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INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS AND SAFETY MEASURES

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About Authors: Dipak Kumar Dash
M.Pharm (Pharmaceutics)
Himalayan Pharmacy Institute
East Sikkim, Majhitar

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1086

Introduction
Hazard is a term associated with a substance that is likelihood to cause an injury in a given environment or situation. Industrial hazard may be defined as any condition produced by industries that may cause injury or death to personnel or loss of product or property.    Safety in simple terms means freedom from the occurrence of risk or injury or loss. Industrial safety refers to the protection of workers from the danger of industrial accidents.

Accidents
Human factor is the contributing cause of accidents in most situations.For people who are likely to have accidents, the treatment is divided into three main categories
Medical assistance- in 13 percent cases
Personality readjustment- in 22 percent  cases
Operating defects- the remaining 65 percent cases

Accident reduction
Accident proneness is acceptable to a certain extent, it does not mean that nothing can be done to reduce the number of accidents
Accidents can be reduced by two approaches
Actuarial approach- It involves studying the statistics to determine accidents based on actual data . The factors related to the accident frequency should be identified. The violations of safety rules must be clearly identified.
Safety educational campaign -Safety education must be conducted by management to the employee groups.

Types of Industrial Hazards
1.    Chemical  hazards
2.    Physical  hazards
3.    Biological  hazards

 

Chemical hazards
Unfortunately, sometimes chemical reactions get out of control, because of several problems.

Management of over-exposure
Management of over-exposure to chemicals performed by –
Removal from exposure- Prompt removal of person to exposure site, air respirators and lifelines are mandatory first aid.
Decontamination- A victim whose skin or clothing has been contaminated requires immediate removal of garments and shoes.
Symptomatic treatment- like dehydration arrhythmias. 

Dust explosion
The term dust is used if the maximum particle size of the solids in the mixture is 500 mm. Dust explosion is a rapid combustion of a dust cloud.  Avoiding the  development of explosive mixture.

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Control of dust explosion

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CYCLONE SEPERATORS

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

FIRE HAZARDS
It is the most dangerous hazards in industrial point of view.

CONTROL OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION
Government regulations are available for safety and fire protection
Careful plant layout and judicious choice of constructional materials can reduce fire and explosion hazards.
Hazardous operations should be isolated by conducting them in separate buildings.
The roof is designed to lift easily under an explosive force.
Possible sources of fire are reduced by eliminating the unnecessary ignition sources
The installation of sufficient fire alarms, temperature alarms
Fire resistance brick-walls can limit the effects of an explosion

OTHER REQUIREMENT
Building construction
Exit point
Fire Alarm equipment
Sprinkler system

Special safety protection equipment
protection of head and eyes---goggles, helmets, hooks, masks
protection of hand, arms, legs and feet---rubber  gloves, rubber boots, aprons, shoes, other clothing
prevention of breathing of poisonous gases---respiration protective devices

Safety programme
The basic principles are:-
To identify potential hazards, provide effective safety equipment and facilities.
To develop safety policies.
To train in safe method of working and provide continuing education and guidance on eliminating safety hazards and prevention of accidents.

REFERENCE
Subramanyam C.V.S.Thimma J. setty  pharmaceutical production management, firs Edition 2004 vallabh prakashan  New Delhi  393-412
Subramanyam C.V.S.Thimma J. setty, Devi VK pharmaceutical engineering Principle and practice first edition 2003 ,M.K. jain for vallabh Prakashan New Delhi 483, 2
Sambamurthy K Pharmaceutical Engineering New age international publshers  449

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