CONCEPT AND PHILOSOPHY OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENTS
PRINCIPLE 7: "Adopt and institute leadership"
· Work standards
· Meet specifications
· Zero defects
· Appraisal of performance
· Replace with leadership
· Remove barriers to pride of workmanship
· Know the work they supervise
· Know the difference between special and common cause of variation
PRINCIPLE 8 : "Drive out fear"
· The common denominator of fear
· The fear of knowledge
· Performance appraisals
· Management by fear or numbers
PRINCIPLE 9: "Break barriers among staff areas"
· Know your internal suppliers and customers
· Promote team work
PRINCIPLE 10: "Eliminate slogans, exhortations,and targets
· They are directed at the wrong group
· They generate frustration and resentment
· Use posters that explain what management is doing to improve the work environment
PRINCIPLE 11:"Eliminate numerical quotas"
· They impede quality
· They reduce production
· A person's job becomes meeting a quota
PRINCIPLE 12 : "Remove barriers"
· Performance appraisal systems
· Production rates
· Financial management systems
· Allow people to take pride in their workmanship
PRINCIPLE 13:"Institute a program of education and self-improvement"
· Commitment to lifelong employment
· Overtime and education
· Work with higher education of needs
· Develop team building skills in children
PRINCIPLE 14: "Take action to accomplish the transformation" Management must:
· Struggle over the fourteen points
· Take pride in the new philosophy
· Include the critical mass of people in the change
· Learn and use the Shewhart cycle2
(b) Juran’s approach :
Juran believed that main quality problems are due to management rather than workers. The attainment of quality requires activities in all functions of a firm. Firm-wide assessment of quality, supplier quality management, using statistical methods, quality information system, and competitive benchmarking are essential to quality improvement. Juran’s approach is emphasis on team (QC circles and self-managing teams) and project work, which can promote quality improvement, improve communication between management and employees coordination, and improve coordination between employees.
According to Juran, it is very important to understand customer needs. Identifying customer needs requires more vigorous analysis and understanding to ensure the product meets customers’ needs and is fit for its intended use, not just meeting product specifications. Thus, market research is essential for identifying customers’ needs.
Juran considered quality management as three basic processes (Juran Trilogy): Quality control, quality improvement, and quality planning.
Juran defined four broad categories of quality costs, which can be used to evaluate the firm’s costs related to quality. Such information is valuable to quality improvement. The four quality costs are listed as follows:
- Internal failure costs (scrap, rework, failure analysis, etc.), associated with defects found prior to transfer of the product to the customer;
- External failure costs (warranty charges, complaint adjustment, returned material, allowances, etc.), associated with defects found after product is shipped to the customer;
- Appraisal costs (incoming, in-process, and final inspection and testing, product quality audits, maintaining accuracy of testing equipment, etc.), incurred in determining the degree of conformance to quality requirements;
- Prevention costs (quality planning, new product review, quality audits, supplier quality evaluation, training, etc.), incurred in keeping failure and appraisal costs to a minimum.2
Crosby (1979) identified a number of important principles and practices for a successful quality improvement program, which include, for example, management participation, management responsibility for quality, employee recognition, education, reduction of the cost of quality (prevention costs, appraisal costs, and failure costs), emphasis on prevention rather than after-the-event inspection, doing things right the first time, and zero defects.
Crosby offered a 14-step program that can guide firms in pursuing quality improvement. These steps are listed as follows:
(1) Management commitment: To make it clear where management stands on quality.
(2) Quality improvement team: To run the quality improvement program.
(3) Quality measurement: To provide a display of current and potential nonconformance problems in a manner that permits objective evaluation and corrective action.
(4) Cost of quality: To define the ingredients of the cost of quality, and explain its use as a management tool.
(5) Quality awareness: To provide a method of raising the personal concern felt by all personnel in the company toward the conformance of the product or service and the quality reputation of the company.
(6) Corrective action: To provide a systematic method of resolving forever the problems that are identical through previous action steps.
(7) Zero defects planning: To investigate the various activities that must be conducted in preparation for formally launching the Zero Defects program.
(8) Supervisor training: To define the type of training that supervisors need in order to actively carry out their part of the quality improvement program.
(9) Zero defects day: To create an event that will make all employees realize, through a personal experience, that there has been a change.
(10) Goal setting: To turn pledges and commitment into actions by encouraging individuals to establish improvement goals for themselves and their groups.
(11) Error causal removal: To give the individual employee a method of communicating to management the situation that makes it difficult for the employee to meet the pledge to improve.
(12) Recognition: To appreciate those who participate.
(13) Quality councils: To bring together the professional quality people for planned communication on a regular basis.
(14) Do it over again: To emphasize that the quality improvement program never ends.2
(d). Ishikawa’s Approach:
Ishikawa6 (1985) argued that quality management extends beyond the product and encompasses after-sales service, the quality of management, the quality of individuals and the firm itself. He claimed that the success of a firm is highly dependent on treating quality improvement as a never-ending quest. A commitment to continuous improvement can ensure that people will never stop learning. He advocated employee participation as the key to the successful implementation of TQM. Quality circles, he believed, are an important vehicle to achieve this. Like all other gurus he emphasized the importance of education, stating that quality begins and ends with it. He has been associated with the development and advocacy of universal education in the seven QC tools (Ishikawa, 1985). These tools are listed below:
- Pareto chart;
- Cause and effect diagram (Ishikawa diagram);
- Stratification chart;
- Scatter diagram;
- Check sheet;
Ishikawa’s concept of TQM contains the following six fundamental principles:
- Quality first-not short-term profits first;
- Customer orientation-not producer orientation;
- The next step is your customer-breaking down the barrier of sectionalism;
- Using facts and data to make presentations-utilization of statistical methods;
- Respect for humanity as a management philosophy, full participatory management;
- Cross-functional management.2
4. ELEMENTS OF T.Q.M.
These elements can be divided into four groups according to their function.
Foundation – it includes: ethics, integrity and trust.
Building bricks – it includes: Training, teamwork and leadership.
Binding mortar – it includes: communication.
Roof – it includes recognition
TQM has been coined to describe a philosophy that makes quality the driving force behind Leadership, design, planning, and improvement initiatives.
Ethics is discipline concerned with good and bad in any situation. It is two faceted subject represented by organization and individual ethics.
Organization ethics establish a business code of ethics that outlines guidelines that all employees are to adhere to in the performance of their work.
Individual ethics include personal rights or wrongs.
Integrity implies honest , morals, values, fairness, and adherence to the fact and sincerity. The characteristics is what customer ( internal or external ) expect and deserve to receive. Peoples see the opposite of integrity as duplicity. TQM will not work in an atmosphere of duplicity.
Trust is by- products of integrity and ethical conduct. Without trust , the framework of TQM can not be built. Trust forester full participation of all members. It allows empowerment that encourage pride ownership and it encourage commitment.4
Basing on the strong foundation of the trust, ethics and integrity, bricks are placed to reach the roof of recognition it includes;
Training is very important for employees to be highly productive. Supervisors are solely responsible for implementing TQM within their departments and teaching their employee and philosophy of TQM.
Training that employees require are interpersonal skills, the ability to fuction within terns problem solving, decision making, job management, performance analysis and improvement, business economics and technical skills.
To become successful in the business, teamwork is also key element of TQM. With the use of teams, the business will receive quicker and better solution to problems. Teams also provide more permanent improvement in processes and operations.
There are mainly three type of teams that TQM organization adopt:
A. Quality improvement teams or excellence teams ( QITS )
These are temporary team with the purpose of dealing with specific problems that often re-occur. These team are set up for period of three to twelve months.
B. Problem solving teams ( PST )
These are teamporary teams to solve certain problems and also to identity and overcome cause of problems. They generally last from one week to three months.
C. Natural work teams (NWT )
These teams consists of small groups of skilled workers who share task and responsibilities. These use concept such as employee involvement teams, self-managing teams and circles. these teams generally works for one to two hours a week.
It is possibly the most important element in TQM. It appears everywhere in an organization. Leadership in TQM requires the manager to provide an inspiring vision, make strategic direction that are understood by all and to instill value that guide subordinates.
For TQM to be successful in the business, the supervisor must be committed in leading his employees. A supervisor must understand TQM, believe in it and then demonstrate their believe and commitment through their daily practices of TQM.4
III. Binding mortar
It binds everything together. Starting from to roof the TQM house, everything is bound by strong mortar of communication. It acts as a vital linkbetween all elements of TQM. Communication means a common understanding of ideas between the sender and the receiver.
The success of TQM demands communication with and among all the organization members, supplier and customers. Supervisor must keep open airway where employee can send and receive information about the TQM process.
There are different ways of communication such as:
A. Downward communication – this is dominants form of communication in an organization. Presentation and discussion basically do it. By this the supervisor are able to make the employees clear about TQM.
B. Upward communication – by this lower level of employees are to provide suggestion to upper management of the effects of TQM. As employees provide insight and constructive criticism, supervisors must listen effectively to correct the situation that comes about through the use of TQM. This forms a level of trust between supervisors and employees.
C. Sideways communication – this type of communication is important because it breaks down barrier between departments. It also allows dealing with customers and suppliers in a more professional manner.4
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