NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

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About Author:
Kambham venkateswarlu
graduate student
Sri lakshmi narasimha college of pharmacy,
palluru, chittor-517132, andhra pradesh, india
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Nanotechnology is the technology of nanoparticles which are made of polymers of synthetic or natural origin. Nanoparticle is a collective name for nanospheres and nanocapsules of size from 10-1000nm. Nanocapsules are vesicular systems in which drug is confined to a cavity surrounded by a unique polymer membrane. Nanospheres are matrix systems in the drug are physically and uniformly dispersed. Nanotechnology is the design, characterization, production on and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size on the nanoscale. Nanotechnology in medicine is referred to as nanomedicine and involves the implementation of technologies that exist or function at the cellular and levels medical use.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1615

I.INTRODUCTION:
The method by which a drug can have a significant effect on its efficacy. Some drugs have an optimum concentration range effect on its efficacy. Some drugs have an optimum concentration range within which maximum benefit is derived. Above and below this range can be toxic or produce no therapeutic benefit at all.

On the other hand the very slow progress in the efficacy of the treatment of severe disease has suggested a growing need for a multidisciplinary approach to the delivery of therapeutics to targets in tissues. From this new idea on controlling the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, non-specific toxicity, immunogenicity, bio recognition and efficacy of drug were generated.

These new strategies after called Drug Delivery System (DDS) are based on the approaches that combine polymer science, pharmaceutics, bio conjugate chemistry and molecular biology.

To minimize drug degradation and loss to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability and drug targeting systems are currently under development that can control the therapies administration by means of either a physiological or chemical trigger. To achieve this goal, research is turning to advance in the worlds of micro and nanotechnology.

II.BENEFITS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:
Due to extremely small size, nanoscale structures have technique properties for the controlled and targeted release of therapies would also reduce the severity of many side effects. Targeted implants like pharmacy chip would be occur more efficient than pills due to site specificity.
A)    Nanoscale devices should controllable release profiles especially for sensitive drugs.
B)    Microcapsules for drug delivery that have a nanoscale valve able to detect signature preteens from the cancer cells.
C)    Virus like systems for intra-cellular delivery thereby allowing drug release in different cellular components such as cytoplasm and nucleus.
D)    It is used in the development of cell and gene targeting systems.
E)     It is used in the development of universal formulation schemes that can be used as intravenous, intramuscular or peroral drug.
F)     It is used in the development of better disease markers in the terms of infinity, sensitivity and specificity.

III.NANOTECHNOLOGIES:
1. NANOWIRES
2. CANTILEVERS
3. NANOSHELLS
4. NANOPARTICLE
5. DENDIMERS
6. QUANTUM DOTS

1. Nanowires:
Nano-sized sensing wires lie across a microfluidic channel these nanoparticles by natures, have incredible properties of selectively and specificity. As particles flow through microfluidic channel, the nanowire sensor pick up the molecular signature of these particles and can immediately relay this information through a connection of electrodes to the outside world.

These nanowires are manmade constructs made with carbon silicon and other materials that have the capability to monitor the complexity of biological phenomenon. They can detect the presence of altered genes associated with cancer and may help researches pinpoint the exact location of those changes.

2. Cantilevers:
Nanoscale cantilevers – microscopic flexible beams resembling a row of dividing boards are built using semiconductor capable of binding membrane antibody.

As a cancer cell secretes its molecular products, the antibodies coated on the cantilever fingers selectively bind to these secreted proteins changing the physical properties of the cantilever and signalling the presence of cancer. Researchers can read this change in real time and provide not only information about the presence and absence but also the can of different molecular expression.

3. Nanoshells:
Nanoshells have a core of silica and a metallic outer. These nanoshells can be linked to antibodies that can recognize tumour cells (PSMA). Once the cancer cells take uo by applying a near infrared light by the nanoshells it is possible to create intense heat that selectively kills the tumour cell and not the neighboring healthy cells.

4. Nanoparticles:
Nanoparticles can be engineered to target cancer cell for use in the molecular imaging of a malignant lesion. Large number of nanoparticle are safely injected into the body and they preferentially bind to cancer cells, defining the anatomical counter of the lesion and making it visible. These nanoparticles given us the ability to see cells and molecular that we otherwise can’t be detect thought conventional imaging.

5. Dendrimers:
These are manmade polymer molecules having a tree like structure. These tree like structure with many branches allow scientists to attach a variety of molecules including drugs. They are prepared by generation in a series of controlled steps that increases the numbers of small branching molecules around a control core molecule. The first generation that is added to growing structures makes up the polyvalent surface of the dendrimer.

6. Quantum Dots:
Another minute scale molecule that will be used to detect cancer is quantum dots are tiny crystals that glow when they are stimulated by UV-light, the wavelength or colour of the light calends on the size of the crystal.

Latex beads filled with these nanoscale semiconductor dots can be designed to bind to specific DNA sequence.

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