Chemistry Articles

A REVIEW ON FORENSIC ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Manimala M*, Vijay Kumar D
Santhi ram College of Pharmacy
Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
*manimala.mosey@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The word “forensic” means “pertaining to the law”; forensic science resolves legal issues by applying scientific principles to them. Forensic Analysis is the application of Analysis to law enforcement or the failure of products or processes. It is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities.Forensic Analysis applied the basic theory and mythology of advanced analytical chemistry to rationalize various materials of crimes and provide evidence to detection.Forensic Analysis is carried out by the two types of techniques namely Organic Analytical Technique &In- Organic Analytical Technique. And this review article covers regarding how Analytical techniques are useful in forensic analysis to resolve major problems of common man.


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STUDY OF IN-VITRO BIOTRANSFORMATION OF PRODRUGS OF ESTER AND AMIDE LINKAGES OF IBUPROFEN, DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND PARACETAMOL IN ACIDIC AND ALKALINE MEDIUM

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Dhrubo Jyoti Sen
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
Shri Sarvajanik Pharmacy College,
Mehsana, Gujarat, India
dhrubosen69@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Our goal is to perform in-vitro biotransformation of Prodrugs of ibuprofen+paracetamol, diclofenac sodium+paracetamol and ibuprofen+diclofenac sodium by acidic and alkaline hydrolysis of both ester (–COO–) and amide (–CONH–) linkages into free drugs and chromatographically separation of their Rt in HPLC. Since both ester (–COO–) and amide (–CONH–) linkages are susceptible for hydrolysis in both acidic pH (gastric pH) and basic pH (intestinal pH) to produce parent drug ibuprofen, diclofenac and paracetamol by biotransformation in in-vivo; so it will be implemented as a Prodrug which can show prolong action on pain and fever after getting release into free parent drug by biotransformation. The HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) study reports the retention time (Rt) and release kinetics of three Prodrugs by taking HPLC degradation datas of three samples of Prodrugs and individual HPLC datas of parent drugs separately to compare the Rt value of release of three drugs from Prodrugs in both acidic and alkaline pH. Prodrug–A (logP=4.56) releases Ibuprofen & Paracetamol, Prodrug–B (logP=4.90) releases Diclofenac & Paracetamol and Prodrug–C (logP=6.13) releases Ibuprofen & Diclofenac. This is a comparison study of drug release in in-vitro gastric as well as intestinal pH focusing on in-vivo biotransformation.  Keywords: Prodrug-A/Prodrug-B/Prodrug-C, Ibuprofen, Paracetamol, Diclofenac sodium, Molecular weight, logP, UV λmax, IR, Mobile phase, TLC-Rf value, HPLC-Rt value, LOD, LOC


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COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY - MODERN SYNTHESIS APPROACH

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Sunil Shastri*, Harsh Narang.
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education,
Sriganganagar, Rajasthan.
sunil11044@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The Combinatorial Chemistry is a scientific method in which a very large number of chemical entities are synthesized by condensing a small number of chemical compounds together in all combinations defined by a small set of chemical reactions.

Combinatorial technologies provided a possibility to produce new compounds in practically unlimited number. New strategies and technologies have also been developed that made possible to screen very large number of compounds and to identify useful components of mixtures containing millions of different substances. Instead of preparing and examining a single compound, families of new substances are synthesized and screened. In addition, combinatorial thinking and practice proved to be useful in areas outside the pharmaceutical research Such as search for more effective catalysts and materials research. Combinatorial chemistry became an accepted new branch within chemistry.
The aim of this project is to provide a basic introduction to the field of combinatorial chemistry describing the development of major techniques and some applications. 


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A REVIEW ON CHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND TENELIGLIPTIN HYDROBROMIDE HYDRATE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Manish Patil*1, Harsha D Jani1, Suleman S Khoja2, Narmin A Pirani3, Shamim S Khoja3
1Department of Quality Assurance,
Shivam Pharmaceutical Studies and Research Centre, Anand
Gujarat, India.

2Resource person in pharmaceutical quality assurance and Audit Compliance, Vapi
3Registered Pharmacist, Gujarat, India

*manishpatil3194@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This review article presents the pharmacology of combined Metformin hydrochloride and Teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate is effective on type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent which improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Teneligliptin, a third generation Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor exhibits unique “J shaped” structure with “anchor-lock domain” mechanism which provides potent & long duration of action. The addition of teneligliptin once daily to Metformin was effective and generally well tolerated in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. The mechanism of Metformin hydrochloride and teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate is quite different. The main objective of this review article is to provide pharmacological and Analytical information of combination of Metformin hydrochloride and Teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate to researcher in development of combined dosage form.


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ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC ELEMENTS – A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUHTOR
G.Swapna
Department of pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Assurance,
Nirmala college of pharmacy, Guntur,
AP, India
swapna.goday.gs@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
To make drugs serve their purpose various chemical and instrumental methods were developed and regular intervals which are involved in the estimation of drugs. A photoelectric flame photometer is a device used in inorganic chemical analysis to determine the concentration of certain metal ions, among them sodium, potassium, lithium, and calcium. Group 1 and Group 2 metals are quite sensitive to Flame Photometry due to their low excitation energies [1].These pharmaceuticals would serve their intent only if they are free from impurities and are administered at appropriate amounts [2] . These pharmaceuticals develop  impurities at various stages of their development, transportation and storage which makes the pharmaceuticals risky to be administered thus they may be detected and quantified. For this analytical instrumentation and methods play important role. This review highlights a variety of analytical techniques for analysis of inorganic elements. Analytical techniques for analysis of inorganic elements. The most commonly used techniques for the determination of inorganic elements is atomic spectroscopy the different branches of atomic absorption spectroscopy are(1) flame photometry or flame atomic emission spectrometry. (2) atomic absorption spectrophotometer, (aas). (3) inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (icp-aes).(4)  uv - visible    spectrophotometer.


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STRUCTURE BASED ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF 1,3-DIARYL-2-PROPEN-1-ONES AND THEIR RECENT PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERESTS

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Nisha Sharma, Mahroz, Deepak Chowrasia*
University Institute of Pharmacy,
Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur, U.P.,  India

chowrasia.deepak@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Chemically chalcones are 1,3–diphenyl-2-propene-1-one, containing dual aromatic rings which are linked to each other via carbon bridge system enveloping keto-ethylenic core structure. Owing to the presence of conjugated double bond and electron dense aromatic ring system, the molecule posses less redox potential; thus greater probability for characteristic electron transfer reactions. Naturally, conjugated systems of these types are abundantly present in edible plants and are considered to be precursors of bioactive flavonoids and bioflavonoids. Chalcones and their derivatives find numerous industrial applications such as artificial sweeteners, scintillator, polymerization catalyst, fluorescent whitening agent, organic brightening agent, stabilizer against heat, visible light, and ultraviolet radiation.  As a chemo-identifying agent, chalcones have been found useful in elucidating structure of natural products like hemlock, tannin, cyanomaclurin, ploretin, eriodictyol and homoeriodictyol, and naringenin. Pharmacologically, the same molecule acts as a versatile and universally accepted moiety for design and development of numerous bioactive synthetic analogues in search of ideal medicine to conquer human pathological conditions.  The present paper thus designs to explore and study various prospective of chalcones and their derivatives in terms of recent developments and pharmacological importance.


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A REVIEW ON ACRIDONE DERIVATIVES AND ITS IMPORTANCE

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Vishwanadham Yerragunta*, E.Sathish Reddy, M.Kishore, Hari Om Prakash rao, Ayesha Sadia, Ayesha Saba, Syeda Kausar Fatima
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Prathap Narendar Reddy College of Pharmacy,
Pedda shapur, Shamshabad, Hyderabad, Telangana.
vishwanadham.y@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Acridoneis an organic compound containing a carbonyl group attached to the 9 position. It may be synthesized by the self-condensation of N-phenylanthranilic acidAcridone and its derivatives can be synthesized by a number of methods such as Ullmann condensation, by benzyne mechanism, by radical reaction of quinines etc. acridone nucleus due to its variety of pharmacological activities. These pharmacological activities include anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antimalarial and anti-inflammatory activities. This review article literature survey summerizes the synthesis and pharmacological activities of acridone and its derivatives.


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ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT TRIAZOLE ANALOGUES

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Mohammad Asif
Department of Pharmacy, GRD(PG) Institute of Management and Technology,
Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
aasif321@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Different heterocyclic analogues were evaluated for their diverse biological activities. The triazole moiety seems to be very small but in the biological profile has attracted the attention of many researchers to explore this skeleton to its multiple potential against several activities. Triazole analogues have a wide range of biological applications including antimicrobial, antimalarial, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiepileptic, antiviral, antihypertensive, antianxiety, antidepressant, antihistaminic activities etc. This review provides a brief response of the medicinal chemistry of triazole analogues particulary as analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.


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A SHORT REVIEW ON ANTI-DIABETIC AGENT

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Deepika Gautam1*, Deepti Gautam2
1Department of Chemistry, Lucknow University,
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2Department of Nursing, Era’s Lucknow Medical college and Hospital,
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
*yashdeepika1@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Different type of natural and synthetic agents for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus improve the metabolic profile but do not reestablished normality. They also reduce chronic diabetic complications, but they do not remove completely them. Thus, for the treatment of type2 diabetes mellitus new agents with novel actions are required to complement and extend the capabilities of existing treatments. Insulin resistance and beta-cell failure, which are main cause in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes, in this review we discussed about some natural and synthetic molecule and their targets and some old oral ant diabetic drug and their mode of action.


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CHEMISTRY ON PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS: AN OVERVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Donthineni Kalyan*1, V. Sravanthi2, Mayure vijay kumar2
1Department of pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vikas College of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
2Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, Maheshwara College of Pharmacy
Rayanigudem -508 376.
Suryapet, Nalgonda District. Andhra Pradesh. INDIA
*kalyandonthineni@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
A natural substance that acts to control plant activities are Plant growth regulators and often called phytohormones to regulate growth, development and responses to stimuli. Which includes hormones and non-nutrient chemicals not found naturally in plants that when applied in plants, influence their growth and development. Changes in phytohormone levels result in gene activation shifts. This paper accomplishes the review article on chemistry of the novel plant growth regulators according to their medications, and has been discussed according to the types of plant growth regulators.


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