MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES : A REVIEW

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About authors:
1.Shashi Kant*, Satinder Kumar,
Research scholar department of pharmacy.
2. Dr. Bharat Prashar
HOD & Associate professor 
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Manav Bharti University, Solan (H.P)

shashi_ranaute@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT :
In this review article we discussed about are monospecific identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies have monovalent affinity, in that they bind to the same epitope.Given almost any substance, it is possible to produce monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to that substance; they can then serve to detect or purify that substance. This has become an important tool in biochemistry, molecular the non-proprietary drug name ends in mabs,in this we discussed type of monoclonal antibodies,preparation,targeting of monoclonal antibodies as well as advantages and disadvantages of monoclonal antibodies. antibodies that are biology and medicine.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1343

INTRODUCTION:-
An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell.
Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies that are derived from different cell lines. They differ in amino acid sequence.

Fig: IgG antibody structure.[2]
Antibodies bind antigen via their variable region (VL and VH), encoded by the V-genes. The CH2 and CH3 domains of heavy chains make up the Fc part and determine the biological activity. N-linked glycosylation sites are indicated in brown. L stands for light chain, H for heavy chain.[1][2][3]

Classes of Igs :
1. IgG: IgG1 (66%), IgG2 (23%), IgG3 (7%) and IgG4 (4%) , blood and tissue liquid
2. IgA: IgA1 (90%) and IgA2 (10%), external secretions (stomach, intestines, saliva, tears, etc.)‏
3. IgM: 5-10% of total serum Ig [1.5mg/ml serum conc.]
4. IgD: 1% of proteins in the plasma membranes of B-lymphocytes, function unknown [30µg/ml serum conc.] 0.2% of total serum Ig
5. IgE: 0.3µg/ml on the surface of plasma membrane of mast cells, play a role in immediate hypersensitivity and denfense for parasite[5]

History of Monoclonal antibodies development :
Paul Ehrlich at the beginning of the 20th century theorized that a cell under threat grew additional side-chains to bind the toxin, and that these additional side chains broke off to become the antibodies that are circulated through the body. It was these antibodies that Ehrlich first described as "magic bullets" in search of toxins. [3]

Principle :
MYELOMA CELLS have lost the ability to synthesize hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT), an enzyme necessary for thesynthesis of nucleic acids through PURINE SALVAGE PATHWAY.

1.The selective culture medium is called HAT medium because it contains HYPOXANTHINE, AMINOPTERIN and THYMIDINE.
2.Unfused myeloma cells cannot grow because they lack HGPRT.
3.Unfused normal spleen cells cannot grow indefinitely because of their limited life span. [6][7][8]

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