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ANTI-ANEMIC ACTIVITY OF HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT SEEDS OF FOENICULUM VULGARE IN PHENYLHYDRAZINE INDUCED ANEMIC RATS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
CHANDRAKANTA KUSHWAH 1*, DEEPANSHU GUPTA 1, ANKUR JOSHI 1, SAPNA MALVIYA 1 & ANIL KHARIA 1
1 Department of pharmacy Modern institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Indore (M.P.), India
chandakushwah0@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this research was to evaluate the anti-anemic activity in hydro-alcoholic extract of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare in phenylhydrazine induced anemic rats. Phenylhydrazine (60mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally in rats for two days to induce anemia. The animal were divided into 5 groups of 6 animal each. Group 1 was known as normal control group, Group 2 was known as anemic control group, Group 3 was known as standard reference control group given with Vit. B12, Group 4 was known as test control-I given with 100mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare, Group 5 was known as test control-II given with 200mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare. All the test drugs were given for 28 days through oral route once in a day. On 29th day blood was taken out through tail puncture and was subjected to the determination of RBC, Hb and percentage Haematocrit. Both the hydro-alcoholic seeds extract of Foeniculum vulgare and Vit. B12 significantly increase the HB, RBC & percentage Haematocrit level which shows that Foeniculum vulgare seeds exhibits the anti-anemic activity

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2595

PharmaTutor (Print-ISSN: 2394 - 6679; e-ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 6, Issue 7

Received On: 08/05/2018; Accepted On: 05/06/2018; Published On: 01/07/2018

How to cite this article: Kushwah, C., Joshi, A., Gupta, D., Malviya, S. and Kharia, A. 2018. Anti-Anemic Activity of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract Seeds of Foeniculum vulgare in Phenylhydrazine Induced Anemic Rats. PharmaTutor. 6, 7 (Jun. 2018), 32-34. DOI:https://doi.org/10.29161/PT.v6.i7.2018.32

INTRODUCTION
Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world’s population which is the most common public health problem particularly in developing countries occurring at all stages of the life Cycle. Anemia is a condition that develops when blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells or haemoglobin. Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in which there is a depleted and a restricted supply of iron to various tissues and which becomes apparent. This may result in depletion  of  Hemoglobin  and  iron-dependent  intra- cellular  enzymes  participating  in  many  metabolic pathways. Plant and plant products are being utilized as a source of medicine since long. Plant extracts are used as phototherapeutics and are still a large source of natural antioxidants. Particularly, flavonoids and phenolics are considered as potential therapeutic agents. In many developing countries, herbal medicines are assumed as greater importance in health care (Mohan, 2005; http://www.who.int/topics/anaemia/en/ cited: 25-08-2017; Tortora, 2015).

Table 1- Plant profile

Plant profile

Fig. I - Seeds of Foeniculum vulgare

Fig. II - Plant of Foeniculum vulgare

Preparation of extract
The seeds were collected, shade dried and then converted into coarse powder. The powder was then filled in a Soxhlet apparatus for extraction by 70:30 hydro-alcoholic as a solvent. The Hydro-alcoholic extract was concentrated by vacuum distillation to dry. The collected extract was stored in suitable container and used for further pharmacological studies (Khandelwal 2013).

Animals
Wistar strain male albino rats, weighing 100–150 g were selected for the study. The animals were housed individually in polypropylene cages under hygienic and standard environmental conditions (22 ± 3°C, humidity 30–70%, 12 h light/dark cycle). The animals were allowed to have stan¬dard feed and water adlibtum. They were acclimated to the environment for one week prior to experimental use. All the animal testing were done under the approval of Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC) of Modern Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Indore the approval no. is IAEC/MIPS/01/2017/02 (Hussain et al, 2017).

Anti-anemic activity
Anemia was induced by intra peritoneal injection of phenyl hydrazine at 60 mg/kg for 2 days,
Following the injections, rats were divided into five groups of six rats each.
Group I-Control rats received 0.1% Carboxy methyl cellulose.
Group II-Phenyl hydrazine treated rats (60 mg/kg per day for 2 days).
Group III-Phenyl hydrazine treated rats with Vitamin B12 per day for 28 days.
Group IV-Phenyl hydrazine treated rats with a single dose of seed extract of Foeniculum vulgare (100 mg/kg) per day for 28 days.
Group V-Phenyl hydrazine treated rats with a single dose of seed extract of Foeniculum vulgare (200 mg/kg) per day for 28 days.
On completion of the experimental period, the blood was collected with EDTA as an anticoagulant. Plasma was separated by centrifugation. Then Plasma was used for the estimation of various biochemical parame¬ters like Haemoglobin, RBC and percentage Haematocrit.

Statistical Analysis
Data’s were expressed as mean ± SEM. The data were analysed by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnet’s ‘t’ test. P values < 0.05 were considered as significant (Joshi Ankur et al, 2017; Joshi Ankur et al, 2017, Gupta Deepanshu et al, 2018).

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RESULTS

Table 2 - Effect of seed of Foeniculum vulgare on haemoglobin, RBC and percentage haematocrit.


Data were expressed as Mean ± SEM (n=6)
*P<0.05, ** P<0.01 and *** P<0.001 vs. Anemic Control

The hydro-alcoholic extract of seeds of Foeniculum vulgare showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, iron, saponins, carbohydrates, amino acids, glycoside, proteins and fixed oil & fats. Anti-anemic activity of Foeniculum vulgare seeds extract on Phenylhydrazine induced haemolytic anemia in rats was studied and the results were shown on table 2. The anti-anemic activity of Foeniculum vulgare seeds extract was assessed by determining the red blood cell count, haemoglobin and haematocrit percentage. Phenylhydrazine decreased the RBC, Hb and % HCT as compared with normal control. There was significant (P<0.001) increase in RBC and Hb with both Vitamin B12 and Foeniculum vulgare seeds extract against phenylhydrazine provocation. Also there was significant (P<0.01) increase in % HCT with both Vitamin B12 and Foeniculum vulgare seeds extract. This shows that Foeniculum vulgare seeds have anti anemic activity against phenylhydrazine induced haemolytic anemia in rats and it has comparable effect as that of the standard drug Vitamin B12.

CONCLUSION
It has been concluded that the Hydro-alcoholic seed extract of Foeniculum vulgare exhibits anti-anemic activity against phenylhydrazine induced anemia in rats. The anti-anemic effect produced by the Foeniculum vulgare seed may be due to its high content of iron which is present in the plant.

IRON 18.5 mg (142 %) per 100 g

REFERENCES
1. Gupta Deepanshu, et al. April-June 2018 “Anti-anemic activity of hydro-alcoholic leaf extract of brassica oleracea var in phenylhydrazine induced anemic rats”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Vol -7, Issue-2.
2. http://www.who.int/topics/anaemia/en/ cited: 25-08-2017.
3. Hussain Aafreen, et al, 2017 “Anti-anemic Activity of Seeds of Trigonella Foenum-graecum in Male Albino Rats”, J Pharm Biomed Sci | Vol. 06 No. 11| 608–612.
4. Joshi Ankur, et al, 04, April, 2017 “Anti-anemic activity of hydro alcoholic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos in phenylhydrazine induced anemic rats”, International Journal of Current Research, Vol. 9..
5. Joshi Ankur, et al, 2017 “Anti-anemic activity of hydro alcoholic leaf extract of Tamarindus Indica in phenylhydrazine induced anemic rats”, journal of harmonized research in applied sciences, 5(3), 132-135.
6. Khandelwal K.R., 2013 “Practical Pharmacognosy”, 22nd ed., Pune, Nirali prakashan, , 149-156.
7. Mohan Harsh, 2005 “Textbook of pathology”, 5th edition, New Delhi, Jaypee Brothers, Medical publishers (p) ltd., 133.
8. Tortora J. Gerard, Derrickson Bryan, 2015 “Anatomy & physiology”, 13th ed., Indian edition, New Delhi, Wiley India pvt. Ltd., 603-623.

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