PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF THE STEM OF ZIZIPHUS XYLOPYRUS (RETZ) WILLD

 

 

Powder microscopy:
Powder microscopic examination showed the presence of sclerenchyma, sclerenchymatous fibre, wood element in stem of Z. xylopyrus (Fig. 2a- 2c).

Powder characters of stem of Ziziphus xylopyrus:

Fig 2a: Sclerenchyma of Z. xylopyrus (Magnification 10X). Sc- Sclerenchyma

Fig 2b: Sclerenchymatous fibre of Z. xylopyrus (Magnification 10X). Scf- Sclerenchymatous fibre.

Fig 2c: Wood element of Z. xylopyrus (Magnification 10X). We – Wood element

Phytochemical Investigation:
The results of phytochemical screening of the various extracts of Z. xylopyrus stem revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steriods and sterol, glycoside, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids (Table No.1). These secondary metabolites are known to possess various pharmacological effects and may be responsible for various actions of Z. xylopyrus.

S. No.

Plant constituents

Ethanol

extract

Aqueous

Extract

1

Alkaloids

+

+

2

Carbohydrates

+

+

3

Glycosides

+

-

4

Saponins

+

+

5

Proteins and Amino acids

-

-

6

Phytosterols

+

-

7

Flavonoids

+

-

8

Phenolic compounds (Tannins)

+

+

9

Acidic compounds

-

-

10

Aleurone grains

-

-

11

Insulin

+

-

12

Lignin

+

+

13

Triterpenoids

+

+

Physicochemical Evaluation parameters: The calculated physicochemical parameters such as ash values, extractive values of the stem of Z. xylopyrus are presented in (Table No.2)

Table No.2: Physical parameters of the stem of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz) Willd.

DISCUSSION:
Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz) Willd. is currently being used in the treatment of various diseases. The standardization of crude is an integral part of for establishing its correct identity. Before any crude can included in an herbal pharmacopoeia, pharmacognostic parameters and standards must be established as per WHO guidelines.
Z. xylopyrus is a plant that has been confused with other species due to their relative similarities. The results, of these investigations could serve as a basis for proper identification, collection and investigation of the plant. The macro and micro features of the stem described, distinguishes it from other members of genera. Powder microscopy and physicochemical parameters are unique to the plant and are required in its standardization. Phytochemical study is also useful to isolate the pharmacologically active principles present in the extract. Previous reports of preliminary phytochemical screening of the various species of Ziziphus suggest the presence of Xylopyrine-A and Xylopyrine-B, the two new 13-membered cyclopeptide alkaloids, β sitosterol, fatty acids and tannins. The information obtained from the ash values and extractive values are useful during the time of collection and also during extraction process. Using these standards, the plant can be differentiated from other related species.

CONCLUSION:
The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigation and application.

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