CR Articles

AN OVERVIEW ON PRECLINICAL EVALUATION TECHNIQUES OF NOOTROPIC AGENTS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Renu Singh*, Saumya Das, Sanjita Das
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, NIET,
Greater Noida, U.P., 201306.

*renusingh2910@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Cognitive deficits have long been recognized as severe and consistent neurological disorders associated with numerous psychiatric and neurodegenerative states such as Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems, and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegerative disorder which affects older individuals and may progress to a totally vegetative state. Atrophy of cortical and sub-cortical areas is associated with deposition of β-amyloid protein in the form of senile plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. There is marked cholinergic deficiency in the brain, though other neurotransmitter systems are also affected. Various measures to augement cholinergic transmitter in the brain have been tried. The relatively cerebroselective anti-ChEs have been approved for clinical use. Nootropic agents are clinically used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities and for improving memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side-effects associated with these agents have made their utility limited. Many experimental models are currently available for the evaluation of agents that affect learning and memory processes. In-vitro methods inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity is measured by determining IC50 with the help of Log probit analysis. In ex-vivo cholinesterase inhibition method the dose response relationship determined for drugs such as physostigmine and tacrine Agents which are H3 receptor agonist are evaluated for [3H] Ach release activity in rat using rat brain slices. The binding affinity of potential nicotinic cholinergic agonist in brain using agonist ligand is determined by [3H]-N- methyl carbamylcholine binding nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat frontal cortex. In In-vivo methods the inhibitory passive avoidance the test are carried on animals to test the learning and memory capacity of animal by suppressing a particular behavior. It includes step down, step through, two compartment test, up-hill avoidance, scopolamine induced test, and ischemia induced amnesia, memory impairments in basal forebrain. In active avoidance conditioned stimulus is given to the animal, which gives noxious stimulus as a result. It includes runway avoidance, shuttle box avoidance, jumping avoidance. In discrimination learning animals have no choice between the conditioned stimuli. Studies on aged monkeys provides additional advantage for neurobehavioral animal model of aging in that many of behavioral processes thought to be affected by aging.

A STUDY ON COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION IN EARLY STAGE OF DIABETES

About Author:
Hiren Sakhiya,
M.Sc in Clinical Research Management,
Prist University, Thanjavur,

India
*sakhiyahiren@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Diabetes a chronic (lifelong) disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. Diabetes is a common disease in older age, affecting about one in five individuals. In 2000, according to the World Health Organization, at least 171 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, or 2.8% of the population. Its incidence is increasing rapidly, and it is estimated that by 2030, this number will almost double. Diabetes is also associated with mortality and significant morbidity, including neurological disability. Diabetes affects both peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. Neuropathy along with retinopathy and nephropathy appears in late stage of diabetes but effect on cognition starts in early stage of diabetes. Although the effects of diabetes on the peripheral nervous system are well established, the effects of diabetes on the central nervous system have been less clear. Several studies have found that diabetes is related to dementia and cognitive function. It is unclear in which stage of diabetes the cognitive decrements become manifest and how they progress over time. Study is conducted to confirm the association of cognitive function with diabetes.

PREVENTION OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS

About Authors:
*1P.SanilKumar, 1C K. Dhanapal, 2Sandhya Ravi
1Department of Pharmacy,
Annamali University, AnnamaliNager,
Chidambaram, Tamilnadu.
2Lotus Labs Pvt Ltd,
No.07, Jasmabhavan Road, Vasanthanager, Bangalore, Karnataka.

*sanilmpharm@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Hospitals are created for cure the disease but not for the spreading of diseases, even though this statement is true to the theoretical concept but it is not possible practically due to various risk factors. The spread of infection in the hospitals occurs due to the microorganism. Nosocomial infections add significantly to the economic burden of managing the underlying disease that has lead to hospitalization of the patient. More than 90% of reported infections are bacterial where as viral, fungal or protozoal infections are less commonly involved in hospital-acquired infections. This project deals with bacterial nosocomial pathogens only, since they are by far major causes of nosocomial infections. Objective of the present study include  the identification, prevention and control of nosocomial infection in our hospitals. The ultimate aim is the reduction of nosocomial infections and their costs. Baseline study for morbidity pattern in the hospitals, finding sources of exogenous and endogenous sources of nosocomial infection. Suggest measures to minimize the nosocomial infections and suggest guidelines for efficacious management of nosocomial infections.

A REVIEW ARTICLE ON RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL MEDICINE WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON PREFORMULATION (A NEED FOR DOSAGE FORM DESIGN)

About Authors:
Kapil Sharma*, Priyanka Sharma**
*M.Pharm, Yaresun Pharmaceutical Pvt Ltd, India
**M.sc, Yaresun Pharmaceutical Pvt Ltd,
Rajasthan, India.

Aim: - To search Pharmaceutical medicine (New, Safe & Effective) to enhance health and benefits of patients & community.

Trends:-Usually search a pharmaceutical medicine is starting from “Drug Discovery and Drug Development” (D4) or Pharmaceutical R&D.
D4 is very long, very costly and very complex process, so mostly companies put together D4 plan. Drug Discovery and Drug Development is the treds of searching a Pharmaceutical medicine

A STUDY ON USAGE OF CEPHALOSPORIN’S IN HOSPITALIZED PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS IN RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

About Authors:
Dr. BJ Mahendra kumar*1, Jagadish babu D2, Jyothi K2,
*1Professor, Department of Clinical pharmacy,

Sri Adichunchanagiri College of pharmacy, Mandya, Karnataka, India.
2Scholars, Department of Clinical pharmacy,

Sri Adichunchanagiri College of pharmacy, Karnataka,
Mandya, India.

Introduction:
Antibiotics are among the most widely prescribed therapeutic agents among paediatrics patients.1 As we all know, the advantage of therapy with a cephalosporin not only lies in its rather broad spectrum but also in its low toxicity and the drug can be used safely in pregnant women and children. Such therapy can reduce the duration of hospitalization if the susceptible bacterial pathogens have been almost eradicated by a parental cephalosporin and patient’s condition has been brought under control.2 Despite their widespread use in paediatrics, few antibiotics have been studied adequately to be considered safe and effective for use in children. Oral third-generation cephalosporins used commonly in paediatrics include cefixime, cefpodoxime, ceftibuten, and cefdinir.3

Concepts and philosophy of ICH

About Authors:
Sahithya Bitragunta, Ponnuru Venkata Suresh, Nadendla RamaRao
Chalapathi institute of pharmaceutical sciences,
Lam,Guntur,
India.

Abstract:
In 1960’s, different countries used to have different set of guidelines and laws for the registration and marketing of pharmaceuticals. But tragedies like Thalidomide disaster made harmonization of all technical requirements which are required for the registration of pharmaceuticals for the human use. Thus ICH has been launched in 1990 by drug regulatory authorities and pharmaceutical industrial members of Europe, Japan and US with an objective of providing guidelines to ensure the registration and marketing of safe, effective and high quality medicines.

A case report on comorbidities and laboratory abnormalities of Telbivudine in Hepatitis B patients

About Authors:
DHAVAL PATEL *[1], Dr. PANKAJ SHAH [2]
1 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Jaipur National University, Jaipur -302025, (Rajasthan.), India
2 institute of kidney disease and research center,
Civil hospital, Ahmedabad (Gujarat), India

Abstract:
Inpresent study, comorbidities and laboratory abnormalities of telbivudine was analysed in hepatitis b patients. Clinical data were collected from hepatitis b patients that presented with laboratory abnormalities to telbivudine. We examined 100 patients of hepatitis b  who treated with telbivudine in i.k.d.r.c, civil hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2009 to February 2011, out of these twenty patients had used other nucleoside analogue in past. The main laboratory abnormalities were elevation of creatine kinase, elevation of ALT and elevation of AST. Hypertension was the major comorbidities with the hepatitis b.The laboratory abnormalities were related to telbivudine, but the biological mechanism of the reaction is not clear.

Prescribing Pattern for the Treatment of Dengue in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Bangalore- India.

About Authors:
AK Hafeez, MA Akheel, A Ashfaque, NK Meera
Dept of Pharmacy Practice,
VIPS,
Bangalore, India

Abstract
Aim
: To study the prescribing pattern for the treatment of Dengue in tertiary care hospital in Bangalore.
Methods: A retrospective study was carried on prescribing pattern of drugs for the treatment of dengue in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Bangalore. This study included hundred patients both male and female in the age group of 1 – 70 years, the prescriptions were analysed for the drug therapy given.
Results:The results show that the most commonly prescribed class of drugs were antipyretic (99%), anti-ulcer (95%), antibiotics (69%) and anti emetic (40%). In addition, supplementary treatment was also observed. 100% of suffered population was treated with IV fluids. Since a specific treatment is not available for Dengue, the patients were treated symptomatically.
Conclusion:This survey highlights the demands for a more specific treatment, lest it leads to another epidemic break in the country.

Natural Anticancer drugs and Recent Developments in it

About Authors:
Kaushal Chovatiya, D.R. Mundhada
Agnihotri College of Pharmacy, Wardha,
Maharashtra, India.

Abstract:
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Conventional cancer therapies cause serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient’s lifespan by a few years. Cancer control may therefore benefit from the potential that resides in alternative therapies. The demand to utilize alternative concepts or approaches to the treatment of cancer is therefore escalating. There is compelling evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that highlight the importance of compounds derived from plants “phytochemicals” to reduce the risk of colon cancer and inhibit the development and spread of tumors in experimental animals. More than 25% of drugs used during the last 20 years are directly derived from plants, while the other 25% are chemically altered natural products. Still, only 5-15% of the approximately 250,000 higher plants have ever been investigated for bioactive compounds. The advantage of using such compounds for cancer treatment is their relatively non-toxic nature and availability in an ingestive form. An ideal phytochemical is one that possesses anti-tumor properties with minimal toxicity and has a defined mechanism of action. As compounds that target specific signaling pathways are identified, researchers can envisage novel therapeutic approaches as well as a better understanding of the pathways involved in disease progression. Plant derived compounds have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anticancer agents. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblastine, vincristine and topotecan are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as combrestatin, betulinic acid and silvesterol are in clinical or preclinical development.An attempt has been made to review some medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer and recent state of development of anticancer drugs regarding Natural Products.

A retrospective study of Nosocomial infections in patients admitted in M.I.C.U

About Authors: Pratham Rathore *[1], Dhaval Patel [1], Vipin Rastogi [2]
1.  School of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Jaipur National University, Jaipur -302025, (Rajasthan.), India
2.  Nariender Mohan hospital and heart center,
Ghaziabad, (Uttar Pradesh), India

ABSTRACT: Inpresent study,the current status of nosocomial infection, rate of infection and distribution of infectionwas analysed in patients admitted in MICU of a multispecialty hospital.Clinical data were collected from patients that presented with symptoms of nosocomial infection in MICU. We examined of 128 patients who were admitted in Nariender mohan hospital, Ghaziabad from August 2010 to May 2011. The research approach adopted in the study was a retrospective method. Incidence of nosocomial infections in M.I.C.U patients was 10.93% (14/128 patients). Urinary tract infection (42.85%) was the most frequent; followed by Lower respiratory infection (14.28%), surgical site infection (14.28%), Gastroenteritis (14.28%), Blood stream infection and Meningitis (7.14%). The nosocomial infection was seen more in the 40 to 60 year of age. The male was more prone to nosocomial infections than the female. Nosocomial infections are common in geriatric patients in the MICU setting. More studies are needed to be carried out in Indian population to plan long term strategies for prevention and management of nosocomial infections.

Pages

FIND MORE ARTICLES