MANGIFERA INDICA: A REVIEW
final year graduate student
Sri lakshmi narasimha college of pharmacy,
palluru, chittoor-517132, andhra pradesh.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the most popular fruit crop in the orient particularly in India, where it is considered as the best choice among all indigenous fruits. It occupies relatively the same position as that enjoyed by apple in temperate America or Europe. It ranks first among all the fruits of India in area and production.
Global production of mango is concentrated mainly in Asia and more precisely in India. Mango is grown in 85 countries, among which 63 countries produce more than 1000 metric tonnes in a year. In these countries, mango serves as an integral part in human life since it is not only a rich source of nutrients but also a common good shared in culture, life style and religion.
REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1778
In India, mango is distributed throughout the length and breadth of country, except in hilly regions at 915 meters above mean sea level. India is the largest producer and consumer of mango in the world. The country reportedly produces about 50 varieties of mango. In 2005, the country had an area of 1.962 million ha and production of 11.61 million metric tonnes. The major mango growing states in India are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka and Gujarat. Uttar Pradesh is known for growing a host of mango varieties which are not found else were. The other important mango growing states in the country comprises of Goa, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The region wise popular varieties grown in different parts of the country comprise of ‘Alphonso’ and ‘Kesar’ in western India, ‘Bangenpalli’, ‘Totapuri’ and ‘Neelum’ in southern states, ‘Fazli’ in eastern states and ‘Langra’ and ‘Chausa’ in northern states (Anon., 2006). In Maharashtra, mango is cultivated in an area of 0.43 million ha and produced at 0.63 million metric tonnes, while in Karnataka, the area and production are 0.12 million ha and 1.11 million metric tonnes respectively (Anon., 2006).
The cultivation of ‘Alphonso’ is spread across Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Raigad and Thane districts of Maharashtra, as well as Dharwad and Belgaum districts of Karnataka. The demand for ‘Alphonso’ mangoes from specific pockets in South Konkan region of Maharashtra is high. This demand is plausible explanation for genetic purity and relativity among ‘Alphonso’ mangoes from different locations in Maharashtra and Karnataka states.
It was observed that significant variation exists, among trees of the same clone in an orchard with respect to fruit shape, size, colour and quality, which is ascribed to bud mutation. Asexual propagation enables us to preserve the accumulated mutations which would normally be sieved-out by sexual propagation. Thus, during the course of evolution, number of mutations accumulated in different clones, might have created polymorphism among the cultivated ‘Alphonso’ mangoes from different pockets. Therefore, it becomes necessary to establish the phyllogenetic relationship and investigate any possible differences at molecular level in the ‘Alphonso’ mangoes from different pockets. Simultaneously, it may also help to assess the extent of variability for morphological traits according to geographical variability.
Indian mango varieties like ‘Alphonso’ and ‘Dashehari’ are in great demand abroad. A number of countries are attempting to compete with India in the production of high quality mangoes. Majority of the varieties grown in Florida and other places of the world are of Indian origin. Hence, there is an urgent need to characterize the Indian cultivars using the mostreliable techniques (Welsh and Mc-clelland, 1990, Williams et al., 1990). Characterization through morphological characters requires extensive observation of plant at different growth stages especially at flowering and fruiting. Biochemical markers offer greater diversity as compared to the morphological markers, irrespective of the stage of the crop. But, they also suffer from some limitations like insufficient polymorphism among closely related cultivars and dependence on development stage of tissue for expression.
On the contrary, a more sophisticated and reliable biotechnological tool viz., RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) detects nucleotide sequence polymorphism in a DNA amplification-based assay using only a single primer of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. In this reaction, a single species of primer binds to genomic DNA at two different sites on opposite strands of DNA templates. If these primary sites are within amplifiable range, the presence of each amplification product identifies complete or partial nucleotide sequence homology, between the genomic DNA and the oligonucleotide primer at each end of amplification cycle. On an average each primer will direct the amplification of several discrete loci in the genome, making the assay an efficient way to screen for nucleotide sequence polymorphism between individuals. The major advantage of this assay is that there is no requirement for DNA sequence information. The protocol is also relatively quick, easy to perform and uses fluorescence in lieu of radio activity (Williams et al. 1992). Since the RAPD technique is amplification based assay, only nanogram quantities of DNA are required, and automation is feasible.
Common name: Mango tree
Latin name: Mangifera indica
Sanskrit- Amra, Citah
Hindi - Am, Amb
Kannada - Mavu
Tamil - Mamaram, Mankai
Telugu - Mamidi
English- Mango tree, Spring tree, Cupid’s favourite, Cukoo’s joy.
This is distributed throughout India, in forests up to 1200m also widely cultivated. Probably indigenous in Burma, Sikkim, the nambar forest in Assam, the Khasia hills, in ravines on the higher hills of the saptura range, in in khandesh and along the W.Ghats, Generally cultivated in the tropic.
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