About Authors:
Vedant Pandya
M.Sc. Biotechnology,
Department  Of  Biotechnology,
Shree M.N.Virani Science College, Rajkot

Abstract :
The potential of Cosmarium species, belonging to green Micro algae, was investigated as a viable biomaterial for biological treatment of triphenylmethane dye, Malachite Green (MG).  This can be used for the bioremediation of dye effluents. The results obtained from the batch experiments revealed the ability of algal species in removing dye.  The effects of operational parameters (temperature, pH, dye concentration and algal  concentration) on decolorization were examined.  The stability and efficiency of the algae in long-term repetitive operations were also examined. Michaelis–Menten kinetics was used to describe the apparent correlation between the decolorization rate and the dye concentration.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1375

Introduction :
ü  Out of many contaminants present in wastewater, such as acids, bases, toxic organic and inorganic dissolved solids, and colors, colors are considered the most undesirable and are mainly caused by dyes.

ü  Dyes are synthetic aromatic water-soluble dispersible organic colorants, having potential application in various industries. The dyestuff usage has been increased day by day because of tremendous increase of industrialization and man’s urge for color.

* Synthetic dyestuffs are used extensively in textile, paper, printing industries and dyehouses. The effluents of these industries are highly colored and the disposal of these wastes into receiving waters causes damage to the environment. Dyes may significantly affect photosynthetic activity in aquatic life because of reduced light penetration and may also be toxic to some aquatic life due to the presence of aromatics and metals, chlorides, etc. Dyes usually have a synthetic origin and complex aromatic molecular structures which make them more stable and more difficult to biodegrade.

*  Malachite green (mg) is a triphenyl methane dye, which is most widely used for coloring purpose, amongst all other dyes of its category. MG has properties that make it difficult to remove from aqueous solutions. If the solution containing MG discharged into receiving streams it will affect the aquatic life and cause detrimental effects in liver, gill, kidney, intestine and gonads. In humans, it may cause irritation to the gastrointestinal tract upon ingestion. Contact of MG with skin causes irritation and redness and pain. Upon contact with eye will lead to permanent injury of human eyes and laboratory animals.

* Algae are photosynthetic organisms, which distributed in nearly all parts of the world and in all kinds of habitats. Alga can degrade number of dyes, postulating that the reduction appears to be related to the molecular structure of dyes and the species of algae used.

*  Cosmarium is a single-celled placoderm desmid. The cells are deeply divided in the middle by a short isthmus that contains the nucleus. The two semi cells are rounded in front view and flattened, oval, or elliptic in side view. The older half of the cell wall secretes mucilage, while the younger half is lifted off of the substrate at a slight angle. The mucilage swells as it absorbs water and propels the cell forward. The cell wall may be smooth with pores or ornamented with granules, pits, or warts. The vegetative cells usually do not have spines. Each semi cell has at least one central chloroplast with pyrenoids. Cosmarium sometimes produces thick-walled resting cells. We selected cosmarium sp. Because of  its availability in Gujarat and also it could be cultured in growth media easily.

*  This study aims to investigate the potential of micro algae cosmarium species for decolorization of solution containing a cationic textile dye, malachite green.

* Correlation of the kinetic properties with dye concentration and other rate-dependent environmental parameters (temperature, ph, dye concentration and algal concentration) was characterized. In addition, the stability and reusability of alga during repetitive decolorization operations were examined.



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