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A REVIEW ON PHARMACOGNOSY OF CYPERUS SPECIES


About Authors:
Honey Jain, Neha Batra
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Jaipur National University,
Jaipur

ABSTRACT
The family Cyperacea includes approximately 3000 species of which about 220 species are identified as weeds and of which 42% of these weeds are in the genus Cyperus. Both purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) and yellow nutsedge (C. esculentus L.) are problem weeds in many parts of the world. Nutsedges originate from tropical and subtropical areas. . The plant produces rhizomes, tubers, basal bulbs and fibrous roots below ground, and rosettes of leaves, scapes, and umbels above ground.  C. rotutdus consists of rhizome and stolon having a number of wiry roots, stolon 10-20 cm long having a number of rhizomes, crowded together on the stolons, rhizomes bluntly conical and vary in size and thickness.The rhizomes are initially white and fleshy with scaly leaves and then become fibrous, wiry, and very dark brown with age. Purple nutsedge is readily distinguished from yellow nut sedge and other sedges by its purplish brown spikelets and scaly or wiry rhizomes that often bear chains of tubers.Phytochemical studies have shown that the major chemical components of this herb are polyphenol, flavonol glycoside, alkaloid, saponins, sesquiterpenoids and essential oil. Rhizome of the plant is used in fever,arthritis,diuretic, nervine tonic, treatment of diarrhea and dysentery ,leprosy, bronchitis, amenorrhea, and blood disorders. Leaves and seeds are rich in volatile oil and act on digestive system. Fruits are used as carminative , diuretic tonic, stomachic. Oil is fungicidal and bactericidal.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1167

INTRODUCTION
The use of plants and plant products as medicines could be traced as far back as the beginning of human civilization. The earliest mention of medicinal use of plants are found in “Rigveda”which is said to have been written between 4500-1600 B.C. and is supposed to be the oldest repository of human knowledge. In India, the use of different parts of several medicinal plants to cure specific ailments has been in vague from ancient times. The indigenous system of medicine namely Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani have been in existence for several centuries. There are 3,00,000 species of higher plants that occur in nature, only about 2 percent have been screened so far.

The family Cyperacea includes approximately 3000 species of which about 220 species are identified as weeds and of which 42% of these weeds are in the genus Cyperus. Both purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) and yellow nutsedge (C. esculentus L.) are problem weeds in many parts of the world.

Cyperus rotundus Linn. (Family Cyperaceae), commonly known as ‘Nagarmotha’ is found throughout India. It is a pestiferous perennial weed with dark green glabrous culms, arising from underground tubers.Cyperus rotundts L. is a field weed known in all the Southern States as nut grass. The plant produces rhizomes, tubers, basal bulbs and fibrous roots below ground, and rosettes of leaves, scapes, and umbels above ground. They form an ingredient in poly herbal formulations like Abana , health food Amrita Bindu and Ashokarishta.

Rhizome of the plant is used in fever,arthritis,diuretic, nervine tonic, treatment of diarrhea and dysentery ,leprosy, bronchitis, amenorrhea, and blood disorders. Leaves and seeds are rich in volatile oil and act on digestive system. Fruits are used as carminative , diuretic tonic, stomachic. Oil is fungicidal and bactericidal.

Phytochemical constituents include presence of poly phenols , flavanol glycoside, saponin , essential oil and cardiac glycosides.

SYNONYMS
Sanskrit: Mustaka, V¡rida
Assam: Mutha, Somad Koophee
Bengali: Mutha, Musta
English: Nut Grass
Gujrati: Moth, Nagarmoth
Hindi: Motha, Nagarmotha
Kannad: Konnari Gadde
Malyal : Muthanga, Kari Mustan
Marath: Moth, Nagarmoth, Motha, Bimbal
Punjabi: Mutha, Motha
Tamil: Korai, Korai-Kizhangu
Telugu: Tungamustalu
Urdu: Sad Kufi

GEOGRAPHIC DESTRIBUTION
Cyperus esculentus
, yellow nutsedge, is the most widespread nutsedge species in the Netherlands. Purple nutsedge has never been observed in the Netherlands. C. esculentus was introduced in the seventies of the twentieth century, probably from the USA as a contaminant of shipments of gladiolus cormlets. Given the genetic variation of this material, the introduction must have taken place on several different occasions. The gladiolus was grown on new soils each year to reduce the risk of soil borne diseases. This resulted in a quick spread of yellow nutsedge in a relatively large part of the country. In the Netherlands the species is found in crop rotations such as potato-sugar beet-winter-wheat, tree nurseries, bulb growing, maize-sugarbeet-potato and potato sugar beet- onion-winter-wheat-winter-barley.

Nutsedges originate from tropical and subtropical areas. In the USA the species can be found in all states where cotton is grown, such as Arizona, California, New Mexico, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas. The species can also be found in the North and Middle of the American continent in Canada, Alaska, Cuba, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico and Mexico. On the South American continent, nutsedges are present in Peru, Chili, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela. In Asia it has been reported in Japan , Indonesia, Taiwan and India. The main crops in which nutsedge infestation was found were: cotton, maize, rice, cereals, coffee, peanut, pineapple, potato, soya, sugarbeet, and 4 several vegetable crops. The distribution of yellow and purple nutsedge appears to be limited by the environment (temperature range and moisture level) rather than the means of dispersal. Purple nutsedge is limited to areas in which the average minimum air temperature is higher than -1 °C.

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