DISCUSSION ON BIOREMEDIATION AND ITS APPLICATIONS:AN OVERVIEW

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About Authors:
Lohithasu Duppala*1, Madhu priya Damuluri,1 Anilkumar vadda2
1GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India-530045.
2AVANTHI Institute of pharmaceutical sciences, pharmacology, visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh,India-530045.
*lohithasupharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The environmental biotechnology employs the application of genetic engineering to improve the efficiency and cost which is essential to the future wide spread exploitation of microorganisms to reduce the environmental burden of toxic substances. Now a days it can be achieved by bioremediation, is the process by using microorganism metabolism to remove pollutants and organic substances. It may be employed to attack specific soil contaminants, such as degradation chlorinated hydrocarbons by bacteria.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1704

INTRODUCTION
It is a technology or biological process for removing (biologically degraded) pollutants  or organic wastes from the environment , restoring contaminated sites and preventing future pollution with the help of  living microorganisms (hazardous contaminated compounds are transformed by organisms throught  enzymatic reaction take place as a part of their metabolic process) under controlled conditions to an innocuous state, or to levels below concentration limits established by regulatory authorities. Use of living organisms to transform, destroy or immobilize contaminants.1,2

Factors influence the process6,7
1. The existence of a microbial population capable of degrading the pollutants
2. The availability of contaminants to the microbial population
3. The environmental factors–type of soil, temperature, PH, the presence of oxygen or other electron acceptors ,and nutrients.
4. It requires the control and manipulation of microbial processes in surface reactors or in the subsurface.
5. The contaminants can be biodegraded in situ or removed and placed in  bioreactor (at or off the contamination sites).

Table 1.types of Bioremedation

1.In situ Bioremediation


2 . Ex situ Bioremediation


a) Bioventing

b) In situ biodegradation

c) Biostimulation

d) Biosparging

e) Bioaugmentation

f) Natural Attenuation

a) Land farming

b) Composting

c) Biopiles

d) Bioreactors


Phytoremediation 8-15

a) Phytoextraction or phytoaccumulation

b) Phytodegradation or phytotransformation

c) Phytostabilization

d) Rhizodegradation  ,Rhizofiltration

Strategies of Bioremediation 16-19
The two main types of bioremediation are in situ bioremediation and ex situ bioremediation. In addition, another offshoot of bioremediation is phytoremediation.
In situ
 bioremediation involves treating the contaminated material at the site and it is the most desirable options due to lower cost ,less disturbance  since they provide the treatment at a site avoiding excavation and transport of contaminants, while ex situ involves the removal of the contaminated material to be treated elsewhere and it also requires transport of the contaminated water or excavation of the contaminated soil prior to remediation treatments.

In Situ Bioremediation
Five Steps of In Situ Bioremediation

1. Site investigation
2. Treatability studies
3. Recovery of free product and removal of the
4. contamination source
5. Design and implementation of the in situ
6. bioremediation system
7. Monitoring and performance evaluation of the in situ bioremediation system

In situ bioremediation is when the contaminated site is cleaned up exactly where it occurred. It is the most commonly used type of bioremediation because it is the cheapest and most efficient, so it’s generally better to use.

Bioventing
Bioventing
is the most common in situ treatment and involves supplying air and nutrients through wells to contaminated soil to stimulate the indigenous bacteria.This uses microorganismsto biodegrade organic constituents adsorbed on soils in the unsaturated zone (extend from the top of the ground surface to the water table) One of the most common approaches in soil, ,supply air or oxygen  and nutrients via wells into theunsaturated zone, takes advantage of enhancing the activity of indigenous microorganisms.

In situ biodegradation
In situ biodegradation
involves supplying oxygen and nutrients by circulating aqueous solutions through contaminated soils to stimulate naturally occurring bacteria to degrade organic contaminants.Supply air and nutrients by circulating aqueous solutions through contaminated soils or groundwater

Biosparging
Biosparging
involves the injection of air under pressure below the water table to increase groundwater oxygen concentrations and enhance the rate of biological degradation of contaminants by naturally occurring bacteria. Biosparging increases the mixing in the saturated zone and thereby increases the contact between soil and groundwater. Injection of air or oxygen  below the water table into saturated zone,increases groundwater oxygen concentrations and mixing in saturated zone , takes advantage of enhancing the activity of indigenous microorganisms.

Bioaugmentation
This process where selected standardized bacteria (microbes)  are added to an area that has been contaminated with an unwanted substance. These bacteria cause breakdown of contaminates. Bioremediation frequently involves the addition of microorganisms indigenous or exogenous to the contaminated sites. Addition of indigenous or exogenous microorganismsand limits to use:  competition and necessity

Biostimulation
It involves the modification of the environment to stimulate the existing bacteria capable of bioremediation. This can be done by the addition of various forms of rate limiting nutrients and electron acceptors , such as phosphrous, nitrogen , oxygen, or carbon etc.,

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