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Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Pharmacy,
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Vitamin E or Alpha-Tocopherol is fat-soluble antioxidant which supports for rebuild and repair aged tissues. Vitamin E exists in eight chemical forms as shown in bellow diagram

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2595

Various forms of Vitamin

Figure No.01: Various forms of Vitamin E [1] 

Food sources of vitamin E comprise safflower, sunflower, wheat germ, palm, corn and soybean oil ,nuts, whole grain, avocado, asparagus, pumpkin, spinach and green, leafy vegetables. Diverse health benefits of vitamin E.
Balances Cholesterol:
Vitamin E show cholesterol-lowering effect by inhibiting the oxidation of Cholesterol reduces the risks of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular disorders.

Antioxidant Activity and anticancer activity:
Stops the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed when fat undergoes oxidation. Due to lipophillic nature of Vitamin E it is accumulate in lipid compartment, cell membrane and prevent oxidation by neutralizing free radical and also show protective action for inflammation, and therefore help naturally slow aging in your cells and fight off health issues like heart disease[2]. Vitamin E inhibits the activity of protein Kinase C, (enzyme concerned in cell proliferation, differentiation in smooth muscle cells, platelets, and monocytes. Vitamin E present in endothelial cells lining the interior surface of blood vessels are better able to resist blood-cell components stick to internal surface (act as a anti blood clotting agent) and also release of prostacyclin from the endothelium, help for dilates blood vessels and inhibits platelet aggregation[3] . Vitamin E inhibits the conversion of nitrites in smoked, pickled and cured foods to nitrosamines in the stomach. Nitrosamines have been known to contribute to some forms of cancer [4]. So Vitamin E provides protection of DNA, protein and lipids from oxidative damage.

Anti-aging Activity :
Vitamin E helps for strengthening the capillary walls , improving moisture and elasticity, acting as a natural anti-aging and also reduces inflammation, antioxidant properties of Vitamin E helps in Anticancer activity , help in Skin Hyper-pigmentation and anti wrinkle activity (also help in erasing action of stretch marks). Vitamin E when used as topically increases hydratation of the stratum corneum, water-binding capacity and reduces the harmful collagen-destroying enzyme collagenase ( i.e anti-aging property)[5] . Gamma tocotrienol abridged inflammatory signals that pursue UVB radiation exposure like COX-2, interleukin-1beta, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1[6,7] .It also enhance cell regeneration capacity so show Anti scar , anti acne activity. It also help for promote formation of RBC, also aid for wound healing process [8].

Use for Hyper pigmentation and photo-aging:
Vitamin E slow the production of melanin by suppressing the activity of an enzyme called tyrosinase [9]. And antioxidant protection gives younger looking skin

Balances Hormones:
It able to maintain endocrine and nervous systems, it also helps to reduce PMC syndrome.

Useful in burn wounds and stretch marks:
Stretch marks appear due to excessive stretch of skin fibers. While the skin naturally tries to repair itself, the process is slowed down by the free radicals. And vitamin E acts as an Antioxidant which shows effective against stretch marks by supportive action in cell regeneration [10].

Improves Vision:
It helps to prevent related macular degeneration (cause of blindness) damage to retina.
• Physical endurance:
Vitamin E may play an important role in preventing the free radical damage associated with endurance exercise, preventing exercise-induced lipid peroxidation (Vitamin E acts as a chain-breaking antioxidant) [11,12].

Protection against Alzheimer’s Disease:
Anti-inflammatory activity , protection against neurodegenerative disorders and dementia.[13] 

Anti-inflammatory useful in Psoriasis. It causes dead skin cells to build up in scaly, reddish-pink patches.

Immune system Protector:
Improvement in T4 function can leads to boosting effect of immunity and helps the body fight off infection. Also act as a primary defense line for oxidative damage as it acta s a strong antioxidant. Vitamin E intake increases plasma vitamin E, DTH score, mitogenic response to concanavalin A (Con-A), DTH response and interleukin (IL)-2 production ; and decreased prostaglandin (PG)E2 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and decreased plasma lipid peroxide concentrations.

Hair care regimen:
Vitamin E can be good support system for all your hair problems and promote hair growth, stop hair loss. Following are actions shown by Vitamin E

1. Blood Circulation improves: Vitamin E dilates the blood vessels by secretion of prostacyclin, and improves the blood flow / supply and it also prevents blood clotting. This action improves nourishment for hair follicles and promoting hair growth ,produce thick and healthy hair. Also restore shine of hairs, act as a hair conditioner and give glossy, silky by production of protective , nutrient shield on hair surface[14,15] .
2. Prevents Hair Loss and premature graying : Provides physical stability to hair follicles and reduces the rate at which hair strands fall off. Improv the oxygenation of the skin by dilation of blood vessel and increase blood flow enhances transport of needed nutrients to hair follicles which leads to rapid hair growth and the healing/ repairing of damaged hair shafts. It also provide protection from dehydration and ultraviolet rays. Premature graying of hair is caused by oxidization of tissues and vitamin E oil helps prevent depletion of tissues, which in turn helps impede premature graying of hair. Antioxidant activity also prevent split ends of hairs[16] .
3. Balance for oil production: Vitamin E is important for creating a protective barrier on the skin’s surface and provide maintenance of sufficient oil for nourishment, maintain moisture and regulate oil production. This barrier helps lock in moisture and protect from attacks of free radicals produce from pollution and smoke. Sebaceous glands producing more oil than necessary (high amount leads to itching, hair loss, dandruff , thinning hair, baldness or alopecia and less amount of oil leads to dry scalp , dandruff, hair loss, split ends)[17] .
4. Antioxidant Activity: Antioxidant activity which show neutralizationreaction for free radicals which leads to hair damage.
5. Protection against sun rays: As vitamin E act as an antioxidant, protect against oxidative stress, free radicals produces during oxidation protein , fats. Harsh ultraviolet rays from the sun that can cause dryness, brittleness, discoloration of hair ;which result in frizzy hair ,split ends , hair thinning. UV rays cause degradation of hair protein and hair pigment which will produces above mentioned hair problems. Vitamin E helps to retain the strength and vitality of hair [18] . Vitamin E decreases production of PGE2 and nitric oxide; prevents sunburn cell formation, ultraviolet (UV) B-induced lipid peroxidation and edema,[19,20]; which gives epidermal protection from oxidative stress. Vitamin E also has a role in photo adduct formation and immune-suppression [21].
6. Repairing of hair scalp: Reduce inflammation (act as an anti-inflammatory action) on the scalp caused by dandruff and psoriasis [22], and provide conditioning effect by cure dry hair and split end problems.



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