Colour Science,Colours in Cosmetics and Colour Cosmetics
Classification of colors: It can be classified as below.
Synthetic colours – Largest group synthesised from coal or petroleum. It was formally known as coal tar colours. Many of the synthetic organic colours are azo dyes, but many other organic group based dyes like quinoline, xanthene, indigoid colourants are also used extensively. Original azo colourants were developed from coal tar that is reason, they were termed coal tar colourants. The present day colourants are not made from coal tar. Natural Colours: Derived from plant, animal and mineral origin.
Plant origin : henna, Indigo, Annatto, caramel, canthaxanthin, Turmeric, Chlorophyl, saffron, Beta carotene, Animal/insect origin colours – Carmine Inorganic colours- Iron oxides, Ultramarine blue, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Chromium oxide, manganese phosphate, bismuth oxy chloride, Mica, ferric ferro cyanide, Copper, bronze & aluminium powders.
Following Colourants from Natural source are used.
Annatto extract- Extract derived from annatto seeds. The oil is rich in carotinoid Bixin. Colour varies from butter yellow to peach. Used manly for colouring foods B carotine- Derived from Carrots, Alfalfa, and certain cereals. Bright orange red colour used as food colorant. Canthaxanthin- Brownish violet colour derived from certain variety of mushrooms Caramel – Derived from careful heating of sugar molasses dextrose etc. Brown colour used in pastries Carmine – Cochineal extract – Extract of bodies of female insect coccus cacti. Strong violet color is mainly consisting of Carminic acid. Extensively used various cosmetics Guanine – pearl pigment from fish scales Paprika and paprika oleo resin- Principle derived from red chillies. Iron oxides – Natural iron oxides are available but not suitable for cosmetic applications. Synthetic iron oxides are commonly used Saffron – Dried stigma of plant crocus sativus Talc –CI No.77019 – large production variety of applications Titanium Dioxide Turmeric and turmeric oleo resin Ultramarines Zinc oxide.
Nacreous Pigments: Pigments which achieve lustrous brilliance or iridescent color effects by interference in thin optical films to simulate natural pearls are called nacreous pigments Types: Natural pearl essence, Bismuth oxy chloride, Metal oxide-Mica pigment, and Metal oxide –Borosilicate.
Indian Colour Cosmetics Laws :
All colours used in cosmetics must follow specific requirement of IS 4707
part 1. Colourants are classified under the C I number and colourant name. Area of usage – Specific colours are approved for specific areas.
1) Generally approved for all areas
2) Eye area use
3)Area of use where in colour cosmetic will come in contact with mucous membrane
4) Externally applied cosmetics where in products will come in contact with skin briefly Each colour will have certain restriction on limit of usage.
Colour cosmetics- global scenario: Colour cosmetics global market in 2014 was 57.4 billion $,which is expected to reach 77.7 billion $ by 2020. A dominant category and continuing demand and attention to satisfy the exacting needs of modern women. Market demands new technologies and new innovations. Today`s colour cosmetics are fuelled by formulas that offer sublime effects. A plethora of colours finishes textures cater to trend savvy women Nature of present day colour cosmetics: It is not just fashion accessories but also require to have following characteristics a) convenient, b) provide benefit to skin, c) long lasting, d) non irritating, e) appeal to smaller & new customers. Desired property of Makeup: To creating an impression of glamour, glow, healthy, and natural look. It delivers bold and dynamic appearance of lip and nail, soft and smoldering look of eyes. It must also offer ease of application, uniformity of texture and feel and durability.
Following are Colour cosmetic product propositions (Trend) : Multi functional products : Long lasting, perfect wear, two in one, wet & dry, Colour release, Adjustable colour, oil free/oil control, low lustre/matt, light diffusing Colour with health benefits : Sun protecting, paba free, moisturising, perfume free, hypoallergenic, non comedogenic, free from ingredients of animal source, perfume free. Colour plus convenience : Water proof, smudge proof, powder to liquid, slimline, refill pack, trial size. Colour plus visual effects: mottled, swirled, two in one, three in one, Confetti, 3 D effect, Liquid crystal. Back to nature - Eco friendly, natural/herbal ingredients, non synthetic, Environment friendly.
Now let us understand what colour does to us. Colors play a very important role in our lives, whether we realize it or not. They have the ability to affect our emotions and moods in a way that few other things can. Your own feelings about colors can of course also be very personal. Color meanings may have something to do with your past, your experiences or your culture. For instance, while the color white is often used in many Western countries to represent purity and innocence, it is seen as a symbol of mourning in many Eastern European countries.
Color can say “stop,” it can say “go,” it can say “slow down.” It can be bright or dull, cold or romantic, eye-catching or mind-numbing—and it has many names and forms. According to Joy Turner Luke, artist and art lecturer, “Even though color seems intuitive and simple, it is not. It involves some of the most complicated things on Earth—light and the human eye and brain. That’s why every year Colour of Year is selected as colour play very important role in our life.
Pantone’s Colour of the Year for 2015 was Marsala.
Pantone’s Colour of the Year for 2016 is Rose quartz (pale pink) & Serenity (baby blue), first time in the history, a twin shade.
Pantone’s Colour of the Year for 2017 has been decided to be Greenery- A refreshing and revitalizing shade, Greenery is symbolic of new beginnings.
Demand for colour cosmetics is expected to remain high, with the area having a projected constant 2015 price value CAGR of 16% and sales set to reach INR114 billion by 2020. Much of this growth is expected to be driven by the growing aspirations of Indian women. According to Euromonitor International consumer data, the female employment rate in India in 2015 was close to 29% and this is expected to increase, as more women join the work force, which is expected to result in increased image awareness, higher financial freedom for women and greater expenditure on various beauty and personal care products that help to enhance looks. Colour cosmetic products provide an easy and effective means of achieving better looks and demand for these products will thus remain high. Colour cosmetic products such as lipsticks, lip gloss, nail polish, eye liners, Kajal and mascara are growing in popularity.
“Working successfully with color requires both emotion and knowledge,” It is not an easy task to work on colour cosmetics as there are several elements to understand before getting into the aspect of colour cosmetics. First, there is the element of pigment; second, the three dimensions of a color; third, color harmonies; and fourth, color reflectiveness. Understanding all these elements is important, as they come into play in color cosmetics trends.
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