AN OVERVIEW ON PHARMACOVIGILANCE

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Systematic Methods for the Evaluation of Spontaneous Reports
More recently, systematic methods for the detection of safety signals from spontaneous reports have been used. These methods include the calculation of the proportional reporting ratio, as well as the use of Bayesian and other techniques for signal detection. Data mining techniques have also been used to examine drug-drug interactions. Data mining techniques should always be used in conjunction with, and not in place of, analyses of single case reports. Data mining techniques facilitate the evaluation of spontaneous reports by using statistical methods to detect potential signals for further evaluation. This tool does not quantify the magnitude of risk, and caution should be exercised when comparing drugs. Further, when using data mining techniques, consideration should be given to the threshold established for detecting signals; since this will have implications for the sensitivity and specificity of the method (a high threshold is associated with high specificity and low sensitivity). Confounding factors that influence spontaneous adverse event reporting are not removed by data mining. Results of data mining should be interpreted with the knowledge of the weaknesses of the spontaneous reporting system and, more specifically, the large differences in the ADR reporting rate among different drugs and the many potential biases inherent in spontaneous reporting. All signals should be evaluated recognizing the possibility of false positives. In addition, the absence of a signal does not mean that a problem does not exist.

Case Series
Series of case reports can provide evidence of an association between a drug and an adverse event, but they are generally more useful for generating hypotheses than for verifying an association between drug exposure and outcome. There are certain dis


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