A REVIEW ON FORENSIC ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

ABOUT AUHTOR
Manimala M*1, Vijay Kumar D1
Santhi ram College of Pharmacy- Kurnool-Andhra Pradesh
*manimala.mosey@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The word “forensic” means “pertaining to the law”; forensic science resolves legal issues by applying scientific principles to them. Forensic Analysis is the application of Analysis to law enforcement or the failure of products or processes. It is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities.Forensic Analysis applied the basic theory and mythology of advanced analytical chemistry to rationalize various materials of crimes and provide evidence to detection.Forensic Analysis is carried out by the two types of techniques namely Organic Analytical Technique &In- Organic Analytical Technique. And this review article covers regarding how Analytical techniques are useful in forensic analysis to resolve major problems of common man.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2545

INTRODUCTION:
Forensic Analysis is the application of Analysis to law enforcement or the failure of products or processes As such, forensic Analysis research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes of metrology and validation Department forensic analytical chemistry includes forensic science and technology and forensic chemistry. Forensic Science can be viewed as a tripartite structure consisting of a Collection, which pertains to the science investigation, Examination, which pertains to the medical investigation and Presentation, which pertains to the courts.

Forensic science is applied science, often called “criminalistics” Forensic science applies biology, physics, geology, chemistry to civil and criminal laws and places physical evidences into a professional discipline. Forensic science applies the knowledge of technology of science for the definition and enforcement of law.

Forensic science is the use of advanced scientific techniques during criminal and civil investigations. Forensic science can answer important questions about a any crime and be applied to legal cases that are civil in nature. Forensic science plays an integral role in the criminal justice system.

Forensic Analysis is carried out by the two types of techniques.
- Organic Analytical Technique
- In Organic Analytical Technique

Organic Analytical Techniques:
The organic analytical techniques are carried out for the analysis of organic
compounds such as Alcohols, Aldehydes , Alkenes, Amines, Carboxylic acids, Esters, Ketones, Phenols etc. in the unknown substances. The analysis provides the identity
(qualitative result) and the amount (quantitative result). Various analytical techniques used for analysis of organic compounds are
- Chromatography
- UV- visible Spectrophotometery
- Infrared Spectrophotometery
- Mass Spectrometry.
- Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy
- Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy

Inorganic Analytical Techniques:
These inorganic analytical techniques are carried out for the analysis of inorganic
elements such as C, B, NA, MG, AL, SI, P,K, CA, TI, CR, MN, FE, NI, CU, ZN, SR, S, AG, SN,Ba, Pb,
V,MO etc. in the unknown substances. The analysis provides the identity (qualitative result) and the amount (quantitative result).
Various analytical techniques used for analysis of organic compounds are
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
Neutron Activation Analysis
X-Ray Diffraction Analysis
Flourimetry
NephloTurbidimetry
Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

The flow of forensic analysis [4] :

Evidences used in forensic [5,6,7,8,9,10] :
Hair:
Hair analysis to ascertain the presence of illegal drugs and heavy metals in the body, and DNA testing, among others . . Toxic substances may be 200-300 times more highly concentrated in hair than in blood or urine. Because of its tough outer coating, hair does not easily decompose. Therefore, hair is the tissue of choice for detection of toxic substances.

Finger nails:
Finger nails have individualizing striations on them as the result these are used in a forensic analysis

Body fluids:
Body fluids are divided into two type’s excreted fluids and secreted fluids. Excreted fluids: The excreted fluids that are found at crime scene include feces, vomit, bile and sebum

Secreted fluids:
The  fluids are divided into two type’s excreted fluids and secreted fluids. Excreted fluids: The excreted fluids that are found at crime scene include feces, vomit, bile and sebum

Urine :
Urine  analysis is carried out for Alcohol and Drugs testing since Drugs and drug metabolites found in urine are usually stable. Drugs and their metabolites are often present in higher concentrations in urine than in other biological materials. Drug and their metabolities detectable in urine for relatively long period of time Common Drugs Analyzed in Hair, Bodyfluids, finger nails&urine are :Nicotine Cotinine Amphetamine Alcohol Barbiturates Heroin Tobacco LSD. CommonTrace Elements Analyzed in Hair are: Iron Copper Mercury Calcium Bromine Cobalt Potassium Zinc Selenium

Drugs and Trace elements are analyzed by: HPLC, Mass Spectroscopy, Laser technique Uv-Visible Spectroscopy,I.R Spectroscopy.
Fiber:
Fiber  is the most common and integral piece of evidence located at a scene of crime.Fiber Analysis is usually magnified in cases of homicide, assault, or sexual offences.

Paint :
Forensic  Paint Analysis deals with analysis of all forms of paint layers to investigate fraudulent claims on vehicle crashes. Paint is made up of three main components, the carrier, the binder and vehicle. Trace elements analyzed in paint: Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Manganese, Nickel, Aluminum, Copper Mercury, Cobalt ,Zinc,Selenium

Glass:
Glass  can be used as evidence in crimes ranging from burglaries, RTA accidents, murder, assault, ‘ram-raids,' criminal damage and thefts of motor vehicles Trace elements analyzed in glass are:Sio 2 ,B 2 o 3 ,Fe 2 o 3 ,Zro 2 ,Al 2 o 3 ,Na 2 o,K 2 o,Na 2 co 3

Finger prints:
Finger prints can be left on almost any physical objects or surfaces and when left in the right conditions they can remain there for several years. Each fingerprint is unique to an individual and no two finger prints have ever been found to be the same.

Footwear and Footprint:
The print left behind at crime scene can give vital evidence in forensic analysis. This are analyzed by:Raman Spectroscopy,Light Microscopy,I.R Spectroscopy,Mass Spectroscopy,Uv-Visible Spectroscopy,FTIR Spectroscopy,Gas Chromatography,GC- MS,Stereo Microscopy Chemical Reagents like ninhydrin reagent, diazafluorenone

Types of Samples [11,12] :
Samples used for analysis are of two types:
Control samples:

The known samples used in analysis are called as control samples
Questioned samples:
The evidence samples used in analysis are called questioned samples

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