ADDITIVES IN PHARMACEUTICAL GELS: A REVIEW

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Table No.2: Physical and Chemical Properties of Carbopol 25

Appearance

Fluffy, white, mildly acidic polymer

Bulk Density

Approximately 208 kg/m3 (13lbs.ft3) *

Specific gravity

1.41

Moisture content

2.0% maximum

Equilibrium moisture content

8-10% (at 50% relative humidity)

PKa

6.0 ± 0.5

pH of 1.0% water dispersion

2.5 - 3.0

pH of 0.5% water dispersion

2.7 - 3.5

Equivalent weight

76 ± 4

Ash content

0.009 ppm (average) **

Glass transition temperature

100-105C (212-221F)

* Polymers produced in co solvent (a cyclohexane / ethyl acetate mixture) have a bulk density of 176 kg/m3 (11 lbs/ft3).

* * Polymers produced in ethyl acetate have an ash content (as potassium sulfate) of 1-3% on average.

Table No.3: Viscosity range of different Carbopol Polymers26,27

S.NO

POLYMER NAME

VISCOSITY*

PROPERTIES

1.

Carbopol®910

3,000-7,000

Effective in low concentrations and wi ll provide a low viscosi ty formulation.

2.

Carbopol®934 

30,500-39,400

Effective in thick formulations such as

emulsions, suspensions, sustain release

formulations, transdermals, and topicals forms clear gels with water.

3.

Carbopol® 934P

29,400-39,400

Same properties as 934, but intended for

pharmaceutical formulation purified product.

4.

Carbopol® 940

40,000-60,000

Effective in thick formulations, very good clarity in water or hydro alcoholic topical gels. Form clear gels with hydro alcoholic systems.

5.

Carbopol® 941

4,000-11,000

Produces low vi scosi ty gels, very good clarity

* Brookfield RVT Viscosity, cP 0.5 wt % mucilage at pH 7.5, 20 rpm at 25oC

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