NANO-PARTICLES CONTAINING ANTICANCER DRUG

 

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Debpratim Chakraborty*, Nisha Lama Yolmo
Department of Pharmaceutical tech,
Jadavpur University,
Kolkata, West Bengal, India
*debpratim008@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Now a day in medical science and researches, cancer is one of the most life threatening disease but unfortunately still now we have no medical treatment for procurement of this disease. The pathology is not totally clear but according to medical evidence if we consider genes then we must agree that oncogene and tumor suppressor genes are mainly responsible. There are some risk factor also consider which may leads to cancer. The conventional treatments are surgery, Radio-therapy and chemo therapy but the real fact is none of the above mentioned treatment is enough for procurement of cancer and that’s why now scientist and researchers are thinking about nan-technology. NCI has identified that nano-technology have the potential to make paradigm changing impacts on the detection, treatment and prevention of cancer.  There are different strategies for cancer therapy using nano-particles like targeted and non-targeted nano-particles. Different studies show that the side effect of doxorubicine (an anticancer drug) can be minimizing by nano-technology, which also reduce the multi drug resistance. Nano-sphere and Nano-capsule of anti-steroid 4-hydroxytamoxifen RU reduce estrogen dependent tumor. Dendritic nano-technology with 5-fluro Uracil decreases the drug clearance and increase the therapeutic time. Methotrixate incorporated dendritic polymer target the folic acid receptor. Camptothecin loaded nano-particles show longer plasma retention, high and longer tumor localization. Nano-particles prepared by poly-lactic-co-glycolide increase the half life of Cisplatin. Paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilizing agent that promotes polymerization of tubulin causing cell death by disrupting the dynamics necessary for cell division, is effective against a wide spectrum of cancers. Miscellaneous agent like Arsenic trioxide, Butyric Acid, Diethylene-triamine-Acetic acid show more prominent activity. Recent development in nanoparticle-based combination therapy have shown several unique features that are untenable in traditional chemotherapy. Drug combinations can now be optimizedand cleverly delivered in a more effective way.

PharmaTutor (Print-ISSN: 2394 - 6679; e-ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 5, Issue 4

Received On: 02/01/2017; Accepted On: 20/01/2017; Published On: 01/04/2017

How to cite this article:Chakraborty D, Yolmo NL;Nano-particles Containing Anticancer Drug; PharmaTutor; 2017; 5(4);12-18

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2486

INTRODUCTION:
Cancer is the third leading cause of death (after heart disease and stroke) in developed countries and the second leading cause of death (after heart disease) in the United States. Studies have shown that there were 10 million new cases, 6 million deaths, and 22 million people living with cancer worldwide in the year 2000. These numbers represent an increase of about 22% in incidence and mortality from that of the year 1990. It is projected that the number of new cases of all cancers worldwide will be 12.3 and 15.4 million in the year 2010 and 2020, respectively. In 2008, a total of 1,437,180 new cancer cases and 565,650 cancer deaths were estimated to occur only in the United States [1]. Nanotechnology, an interdisciplinary research field involving chemistry, engineering, biology, and medicine, has great potential for early detection, accurate diagnosis, and personalized treatment of cancer. Nano-particles are typically smaller than several hundred nanometers in size (generally <1000 nm), comparable to large biological molecules such as enzymes, receptors, and antibodies. With the size of about one hundred to ten thousand times smaller than human cells, these nano-particles can offer unprecedented interactions with bio-molecules both on the surface of and inside the cells, which may revolutionize cancer diagnosis and treatment. The most well-studied nano-particles include quantum dot, carbon nano-tubes, paramagnetic nano-particles, liposomes, gold nano-particles, and many others [2].

Pathophysiology: Cancer is fundamentally a disease of failure of regulation of tissue growth. In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes which regulate cell growth and differentiation must be altered. The affected genes are divided into two broad categories. Oncogenes are genes which promote cell growth and reproduction. Tumor suppressor genes are genes which inhibit cell division and survival. Malignant transformation can occur through the formation of novel oncogenes, the inappropriate over-expression of oncogenes, or by the under-expression or disabling of tumor suppressor genes.  Typically changes in many genes are required to transform a normal cell into a cancer cell. Small-scale mutations include point mutations, deletions, and insertions which may occur in the promoter region of a gene and affect its expression or may occur in the gene's coding sequence and alter the function or stability of its protein product. Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus, and resulting in the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants. Replications of the enormous amount of data contained within the DNA of living cells will probabilistically resulting in some errors (mutations). Complex error correction and prevention is built into the process, and safeguards the cell against cancer. If significant error occurs, the damaged cell can "self-destruct" through programmed cell death, termed apoptosis. If the error control processes fail, then the mutations will survive and be passed along to daughter cell [3].

 

Characteristics of cancer: Six characteristics alterations in cell physiology are associated with malignant growth includes self sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals, evasion of programmed cell death (Apoptosis), (Figure:I) limitless replication potential, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion and metastasis. Each of these physiological changes acquired during tumor development leads to the successful violation of an anti-cancer defense mechanism by the cell and tissues. Six acquired capabilities of cancer. Most of the cancers have acquired these functional capabilities during tumor development [4].
Prevention: Cancer prevention is defined as active measures to decrease the risk of cancer. Thus cancer is considered a largely preventable disease. Risk factors including: tobacco, overweight / obesity, an insufficient diet, physical inactivity, alcohol, sexually transmitted infections, and air pollution [5].

Conventional Treatment Methods
1. Surgery: Surgery, often the first line of treatment for cancer, is used to remove solid tumors (benign tumor as well as in early stage of cancer). But Surgery has no great effect if the tumor is already spread to other organs.
2. Radiation therapy: High energy radiation kills cancer cells by either directly damaging DNA or by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) preventing cellular division. It is of two forms: a) Brachytherapy- where the radioactive source (in pellets) is placed close to the tumor, eg: uterine cancer and b) Teletherapy- where the patient is irradiated from a source place some distance away from the body. eg, skeletal tumors.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the most widely used therapy method where chemotherapeutic agents (chemicals) are injected or orally delivered to kill rapidly growing malignant cells (Normal cells also killed). Most of these chemicals interfere with normal DNA replication primarily blocking the cells to complete the S phase of cell cycle. In addition there are chemotherapeutic agents cause extensive DNA damage as well as spindle fiber inhibitors [5].

Nano-Particles:
Nano-technology is a multidisciplinary field that uses principles from chemistry, biology, physics, and engineering to design and fabricate Nano scale devices. In its strictest definition, nanotechnology refers to structures with a size range of 1–100 nm in at least one dimension that are developed using top-down or bottom-up engineering. The resulting     nano-material demonstrate unique capabilities based on intrinsic properties such as shape and size as well as functional properties conferred through surface modifications as shown in (figure:II) [6] Cancer Institute (NCI) has identified nanotechnology (Figure: III) as having the potential to make paradigm-changing impacts on the detection, treatment, and prevention of cancer.

Strategies for Cancer Therapy Using Nanoparticles: Treatment of cancer therapy acts on three strategies. They are 1. Metastatic Cancer: Spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor site to distant organs, establishing secondary tumor sites is known as metastatic Cancer. Detachment of cancer cells from the primary tumor site and circulation in the blood allows the cells to arrest in organs such as the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, skin, kidneys, brain, colon, and bones, where they can proliferate [7]. Despite significant increases in the understanding of metastatic cancer pathogenesis, early diagnosis, surgical methods, and irradiation treatment, most cancer deaths are due to metastases that are not curable. Reasons for this include resistance to treatments, difficulty accessing the tumor sites and removing all cancer cells during surgery.

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