NANOTOXICOLOGY AN EMERGING TOOL USED FOR THE TOXICITY OF NANOMATERIALS

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About Authors:
Rakesh Tiwle
Shri Laxman Rao Mankar Pharmacy College Amagoan,
Gondia Maharashtra.
rakesh_tiwle@rediffmail.com

Abstract
Nanotoxicology is a branch of Bio-Nano-science which deals with the study and application of toxicity of nanomaterials.  Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterial because of quantam  size effects and large surface area to volume ratio, nanomaterials have unique properties  compared with their larger counter parts.  Increases in nanotechnological applications for industrial, consumer and medical uses promise many benefits, yet at the same time they have generated serious concerns about potential health and environmental risks from exposure to  engineered nanoscale materials. Such concerns stimulated research in the emerging field of nanotoxicology, resulting in a steadily increasing number of publications suggesting that engineered nanomaterials because of their specific physicochemical properties can induce significant toxic responses. Although most of the nanotoxicological studies were performed using unrealistic exposure conditions, they have led to a widespread perception that generically all nanomaterials pose a significant health risk. Such perception is in great part based on exaggerated reporting in the popular press, resulting in a  Nanotoxicity-Hype Correlation. Knowledge about potential human and environmental exposure combined with dose response toxicity information will be necessary to determine real or perceived risks of nanomaterials following inhalation, oral or dermal routes of exposure.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1429

INTRODUCTION
Nanotoxicology

Nanotoxicology is a branch of bionanoscience which deals with the study and application of toxicity of nanomaterials. Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterial because of quantam  size effects and large surface area to volume ratio, nanomaterials have unique properties  compared with their larger counter parts.

Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing, emerging branch of modern technology. This new technology deals with materials of extremely small size, generally in the range of nanometres. The nanomaterials, with their extremely small size and high surface area associated with greater strength, stability, chemical and biological activity, find their wide range of applications in a variety of products in modern society. They are used in rapidly increasing nanoproducts, nanodevices, electronics, diagnostics and drug delivery systems. They are present in a variety of consumer products such as foods, drugs, cosmetics, food colour additives, food containers, paints and surface coatings. This trend is expected to result in an ever-increasing presence of nanoparticles in the human environment.  Because of their extremely small size they are capable of entering the human body by inhalation, ingestion, skin penetration, intravenous injections and medical devices, and have the potential to interact with intracellular macromolecules. However, information on their potential adverse health effects is very limited at the present time. It is not known at what concentration or size they can exhibit toxicity. Therefore, there are obvious public safety concerns. This has led to the initiation of a new research discipline commonly known as nanotoxicology.


Figure no 1: The Foundation for Risk Management

Primarily Talking About Unbound Engineered Inorganic Nanoparticles
Ø  Bucky Ball (C60)       
Ø  Nanoflowers              
Ø  Single Wall Carbon Nanotube                 
Ø  Quantum Nanodots

Questions Addressed by Toxicology
* Routes and sites of exposure
* Absorption      
* Distribution
* Accumulation
* Metabolism
* Excretion

Health effects           
Local , Remote, Systemic, Acute, Chronic, Heritable.

Tools and Mechanisms
*   In vitro
Cell-free preparations
Cell cultures
Tissue
Tissue surrogates (complex cell cultures)

In Vitro Limitations

Disadvantages
*  May not represent how cells in an animal would really be  exposed
*  Potentially confounded by model used, exposure procedures
*  Doses often very high, physiologically questionable
*  Results may not accurately predict health effects in whole animal.

In Vivo Animal Studies
*  In vivo animal studies.Acute, sub chronic,chronic
*  Surrogate exposure procedures  injection, intratracheal instillation, aspiration, implantation
*  Real exposures procedures Ingestion, inhalation, skin contact.

In Vivo Limitation
*  Rats are not people and may respond differently
*  “Lung Overload” cancer in rats
*  Animal tests are cruel

Human studies
*  Experimental exposures
*  Incidental exposures
*  Epidemiological studies
*  Readily translocates with unknown hazard   

SOURCES AND MODE OF ENTRY

Sources

Unintentional
*  Road Transport
*  Combustion
*  Exposure route: Inhalation

Intentional
*  Pigments
*  Resins
*  Cosmetics
*  Exposure route: Ingestion and dermal absorption

Four Major Modes
*  Inhalation (respiratory tract)
*  Ingestion(gastrointestinal tract)
*  Dermal (skin)
*  Injection (blood circulation)

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