NANOPARTICLE - NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Hnawate R.M*., Deore P.
Dr. Vedprakash Patil Pharmacy College,
Aurangabad,
Maharashtra, India
ravi_hanwate@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT
For the past few years, there has been a considerable research on the basis of Novel drug delivery system, using particulate vesicle systems as such drug carriers for small and large molecules. Nanoparticles, Liposomes, Microspheres, Niosomes, Pronisomes, Ethosomes, Proliposomes have been used as drug carrier in vesicle drug delivery system. Nanotechnology refers to the creation and utilization of materials whose constituents exist at the nanoscale; and, by convention, be up to 100 nm in size.. Nanoparticles are being used for diverse purposes, from medical treatments, using in various branches of industry production such as solar and oxide fuel batteries for energy storage, to wide incorporation into diverse materials of everyday use such as cosmetics or clothes, optical devices, catalytic, bactericidal, electronic, sensor technology, biological labelling and treatment of some cancers. Various polymers have been used in the formation of Nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have been improving the therapeutic effect of drugs and minimize the side effects. Basically, Nanoparticles have been prepared by using various techniques as such dispersion of preformed polymers, polymerization of monomers and ionic gelation or co-acervation of hydrophilic polymer. Nanoparticles have been evaluated by using parameters of drug entrapment efficiency, particle shape, drug release study

PharmaTutor (Print-ISSN: 2394 - 6679; e-ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 5, Issue 5

Received On: 24/01/2017; Accepted On: 08/02/2017; Published On: 01/05/2017

How to cite this article: Hnawate RM, Deore P;Nanoparticle - novel drug delivery system: A Review; PharmaTutor; 2017; 5(5);9-23

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2490

INTRODUCTON:
In the novel drug delivery systems (NDDS), there are various novel carriers which have advantage over conventional dosage forms. Conventional dosage forms show high dose and low availability, in-stability, first pass effect, plasma drug level fluctuations and rapid release of the drug.2 NDDS is one of the important tool expanding drug markets in pharmaceutical industry. NDDS can minimize problems by enhancing efficacy, safety, patient compliance and product shelf life.3

Nanoparticles are of current interest because of an emerging understanding of their possible effects on human health and environmental sustainability, and owing to the increasing output of man-made nanoparticles into the environment. Nanoparticles are used in many different applications and created by many different processes. Their measurement and characterization pose interesting analytical challenges.

Particles having diameter in range between 10-100 nm are known as Nanoparticles. They are used as targeted delivery system for delivery of small and large molecules by changing their pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties. They can be defined as system which contain active ingredient dissolved, encapsulated or adsorbed in matrix material which are used as target delivery system.To see the effect of drug in target tissue, to increase stability against degradation through enzymes and for solubilization at intra-vascular route nanoparticles have been used. During the designing of nanoparticle some control has to take in care such as their release pattern, their size and surface properties which determine site-specific action at optimal rate with right dose regimen.Nanoparticles are sub-nano sized colloidal structure of synthetic or semi synthetic polymer. The first reported nanoparticles were based on non-biodegradable polymeric system (polyacrylamide, polymethyl-methaacrylate, polystyrene). The polymeric nanoparticles can carry drug(s) or proteineous substances, i.e. antigen(s). These bioactives are entrapped in polymer matrix as particulates or solid solution or may bound to particle surface by physical adsorption or chemically. The drug(s) may be added during preparation of nanoparticle or to the previously prepared nanoparticles. The term particulates aresuggestively general and doesn’t account for morphological and structural organization of system. Nano medicine isan emerging field of medicine with novel applications1.

 

Definition: Nanoparticles are defined as particulate dispersions or solid particles with a size in the range of 10-1000nm.The drug dissolved, entrapped, encapsulated or attached to nanoparticles matrix. Nanoparticles (including nanospheres and nanocapsules of size 10-200 nm) are in the solid state and are either amorphous or crystalline4-7. Polymeric materials have been extensively used for the preparation of nanoparticles8. Depending upon the method of preparation, nanoparticles, nanospheres or nanocapsules can be obtained. Nanocapsules are systems in which the drug is confined to a cavity surrounded by a unique polymer membrane, while nanospheres are matrix systems in which the drug is physically and uniformly dispersed.
In recent years, biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles, particularly those coated with hydrophilic polymer such as poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) known as long-circulating particles, have been used as potential drug delivery devices because of their ability to circulate for a prolonged period time target a particular organ, as carrier of DNA in gene therapy, and their ability to deliver proteins, peptides and genes1-4.

The formulation of nanoparticles as targeted drug delivery system has been extensively studied 9. Targeted drug delivery can be achieved either by active targeting or passive targeting.

Active targeting of drugs can be attained either by conjugating drug molecule with tissue specific or cell specific ligand10 .Whereas, passive targeting of drugs can be attained either by incorporating drug molecule into a microparticles or nanoparticles.

Nanoparticles (NP) are colloidal drug delivery system which are formulated by natural, synthetic, and semi synthetic polymers. Particle size of NP ranges from 10 nm to 1,000 nm in diameter11. This colloidal drug delivery system shows different inner structure.
• Nanospheres in matrix type system
• Nanocapsules in reservoir type system

Need For Study12
At present 95% of all new potential therapeutics have poor pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutical properties.  Therefore, there is a need to develop suitable drug delivery systems that distribute the therapeutically active drug molecule only to the site of action, without affecting healthy organs and tissues, also lowering doses required for efficacy as well as increasing the therapeutics indices and safety profiles of new therapeutics. Different reasons are,
1) Pharmaceutical
- Drug instability in conventional dosage form
- Solubility
2) Biopharmaceutical
- Low absorption
- High membrane bounding
- Biological instability
3) Pharmacokinetic/ Pharmacodynamic
- Short half life
- Large volume of distribution
- Low specificity
4) Clinical
- Low therapeutic index

Objective12
The major goals in designing nanoparticles as a delivery system are to control particle size, surface properties and release of pharmacologically active agents in order to achieve the site-specific action of the drug at the therapeutically optimal rate and dose regimen
To achieve a desired pharmacological response at a selected site without undesirable interactions at other site, thereby the drug have a specific action with minimum side effects & better therapeutic index.
Ex: in cancer chemotherapy & Enzyme replacement therapy.

Ideal Characteristics12
Targeted drug delivery system should be
Biochemically inert (non-toxic), non-immunogenic
Both physically & chemically stable in vivo & in vitro.
Restrict drug distribution to target cells (or) tissues (or) organs & should have uniform capillary distribution. Controllable & predicate rate of drug release. Drug release does not affect drug action. Therapeutic amount of drug release. Minimal drug leakage during transit.
Carriers used must be biodegradable (or) readily eliminated from the body without any problem & no carrier induced modulation of diseased state. The preparation of the delivery system should be easy (or) reasonably simple reproductive & cost effective.

Advantages and Disadvantages13
Advantages of nanoparticles:
1. They are biodegradable, non- toxic, site specific and capable of being stored for at least one year.
2. They are capable of targeting a drug to a specific site in the body by attaching targeted ligands to surface of particles or use of magnetic guidance.
3. They offer controlled rate of drug release and particle degradation characteristics that can be readily modulated by the choice of matrix constituents.
4. Drug loading is high and drugs can be incorporated into the systems without any chemical reaction; this is an important factor for preserving the drug activity.
5. They offer better therapeutic effectiveness and overall pharmacological response/unit dose.
6. The system can be used for various routes of administration including oral, nasal, parentral, intra-ocular etc.
7. Particle size and surface characteristics of nanoparticles can be easily manipulated to achieve both passive and active drug targeting after parenteral administration.

Disadvantages
1. Presents bioacceptibility restrictions.
2. Difficult to manufacture in large scale.
3. Due to their small particle size and large surface area can lead to particle-particle aggregation, making physical handling of nanoparticles difficult in liquid and dry forms.
4. Small particle size and large surface area readily result in limited drug loading and burst release. These practical problems have to be overcome before nanoparticles can be used clinically or commercially made available.
5.The present work is a step towards development of nanoparticulate drug delivery system, surfacemodification issues, drug loading strategies, release control and potential applications of nanoparticles.

Mechanism of drug delivery via nanoparticle
Nanoparticles exerts its site-specific drug delivery by avoiding the reticuloendothelial system, utilizing enhanced permeability and retention effect and target-specific targeting. Two types of approaches are applied with drug using nanoparticle as carrier15.
a. Surface bound: The drug molecules are adhered to the surface of nanoparticles
b. Core bound: In such methodology the drug particles are concentrated to the matrix of the nanoparticle and carried to the target in the body. Drugs can be loaded onto Nanoparticles by adding them to a solution that contains previously prepared Nanoparticles or by adding them to the reaction mixture during the polymerization process. Nature of interaction of nanoparticle to the drug may be chemical, surface adsorption, and no binding or interaction at all. The amount
of bound drug and the type of interaction of drug and Nanoparticles depend on the chemical structure of the drug and the polymer and the conditions of drug loading15.

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