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MANGIFERA INDICA: A REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Kambham venkateswarlu
final year graduate student
Sri lakshmi narasimha college of pharmacy,
palluru, chittoor-517132, andhra pradesh.
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the most popular fruit crop in the orient particularly in India, where it is considered as the best choice among all indigenous fruits. It occupies relatively the same position as that enjoyed by apple in temperate America or Europe. It ranks first among all the fruits of India in area and production.
Global production of mango is concentrated mainly in Asia and more precisely in India. Mango is grown in 85 countries, among which 63 countries produce more than 1000 metric tonnes in a year. In these countries, mango serves as an integral part in human life since it is not only a rich source of nutrients but also a common good shared in culture, life style and religion.


REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1778

I. INTRODUCTION:
In India, mango is distributed throughout the length and breadth of country, except in hilly regions at 915 meters above mean sea level. India is the largest producer and consumer of mango in the world. The country reportedly produces about 50 varieties of mango. In 2005, the country had an area of 1.962 million ha and production of 11.61 million metric tonnes. The major mango growing states in India are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka and Gujarat. Uttar Pradesh is known for growing a host of mango varieties which are not found else were. The other important mango growing states in the country comprises of Goa, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The region wise popular varieties grown in different parts of the country comprise of ‘Alphonso’ and ‘Kesar’ in western India, ‘Bangenpalli’, ‘Totapuri’ and ‘Neelum’ in southern states, ‘Fazli’ in eastern states and ‘Langra’ and ‘Chausa’ in northern states (Anon., 2006). In Maharashtra, mango is cultivated in an area of 0.43 million ha and produced at 0.63 million metric tonnes, while in Karnataka, the area and production are 0.12 million ha and 1.11 million metric tonnes respectively (Anon., 2006).

The cultivation of ‘Alphonso’ is spread across Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Raigad and Thane districts of Maharashtra, as well as Dharwad and Belgaum districts of Karnataka. The demand for ‘Alphonso’ mangoes from specific pockets in South Konkan region of Maharashtra is high. This demand is plausible explanation for genetic purity and relativity among ‘Alphonso’ mangoes from different locations in Maharashtra and Karnataka states.

It was observed that significant variation exists, among trees of the same clone in an orchard with respect to fruit shape, size, colour and quality, which is ascribed to bud mutation. Asexual propagation enables us to preserve the accumulated mutations which would normally be sieved-out by sexual propagation. Thus, during the course of evolution, number of mutations accumulated in different clones, might have created polymorphism among the cultivated ‘Alphonso’ mangoes from different pockets. Therefore, it becomes necessary to establish the phyllogenetic relationship and investigate any possible differences at molecular level in the ‘Alphonso’ mangoes from different pockets. Simultaneously, it may also help to assess the extent of variability for morphological traits according to geographical variability.

Indian mango varieties like ‘Alphonso’ and ‘Dashehari’ are in great demand abroad. A number of countries are attempting to compete with India in the production of high quality mangoes. Majority of the varieties grown in Florida and other places of the world are of Indian origin. Hence, there is an urgent need to characterize the Indian cultivars using the mostreliable techniques (Welsh and Mc-clelland, 1990, Williams et al., 1990). Characterization through morphological characters requires extensive observation of plant at different growth stages especially at flowering and fruiting. Biochemical markers offer greater diversity as compared to the morphological markers, irrespective of the stage of the crop. But, they also suffer from some limitations like insufficient polymorphism among closely related cultivars and dependence on development stage of tissue for expression.

On the contrary, a more sophisticated and reliable biotechnological tool viz., RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) detects nucleotide sequence polymorphism in a DNA amplification-based assay using only a single primer of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. In this reaction, a single species of primer binds to genomic DNA at two different sites on opposite strands of DNA templates. If these primary sites are within amplifiable range, the presence of each amplification product identifies complete or partial nucleotide sequence homology, between the genomic DNA and the oligonucleotide primer at each end of amplification cycle. On an average each primer will direct the amplification of several discrete loci in the genome, making the assay an efficient way to screen for nucleotide sequence polymorphism between individuals. The major advantage of this assay is that there is no requirement for DNA sequence information. The protocol is also relatively quick, easy to perform and uses fluorescence in lieu of radio activity (Williams et al. 1992). Since the RAPD technique is amplification based assay, only nanogram quantities of DNA are required, and automation is feasible.

Common name: Mango tree

Latin name: Mangifera indica

Family: Anacardaceae

REGIONAL NAMES:
Sanskrit- Amra, Citah
Hindi -  Am, Amb
Kannada - Mavu
Tamil - Mamaram, Mankai
Telugu - Mamidi
English- Mango tree, Spring tree, Cupid’s favourite, Cukoo’s joy.

Parts used:
Fruits
Leaves
Bark
Seed Kernel
Root

II. HABITAT:
This is distributed throughout India, in forests up to 1200m also widely cultivated. Probably indigenous in Burma, Sikkim, the nambar forest in Assam, the Khasia hills, in ravines on the higher hills of the saptura range, in in khandesh and along the W.Ghats, Generally cultivated in the tropic.

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III. DESCRIPTION:
Mangifera indica is a large spreading evergreen tree up to 15 meters in height, all parts glabrous except the inflourescence. Leaves crowded at the ends of the branches, coriaceaus  12.5-25 by 3.8-7.5 cm, oblang lanceolate, acute, acuminate or subobtuse, shining, entire, the margins often undulate, base narrowed, petioles 1.2-3.8 cm long.

Flowers monoecious, 5mm long, with a somewhat disagreeable odour, arranged in large many flowered pubescent panicles longer than the leaves, pedicles short, thick, bracteoles ovate, small. Fruits are large, fleshy drupes, green, orange, yellow, or red in colour, seed solitary, encased in a hard compressed fibrous endocarp.

IV. MICROSCOPY:
Mature bark has a  wide cork consists of tangentially elongated cells, few outer layers brown and inner lighter in colour, at few places lenticles, secondary cortex absent; secondary phloem wide, consists of sieve elements, parenchyma and phloem fibres, traversed by medullary rays, resin canals and yellow coloured elongated, tannin sacs abundantly scattered throughout phloem .

Stone cells thick walled, lignified, rectangular with wide lumen starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate oresent inj phloem cells.

Phloem fibers in group of 2-15 or more cells, long and thick walled, phloem rays 1-3 seriate, containing crystals of calcium oxalate and starch grains.

V. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS:
Mango bark contains 10-20% tannins, namely protocatechuic acid and catechin.

Additionally it also contains   mangiferin,
Alanine
Glycine
Aminobutyric acid
Kinic acid
Shikimic acid

Mangiferin is a polyphenolic compound and is a antimicrobial, analgesic and antioxidant.

VI. STANDARDS:
Foreign Organic Matter: Not more than 2%
Total Ash: Not more than 9%
Acid-insoluble Ash: Not more than 2%
Alcohol-soluble Extractive:  Not less than 20%
Water soluble Extractive: Not less than 14%

VII. IDENTIFICATION BY T.L.C:
T.L.C of the alcoholic extract on Silica gel ‘G’ plate using n-Butanol:Acetic acid: Water [4:1:5] shows under:
1. U.V. [366 nm] three violet spots at Rf – 0.12, 0.73 and 0.87
2. On exposure to Iodine vapour four yellow coloured spots appear at Rf – 0.33, 0.51, 0.74 and 0.88.

VIII. PROPERTIES AND USES:
The root and bark are astringent, acrid, refrigerant, styptic, anti-syphilitic, vulnerary, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory and constipating. They are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta. Matrorrhagia, leucorrhoea, syphilis, wounds, ulcers, vomiting, uteritis, diarrhoea, dysentery, diphtheria and rheumatism.

The leaves are astringent, refrigerant, styptic and vulnerary, constipation. They are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta, hiccough, wounds, ulcers, diarrhoea, dysentery, pharyngopathy, haemorrhoids, and stomatopathy. The ash of the leaves is useful in burns and scalds.

The flowers are astringent, refrigerant, styptic, vulnerary, constipation and haematinic. They are useful in vitiated conditions of pitta, haemorrhages, haemoptysis, wounds, ulcers, anorexia, dyspepsia, uro-edema, gleet, diarrhoea, chronic dysentery, and anemia.

The unripe fruits are sour, acrid, refrigerant, digestive and carminative. They are useful in gastropathy, dyspepsia, pharyngopathy, ulcers, dysentery, urethrourea, and vaginopathy. The ripe fruits are refrigerant, sweet, emollient, and laxative, cardiotonic, haemostatic, aphrodisiac and tonic.

The seed kernel is sweet, acrid, astringent, refrigerant, anthelmintic, constipating, haemostatic, vulnery, and uterine tonic. It is useful in vitiated conditions of pitta and kapha, helminthiasis, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhages, haemoptysis, haemorrhoids, ulcers, bruises, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, diabetes, heartburn and vomiting.

IX. PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES:
Various pharmacological studies have been conducted so far using different parts of mangifera indica. Some of them are as follows:
* Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial of the seed kernel of Mangifera indica.
* Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Mangifera indica in rats.
* Evaluation of antidiabetic action of Mangifera indica in mice.
* Antiplasmodal and antipyretic screening of mangifera indica extract.
* Anthelmintic and antiallergic activities of Mangifera indica stem bark components Vimang and Mangiferin.
* Mangifera indica leaf extract [Vimang] and mangiferin modulate mouse humour immune responses.
* Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of Mangifera indica leaf extract [Vimang].
* In vitro anti oxidant property of Mangifera indica leaf extract.
* Effect of Mangifera indica leaf extract on protein and hepatic microsome peroxidation.

X.CONCLUSION:
It gives the various pharmacological actions as mentioned above. Ii is most widely distributed in India.

XI. REFERENCES:
1.Anonymous, 2006, Area and production of horticultural crops. Bulletin of National Horticulture Board, India.
2.Welsh, J.C.P., and Mc-clelland, M., 1990, Polymorphisms generated by arbitrarily primed PCR in the mouse: Application to strain identification and genetic mapping. Nucl. Acids Res., 19: 303-306.
3.Williams, J. G. K.., Kuber, A.R., Livak, K.J., Rafalski, J.A. and Tingey, S.V., 1990, DNA polymorphism amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res, 18: 6531-6535.
4.Williams, J. G. K., Rafalski, J. A. and Tingey, S. V., 1992, Genetic analysis using RAPD markers. Method in Enzymology, 56: 254–260.
5.Kirtikar, Bose. Indian medicinal plants. 2nd edition: 355-361.
6.Orient longman. Medicinal plants of Indian origin: 380-383.
7.Sharma PV. Dravyaguma Vignana: 1998; 2:661-665.
8.Das PC., Ashesh Das, Suvra Mandal, C.N.Islam and P.K.Antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities of seed kernel of Mangifera indica, Chakrabarthy, Current science: 1989; 62[3]; 437-437.
9.Gracia .D, J.Leiro, R.Delgado, Gema Perez and Olg Soniaq Leon. Evaluation of the in vitro anti oxidant activiry of Mangifera indica leaf extract; Phytotherapy research; 2000; 14[6]; 424-427.
10.Martinez, Gregorio, Gema Perez, Maria A, Rodriguiz H, Attila Guiliani, Nunez Selles and Olg Sonia Leon. Protective effect of mangifera indica leaf extract on the injury associated with hepatic ischaemia reperfusion; Phytotherapy Research; 2003; 17[3]; 197-201.
11.Peyyeti, P.Amaravthi, S.R.Nandikolla and S.P.Rajendra hepatoprotective effect of Aloe vera and Mangifera indica; Indian journal of pharmacology; 1999; 30[3]: 205.
12.Aderibigbe A O, emudianughe TS, Lawal WA. Evaluation of the antidiabetic action of Mangifera indica in mice. Phytotherapy Research; 2001 Aug; 15[5]: 456-458.
13.A text book of Pharmcognosy by C.K.Kokate, A.P.Purohit, S.B.Gokhale: 45th edition: Vol-I:Pg No: 9.18-9.19.

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