed and ridged, hard, pale yellowish – white, circular to oval, flattened and about 1.23- 1.75 cm. in diameter.. A scar of the micropyle lies at one end of the kernel, from where arises a prominent ridge demarking the two cotyledons of the embryo. Plumule radical axis is thick, cylindrical and straight.Taste is very bitter and odour is nauseating and unpleasant.100 seeds weigh from 225 to 250 g. (5), (3)
Flowers: Flowers in dense (usually) long-peduncled terminal and supraaxillary racemes dense at the top, lax downward, 15-25 cm. long; pedicels very short in bud, elongating to 5 mm. in flower and 8 mm. in fruits, brown-downy; bracts squarrose, linear, acute, reaching 1 cm. long, fulvous hair. Calyx 6-8 mm. long, fulvous hairy; lobes obovate-oblong, obtuse. Petals oblanceolate, yellow.Flowering starts in mid August and continues till the second week of April. Maximum flowering takes place between last week of August to September, while it is moderate between January to mid April. During the period between last week of April to first week of August the plant is without flowers. (4), (5)
Testa shows an outer single row of radially elongated, very narrow, transluscent, compactly arranged cells forming a palisade layer (Malpighian layer) passing through which is the 'linea lucida'. These cells appear hexagonal in surface view and possess thick walls (rich in pectin as evident from Chloro-zinc Iodine Test). A sub-epidermal zone of 2 or 3 layers of thick walled bearer cells present, followed by multiple rows of osteosclereids, which progressively increase in size, elongate laterally and have more intercellular spaces towards the inner side; the outer few layers of these osteosclereids contain a brown substance; laterally elongated vascular tissues present in the lower region of this zone. The cells inner to vascular elements gradually compacted and rounded towards the inner margin; cotyledons show an outer single layer of epidermis made of small, isodiametric cells, and inner parenchymatous ground tissue cells rich in fixed oil, and having empty cavities uniformly distributed in them. (6)
Powder - Colour light yellow through mustard to brown, coarse and free-flowing; bitter in taste and possessing tamarind -like odour. Parts of vessels showing scalariform thickenings and groups of narrow, palisade cells with light line are present; groups of cells of height from 150 to 250 µ the sub-epidermal layers of seed coat having 10 to 12 µ, squarish bearer cells and upto 150 µ long osteosclereids; cotyledon cells (upto 35 µ) showing fixed oil when mounted in Sudan III. (6)
Geographical distribution:An armed liana, up to 15 m in height, found up to an altitude of 1,000 m in Himalaya and wild throughout the plains of India and; it is also found in deltaic region of western, eastern and southern India 1. Found particularly along the seacoast throughout the hotter parts of India, Burma and Sri Lanka.(3). A large, woody climber, up to 15 m in height, found growing chiefly on the banks of rivers in tidal forests near the eastern sea coast from Orissa and western sea coast from Konkan southwards and also in the Sunderbans in West Bengal, in Bhopal and Himachal Pradesh.(7)
Active Constituents:There are the various active constituents of the plant found in different part of the plant like stem, fruit, seeds, flowers which shows the immense potential activity. The seeds contain fatty oil which contain glycerides of some acids eg. Palmitic acid, stearic acid, and two phytosterols one having m.p. 122-123 c. and other sitosterol and hydrocarbon m.p. 58-59c. The seeds contain a fairly good percentage of pale yellow thick oil having a disagreeable odours. it has a iodine value 96.1. and saponification value 292.8. The cotyledons of the seed contain, besides starchy matters nonalkaloidal bitter principal soluble in alcohol and chloroform and called Natin, seeds consists of 58 p.c. hard outer shell and 42 p.c. of kernel. A nonalkaloidal bitter principal was obtained from the kernels in the form of a white powder called Bonducin to which the physical properties of the seed are attributed. It was found to be insoluble in water but soluble in oils. (8) Previous chemical studies on Caesalpinia crista have resulted in the isolation of cassane furanoditerpenes and ?avonoids. Recent study has isolated two new homoiso?avonoids, caesalpinianone and 6-O-methylcaesalpinianone along with ?ve known naturalproducts, namely, hematoxylol, stereochenol A, 60-O-acetylloganic acid, 40-O-acetylloganic acid, and 2-O-b-D-glucosyloxy-4-methoxybenzenepropanoic acid. These compounds were identi?ed with the aid of NMR and mass spectral studies. (9) The herb Caesalpinia Crista contains the many diterpenoids from their different part specially from the stem and root. With previously invented cassane butenolide hemiketals, four other cassane diterpenes is isolated. They are the caesalpinolide-C, caesalpinolide-D, caesalpinolide-E and cassane furanoditerpene along with other known compounds.(10), (11) From the stem and roots of Caesalpinia crista isolated the nine new cassane-type diterpenes, named taepeenin A–I, and two new norcassane-type diterpenes, named nortaepeenin A–B,were isolated from the along with three known diterpenes: vinhaticoic acid, methyl vinhaticoate and ent-11b-hydroxy-rosa-5,15-diene. Their structures is determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the structure of taepeenin A was con?rmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. (12) Recently four flavonoids compound have been isolated from the flower of caesalpinia crista 3,5,7,3’,4’ pentahydroxy flavones-3-O-ß-D-Xylopyronosyl-7-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (A).,4’-hydroxy 5,7-dimethoxy flavones 4-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-α-L-rhamnopyroside (B), 5-2’-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy isoflavone (C), and 3-5-7,3’,4’,5’-hexahydroxy flavones (D) by various colour reaction, chemical degradation, and spectral analysis. (13) From the CH2Cl2 extract of seed kernels of Caesalpinia crista, five new cassane-type diterpenes, caesalpinins MA- ME (1 5), and three new norcassane-type diterpenes, norcaesalpinins MA-MC (6 8), have been isolated, together with 12 known cassane-type diterpenes, 14(17)-dehydrocaesalmin F, caesaldekarin e, caesalmin B, caesalmin C, caesalmin E, 2-acetoxy-3-deacetoxycaesaldekarin e, 2-acetoxycaesaldekarin e, caesalpinin C, 7-acetoxybonducellpin C, caesalpinin E, norcaesalpinin B, and 6-acetoxy-3-deacetoxycaesaldekarine. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data. (14)
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Adaptogenic activity Adaptogenic activity of Caesalpinia bonduc seed extracts in rats was reported by using cold stress model and swim endurance model. It showed that the extracts signi?cantly increased the swim endurance time. Stress induced animals exhibited hypoglycaemia as well as depletion in serum cortisol level and increased total leukocyte count, the extracts showed a signi?cant action in overcoming these imbalances. (15)
Anthelmintic activity In the invitro study methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella Linn. Flem were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli.The alcoholic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella caused paralysis of 9.66 min. and time of death of 30.5 min. while aqueous revealed paralysis of 8.66 and 33.33 min. respectively against the earthworm Pheretima posthuma.Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity.(16)
In previous paper drug was evaluated for the anthelmintis activity but this study was for the polyherbal preparation. Anthelmintic activity of Chenopodium album and Caesalpinia crista were determined against the trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep. In vitro anthelmintic activity of crude aqueous methanolic extract of both the plants was determined using mature Haemonchus contortus and their eggs in adult motility assay and egg hatch test, respectively. In vivo, sheep was naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes by administering crude powder(CP) and mehanolic extract in increasing doses.These data shows both Caesalpinia crista and Chenopodium album possess anthelmintic activity in vitro and in vivo. (17)
Anti-innflammatory activity In this study wistar rats of either sex were treated with petroleum ether extract of Caesalpinia bonduc.Inflammation was induced in rat paw by injecting 0.1 ml of carrageenan. The extract significantly decreased the inflammationat dose level of 100 mg/kg.The anti-inflammatory activity of petroleum ether extract of C. bonduc was considered may be due to action of phytosterol. (18)
As anti-inflammatory activity of seed was previously evaluated, herb are now evaluated for analgesic and antipyretic activity.Effects of C. bonducella seed oil on acute and chronic in?ammation was determined in experimental animal model.To assess the anti-in?ammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities, varied concentrations of the seed oil of C. bonducella (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally) were tested in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema, brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia, acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate reaction time in experimental rats. The paw volumes, pyrexia and writhes in experimental rats were reduced signi?cantly (p < 0.05) as compared to that of control, and hot plate test showed signi?cant licking effect in rats. (19)
Anti-amyloidogenic It is evidenced that Caesalpinia crista leaf aqueous extract has anti-amyloidogenic potential. The studies on pharmacological properties of C. crista are very limited. This study focused on ability of Caesalpinia crista leaf aqueous extract on the prevention of (i) the formation of oligomers and aggregates from monomers (Phase I: Aß + extract co-incubation); (ii) the formation of ?brils from oligomers (Phase II: extract added after oligomers formation); and (iii) dis-aggregation of pre-formed ?brils (Phase III: aqueous extract added to matured ?brils and incubated for 9 days). As amyloid beta (Aß) is the major etiological factor implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the recent studies aimed to decrease a levels or prevention of Aß aggregation which are the major targets for therapeutic intervention. The aggregation kinetics was monitored using thio?avin-T assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that C. crista aqueous extract could able to inhibit the Aß aggregation from monomers and oligomers and also able to disaggregate the preformed ?brils. (20)
Antibacterial activity The methanol extract and four triterpenoids isolated from the seeds of Caesalpinia bonducella showed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.MeOH extract and the four isolated triterpenoids Lupeol, lupeol acetate, ß-amyrin and α-amyrin from the cold maceration MeOH was evaluated by the disc diffusion method. zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by using Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus. (21)
Antimicrobial activity Ethyl acetate extract of leaf Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) flem. Was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates, proteus vulgarisa, pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella sp., staphylococcus citrus, staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, candida albicans and rhodoturulla sp. using agar diffusion method. It was found that the compound α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-ω-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl) polymethylene isolated from leaf was responsible for activity. (22)
The in vivo and in vitro antimicrobial activity was also reported in the seed of C.crista herb containing various active chemical constituent. (23)
In previous paper seed was evaluated for antimicrobial activity, but now seed coat is also reported. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of seed coat and seed kernel extracts were investigated by microbroth dilution assay. In vitro activities of hydroalcoholic extracts were investigated in rat models of chronic pseudomonas aeruginosa, pneumonia. (24)
The seed extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella were used for determining the antidiabetic activity in wistar rats in case of alloxan induced hyperglycemia. Afterthe oral administration of the extracts (300 mg/kg) , significant antihyperglycemic action as well as itlowered the BUN levels significantly was observed. In the same study the action of the extracts on diabetes induced hyperlipidemia was analyzed where the extracts significantly lowered the elevated cholesterol as well as LDL level. The antihyperglycemic action of the extracts may be due to the blocking of glucose absorption. (25)
Antidiabetic activity of Caesalpinia bonducella F. in chronic type 2 diabetic model in Long-Evans rats was evaluated and also evaluation of insulin secretagogue property of its fractions on isolated islets. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts both showed potent hypoglycemic activity in chronic type 2 diabetic model. Two fractions BM 169 and BM 170 B could increase secretion of insulin from isolated islets. This reported the detail investigation of hypoglycemic activity of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds, initially on physiological hyperglycemic model and then on type 1 and type 2 sub-acute diabetic animal models which has already been reported. Evaluation of different extracts from Caesalpinia bonducella in chronic type 2 diabetic model along with insulin secretagogue activity of five fractions isolated from the Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel were presented.(26)
Caesalpinia bonducella,was earlier reported to possess hypoglycemic activity in long evans rats. It was studied by mechanism ofgut absorption of glucose and liver glycogen. The study was reported by taking the aqueous and ethanolic extrats of seeds of this herb. Rars were injected with streptozotocin 65 mg/kg b.w.in citrate buffer (pH 4.5) in i.p. route. Blood sugar levels were estimated after 7 days and animals having sugar level >/20 mmol/l were selected for experiments in type 1. In type 2,rats were injected with streptozotocin in citrate buffer (pH 4.5) at a dose of 90 mg/kg b.w./i.p. route.animals were screened by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Significant blood sugar lowering effect (PB/0.05) of C. bonducella was observed in type 2 diabetic model. (27)
Hypoglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and hypolipidemic activities of the aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming (Leguminosae) seeds were studied in normal and streptozotocin (SZ)-diabetic rats.In normal rats,4 h after administration at a lower dose of 100 mg/kg, hypoglycaemic activity was exhibited by using both the extracts.In diabetic rats, both the extracts produced signi?cant (PB0.01) antihyperglycaemic effect from day 5 onwards. Aqueous extract also exhibited antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertriglyceridemic effects in SZ-diabetic rats. This suggest that drug is useful for diabetic treatment.(28)
This study was assessed to the antifilarial activity of caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel against rodent filarial parasite in experimental model. Microfilaraemic cotton rats and mastomys coucha harbouring litomosoides sigmadontis and brugia malayi respectively, were treated with crude extract or fraction of seed kernel C.bonducella through oral route for 5 days. Microfilaricidal, macrofilaricidal and female worm sterilizing efficacy were evaluated. (29)
Antioxidant activity The study was aimed to evaluate the invitro potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds as a natural antioxidant. When extract was increased in a dose dependent manner,the DPPH activity was found in the range of 38.93–74.77% as compared to ascorbic acid (64.26–82.58%).The IC50 values of ethanolic extract and ascorbic acid was measured. The ethanolic extract was found to scavenge the superoxide generated by EDTA/NBT system.Total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract of C. bonducella was measured using folin–Ciocalteau reagent containing 62.50 mg/g of phenolic content. The extract also inhibited the hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, superoxide anions. (30)
In this along with antioxidant activity di?erent in vitro tests in diversi?ed ?elds including total antioxidant activity, scavenging activities for various ROS, iron chelating activity and phenolic and ?avonoid contents was evaluated. The extract was investigated for di?erent ROS scavenging activities and IC50 values for hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid, respectively.The plant extract (100mg) yielded 50.23 ± 0.003mg/mL gallic acid equivalent phenolic content and 106.83 ± 0.0003mg/mL quercetin equivalent ?avonoid content.The extract treatment showed signi?cant increase in the level of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione. (31)
The study was carried out to determine the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of the methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonducella in Wistar albino rats.The injury were induced with carbon tetrachloride in liquid paraffin 3 doses (i.p.) at 72 h interval. The MECA at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and silymarin 25 mg/kg were administered to the CCl4 treated rats. In the CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats,he effect of MECB and silymarin on serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), Serum glutamyl oxalacetic acid transaminase (SGOT) Serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), bilirubin, uric acid and total protein. Also the extract effect on lipid peroxidation (LPO),enzymatic antioxidant (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)), and non enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E) were estimated. (32)
Nootropic Activity This study is undertaken to assess the potential of dried seed kernels of Ceasalpinia crista extract as learning and memory enhancer. In mice, amnesic effect of scopolamine was ameliortated using aqueous extract of dried seed kernels of Ceasalpinia crista. Using the redial arm maze and Morries water maze paradigm as the exteroceptive behavioral models, aqueous extract of dried seed kernels of Caesalpinia crista linn. is compered with standered drug piracetam in scopolamine induced amnesia in mice.Morris water maze model for learning and memory and radial arm maze model for learning amd memory retention was carried out with the statical analysis. (33)
Immunomodulatory activity The present study involved the investigation of immunomodulatory activities of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. The evaluation of immunomodulatory potential by oral administration of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (200–500mg/kg) evoked a signi?cant increase in percent neutrophil adhesion to nylon ?bers. It also showed the dose-dependent increase in antibody titre values, and potentiated the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells.Neutrophil adhesion test, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide induced myelosuppression were determined by in vivo experiments.(34), (35)
Contractile activity Contractile activity was studied in isolated pregnant rat myometrium preparations of uterus. The increased contractile force by leaf extrct of caesalpinia bonduc were compared with acetylcholine obtained contraction. Contractions induced by Cebo or acetylcholine on uterine smooth musclewas able to elicit contractions in calcium-free solution containing EDTA or EGTA. These shows capability of herb to contract uterine smooth muscle. (36)
The herb along with uterine contractile activity also shows skeletal muscle contractile activity in male rat using leaf extract of caesalpinia bonduc. Contraction was induced by the same drug Cebo where as in contrast relaxation caused by gallamine. It is reported that contractile effect which may be due to an activation of the cholinergic mechanism. (37)
The noctuid Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is a polyphagous pest and attacks over 200 crop species in India. Caesalpinia crista seed extracts were investigated in the laboratory against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). The extracts exhibited powerful antifeedant and growth disruption activity. Among the different extract of Caesalpinia crista, maximum antifeedance is caused by methanolic extract, followed by hexane extract, ethyl acetate extract, butanol extract and aqueous extract. (38)
The herb Caesalpinia crista grows in all textures of mildly acid to alkaline soil. It grows in the area where annual rainfall ranges from 750 mm to 1800 mm. It grows in broken sunlight or usually open grown. It is intolerant of shade.It tolerates salt spray, salty soils, and occasional flooding with seawater. The sprcies of Caesalpinia crista grows in mild alkaline to acidic texture of the soil.It grows most frequently on the beach strand, on coastal dunes, and at the better-drained edge of mangroves. It competes well with grass and herbs and may ascend into the crowns of low trees. (39)
Growth & Management:
Growth of Caesalpinia crista is fairly rapid at all stages. Seedlings reached 26 cm in 40 days after sowing. Older plants grow a meter or more per year. Individual stems live at least 4 years. When the supplemental calcium was provided to the salinised soil, it was seen that there was increase in the germination and seedling growth rate. The calcium in critical concentration is required and when it is in excess it shows retarted growth of content of plant. (39), (40)
Acute and sub-acute toxicity of methanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (L) Fleming was evaluated in Albino mice. The acute toxicity studies were conducted as per the OECD guidelines420 where the limit test dose of 2000mg/kg was used. In observation of acute test, No test substance related mortality was observed at 2000mg/Kg and through out the observation period there were no significant changes in behavior (i.e Apathy, Hyperactivity, hypoactivity) in any of the mice. While in case of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella at dose of 200,400 mg/kg orally for every 24 h for 28 days did not produce any mortality in tested animals. No sign of observable toxicity was detected during the experimental period. All the tested haematological parameters such as hemoglobin, W.B.C, R.B.C, Platelet count, Reticulocyte count, Mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, Percent of Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes and Monocytes, Packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin and biochemical parameters such as serum bilirubin, Serum glutamic oxaloacetic Transaminase, Serum Glutamic pyruvic Transaminase, Serum alkaline phosphatase, Serum total proteins, serum total albumin, serum total globulin and serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride were within the normal. (41)
The therapeutical potential of this plant in terms of its efficacy and versatility is such that further detailed research appears crucial. As the in testing of acute and subacute toxicity no histopathological and biochemical changes is observed. So this herb will be more useful for marketed preparation. Also the drug shows the many pharmacological actions on various diverse disease and illness, so the herb is beneficial asset for the Indian herbal industry.
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