DIFFERENT PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS “ABUTILON”

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Girendra Kumar Gautam*1, Chandra Shekhar Singh2, S C Dwivedi3 and G Vidyasagar4
1,3,4 Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajsthan, India
1 Malhotra College Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
2 Shambhunath Insitute of Pharmacy, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.
*gk100781@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
From last two or three decay, there is a large growth in the sector of plant medicine means herbal medicine. It is due to increase of awareness and knowledge about plant. In India and China, the ratio of this growth is more than any other country of the world.  Interest the usage of various medicinal plants from traditional system of medicine for the treatment of different ailments is also history of India and China. Abutilon is an Indian medicinal genus which has a number of herbs specie,is noted for their medicinal benefits in traditional system of medicine. Abutilonis a large genus of approximately 150 species of broadleaf evergreens in the mallow family, Malvaceae. The genus includes annuals, perennials, shrubs, and small trees from 1–10 m tall, and is found in the tropical and subtropical regions of all continents. Some medicinally important attributes have been assigned to the plants of this species. In sort of this, the present work aim is to find out different pharmacological activity done on this Indian medicinal plant.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1698

INTRODUCTION
Abutilons are popular garden plants in subtropical areas. It occurs in plains throughout Pakistan, more common in Sindh, Tropical Africa, Arabia, India and China. In India, it found the region of kutch gujrat.The family of Abutilon is Malvaceae comprises more than 150 annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or even small trees widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical countries of America, Africa, Asia and Australia [1]. Many plants of Abutilon species are traditionally claimed for their various folklore use or varied pharmacological and medicinal activities.  Different parts of plants contain different phyto-constituent those responsible for their pharmacological activity. Some of the plants belonging to this genus are much acclaimed Ayurvedic herbs and in recent there has been a renewed medicinal use to take interest of exploring this family [2].

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY DONE
More than 150 different species of Abutilon have been reported, in which those species proven pharmacological activities are:
1. Abutilon grandiflorum.
2. Abutilon indicum.
3. Abutilon muticum.
4. Abutilon theophrashti.
5. Abutilon eremitopetalum.
7. Abutilon pannosum.

Present work mainly covers above first four Indian medicinal plants belonging to the Abutilon Genus.

1. Abutilon grandiflorum
Abutilon grandiflorum is aPerennial herb or shrub, 0.5-2 m tall, or even small trees widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical countries of America, Africa, Asia and Australia [3].  

Locally and Traditional Uses
The seeds are eaten in China and Kashmir. The leaves are also edible. The flowers and plants have a fruity scent. Velvetleaf grows primarily in cropland, especially corn fields, and it can also be found on roadsides and in gardens [4].

Medicinal and Pharmacological Properties

i. Antimalarial Activity
The extracts Abutiolon grandiflorun showed in vivo and in vitro studies on anti-malarial effects. Sikorska et al [5].  reported for the first time the presence of flavanoids and phenolic acids in the leaves of Abutilon grandiflorun G. Don. On the other hand, the most interesting flavonoids, which structures were elucidated by means of acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods were hypolaetin and isoscutellarein 8- O-β-glucuronopyranoside 3-O-sulfates, together with hypolaetin 8-O-β-glucuronopyranoside found in Abutiolon grandiflorun leaves. Flavones: luteolin, chrysoeriol together with luteolin, chrysoeriol, apigenin 7-O-β-glucopyranosides were found only in the flowers of Abutiolon grandiflorun.
G. Don. Are used equal amounts of dried and pulverized leaves and root bark and administered as a tea, traditionally in the Tanzania for treating malaria, infectious venereal diseases and mental disorders [6].   

ii. Diuretic Activity
Seed extract of Abutiolon grandiflorun (250 and 500 mg/kg) were evaluated for its diuretic effect wherein the aqueous extract at 500 mg/kg exhibited statistically significant effect when compared with reference standard Furosemide. The study further reported that the extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg produced significant dose dependant increase in urinary excretion and urinary sodium loss but no effect on intrinsic potassium sparing effect. Hence, study elucidated that extract posses significant diuretic and natriuretic effect but not potassium sparing effect [7]

2. Abutilon indicum
Common name are peely, booti, karandi etc. is an erect, woody, shrubby plant, widely distributed in the tropical countries. In Hindi, It is known as “Atibala” and found in the outer Himalayan tracts from Jammu to Bhutan up to an altitude of 1500m and extending through the whole of northern and central India [8].   

Locally and Traditional Uses
Traditionally, the plant is used in inflammation, piles, gonorrhea treatment and as an immune stimulant. Root and bark are used as aphrodisiac, anti diabetic, nervine tonic, and diuretic. Seeds are used in urinary disorders. The seeds are used as a laxative in piles and in the treatment of cough. The bark and the root are used as a diuretic, anthelmintic, pulmonary sedative and in fever. The juice from its leaves has been used to formulate into an ointment for quick ulcer healing. It is also effective in the treatment of leprosy[9]

Medicinal and Pharmacological Properties
i. Anti-inflammatory Activity
Anti-inflammatory action of Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet leaves by HRBC membrane stabilization technique was investigated by Rajurkar et al [10].  The ethanolic, chloroform and aqueous extracts of the leaves were screened for anti-inflammatory activity. They have taken the prevention of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis as a measure of anti-inflammatory activity. All Three fractions showed a biphasic effect on the membrane stabilization. Their activities were found to be comparable to that of standard drug diclofenac sodium. However their activities decreased with time. The extracts were supposed to be act either by inhibiting the lysosomal enzymes or by stabilizing the lysosomal membrane.

ii. Anti Hyperlipidemic Activity
Giri et al [11]. Studied the lipid lowering activity of Abutilon indicum (L.) leaf extracts in rats using triton and diet induced hyperlipidemic models. The ethanolic and water extract at 400mg/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels on Triton WR 1339 administration rats. The extracts at the same dose level significantly attenuated the elevated serum total cholesterol and triglycerides with an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The lipid lowering activity of the EtOH and aqueous leaf extracts of A. indicum may be attributed to the phytoconstituents present, such as triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, and saponins in it, as reported for other plant extracts. Saponin derived from Medicago sativa were reported to reduce blood cholesterol by competing with cholesterol at binding sites or interfering with cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. Phenolic active principle present in Anethum graveolens were observed to be responsible for lowering TC and LDL-C and elevating HDL-C in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Furthermore, it was supposed to be act by interfering with the biosynthesis of cholesterol and utilization of lipids [11-16]

iii. Analgesic Activity Analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn was evaluated by Goyal et al [17].   They subjected the powdered root (900 g) to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether (60-80 C°), methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. They extracted marc by cold maceration for 72 hrs to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g) while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus they authenticated the traditional use of A. Indicum.

iv. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity
Kashmiri et al [9]. Investigated the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of A. indicum and A. muticum. Total antioxidant activity of both oils was checked by ABTS, FRAP, DPPH and oleic acid peroxidation methods. These methods indicated the presence of both the slow reacting and fast reacting components in the seed oils of both the herbs. The seed oil of Abutilon indicum and Abutilon muticum showed broad spectrum activity as they were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The findings reveal seeds of Abutilon species, indigenous to Pakistan to be potentially valuable herb for oil production, delivery of drugs and cosmetic active ingredients.

v. Antidiabetic Activity
Krisanapun et al [18].   Evaluated the antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract derived from the Thai Abutilon indicum Sweet plant and to explore its effects on intestinal glucose absorption and insulin secretion. Administration of the extract (0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) in an oral glucose tolerance test led to a significant reduction in plasma glucose levels in 30 minutes after the administration in moderately diabetic rats, as compared with untreated rats (P > 0.05), and this was at a faster rate than the use of an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. The inhibition of glucose absorption through the small intestine was investigated using an everted intestinal sac. The results showed that the extract at concentrations of 0.156 to 5 mg/mL caused a reduction of glucose absorption in a dose response manner. The maximum response was noted at a dose of 2.5 mg/mL. The promotion of the extract on insulin secretion was confirmed by incubating β cell of pancreatic islets and INS-1E insulinoma cells with the extract at 1 to 1000 μg/mL. These observations suggested that the aqueous extract from the A indicum plant has antidiabetic properties, which inhibited glucose absorption and stimulated insulin secretion. Phytochemical screening also revealed that the extract contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, and saponins that could be probably responsible for observed pharmacologic effects of the plant extract.

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