NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF CLITORIA TERNATEA.L ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED AMNESIA

 

About Authors:
Sharmila Shaik*, K. Anitha
Department of pharmacology, Krishna Teja Pharmacy College,
Chadhalawada Nagar, Renigunta Road, Tirupathi-517 507,
Andhra Pradesh, India.
*cherry.sharmilask@gmail.com

ABSTRACT :
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative CNS disorder with slow onset with memory that leads to dementia. The drugs like barbiturates, alcohol, and diazepam will also impair learning and memory. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, pramiracetam, aniracetam, oxicetam and some of the herbal drugs are used to enhance cognitive function. The objective of the present study is to investigate the nootropic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Clitoria ternatea.L (MELCT).Result showed that the MELCT improvement in the retention ability of normal and amnesic rats when compared to control and standard groups. It was suggested that in the MELCT could show beneficial improvement in cognitive disorders like Alzheimer’s disease and various neurogenerative disorders.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1369

INTRODUCTION:
Nootropics are cognitive enhancers that are neuroprotective or extremely nontoxic.   Cognitive enhancers are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals and functional foods that enhance concentration and memory (Lannic et al., 2008).Memory is ability of an individual to record event, information and retains them over short or long periods of time (Kulkarni S.K et al., 1993).The different conditions such as age, stress and emotion may lead to memory loss, amnesia, anxiety, high blood pressure, dementia to more threat like schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (D. C. Mash et al., 1985).

The nootropic agents are clinically used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities and for improving  memory ,mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated  with these agents have made their utility limited (dogpile.com). so, some of the herbal plants like ,prunus amygdalus(S.Kulkarni et al.,2011),Hibiscus Sabdariffa etc (Hanumathachar joshi ,2006) have been investigated for their effect on cognitive function  of the brain.

Clitoria ternatea.L (CT)is a herbaceous medicinal plant. It is commonly known as a shankupushpi and butterfly pea. It is a perennial twing herb, stems are more or less pubescent (Gomez SM  et al.,2003). The leaves are odd pinnately compound   with obovate in shape, entire margin, emarginated tip and symmetrical base, green in color, bitter in taste and characteristic odour (Hall TJ,1985). CT have reported a number of pharmacological activies such as antioxidant (A.P. Patil and V.R.Patil, 2011), antipyretic (Parimaladevi. B et al., 2004), anti inflammatory and analgesic (Parimaladevi .B et al., 2003), Anti inflammatory and analgesic (Parimaladevi et al., 2007),Nephroprotective(K..Sarumanthy et al.,2010),Larvicidal (Mathew N et al.,2009)  anti microbial (Mhaskar AV et al.,2010), proteolytic (ainouz IL et al.,1994), diuretic (Piala JJ et al., 1962), antihelmenthetic  (Nirmal et al 2008),Platelet aggregation  (Honda T  et al., 1991), Antidiarrhoeal (Nitin kumar upwar et al., 2010), Hepatoprotective (Ramalingam shanmugsundaram et al., 2010),Anti-diabetic (Daisy .p et al ., 2009). The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of CT leaves on cognitive functions.

Material and Methods:
Plant material:

The leaves of Clitoria ternatea.Linn was collected from the hills of tirumala region, chittoor(dist).A.P, India. The plant was identified and authenticated by Dr.Madhava chetty, Department of botany, S.V. University, Tirupathi.

Preparation of extract:
The leaves of CT were collected, washed, cleaned and shade dried. The dried leaves were powdered with thehelp of mechanical mixer andpassed through a 40 – meshsieve to obtain coarse powder. The weighed quantity of coarsely powdered material was extracted with methanol by using soxhlet apparatus. After completion of extraction, it was undergone distillation under reduced pressure and the remaining solvent was removed by evaporation to dryness on a water bath. Residue was obtained and it was kept in a desiccators and used for further experiment (Treas and Evans, 2002). The percentage yield from 60gm was found to be 2.98%.

Phytochemical screening:
The presences of phytochemical constituents in the MELCT was tested by using the standard methods (Harbone JP,1973) .These standard methods revealed the presences of glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids.

Evalution of nootropic ACTIVITY:
Requirements:

a.
Animal:
Albino rats (150-200g) of either sex were used for the experiment. They were kept in the animal house in a controlled room temperature at 25+2 c, relative humidity 44-56% light and dark cycles of 10 and 14 hr, respectively for 1 week before the experiment.

b. Drugs and Chemical:
i.            Extract:  The MELCT was dissolved in 1 % tween 80 as a vehicle and administered P.O in a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg .
ii.           
Standard drug: The piracetam was dissolved in 1% tween 80 and administered i.p in a dose of 200mg/kg (Hanumathachar joshi and Milind parle ,2006).
iii.            Scopolamine:

c. Acute Toxicity studies :
The Acute Toxicity studies was performed as per OECD 423 guidelines in order to establish the therapeutic index of a test drug. It was administered as 5,100,1000 up to 2000 mg/kg. It was observed that the test extract was not lethal to rats even at 2000mg/kg dose (OECD, 2002). Hence we selected 1/10th of the doses (ie,200mg/kg and 400mg/kg).

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