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1*Neeraj Kumar Lohani, 2Vachaspati Mishra, 3Divakar Joshi
1,2Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Biomedical Education and Research, Mangalayatan University, Beswan, Aligarh-Uttar Pradesh, india,
3MBPG College Haldwani Nainital Kumaun University Nainital Uttarakhand.
The interdisciplinary approach with nanotechnology and animal tissue culture technique is going to revolutionize biomedical science in the next fifty years. Nanotechnology along with regulated animal tissue culture, makestissue engineering a realization based on the creation of new tissues in vitro followed by surgical placement in the body or the stimulation of normal repair in situ using bio-artificial constructs or implants of living cells introduced in or near the area of damage at nano level.It makes use of artificially stimulated cell proliferation by using suitable nano-material based scaffolds and growth factors. Nanotechnology can be successfully used to create a tissue or organ that can take the place of one that is terminally diseased, such as an eye, ear, heart, or joint. Implantable prosthetic devices and nano scaffolds are used for growing of artificial organs. The key components of tissue engineering with nanotechnology include: cells, scaffolds, signals and bioreactors. Scaffolds are produced by electro-spinning technique.The scaffold acts as an interim synthetic extra cellular matrix (ECM) that cells interact with prior to forming a new tissue.
Master’s of Science in Biotechnology.
Drug design is an integrated developing discipline which portends an era of ‘tailored drug’. It involves the study of effects of biologically active compounds on the basis of molecular interactions in terms of molecular structure or its physico-chemical properties involved. It studies the processes by which the drug produce their effects, how they react with the protoplasm to elicit a particular pharmacological effect or response how they are modified or detoxified, metabolized or eliminated by the organism.
Disposition of drugs in individual region of biosystems is one of the main factors determining the place , mode and intensity of their action . The biological activity may be “positive” as in drug design or “negative” as in toxicology. Thus drug design involves either total innovation of lead or an optimization of already available lead. These concepts are the building stones up on which the edifice of drug design is built up.
The drug is most commonly an organicsmall molecule that activates or inhibits the function of a biomolecule such as a protein, which in turn results in a therapeutic benefit to the patient. In the most basic sense, drug design involves the design of small molecules that are complementary in shape and charge to the biomolecular target with which they interact and therefore will bind to it. Drug design frequently but not necessarily relies on computer modeling techniques. This type of modeling is often referred to as computer-aided drug design. Finally, drug design that relies on the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the biomolecular target is known as structure-based drug design.
Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology (IBAB)
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the process of systematically reviewing, appraising and using clinical research findings to aid the delivery of optimum clinical care to patients. It is a method of healthcare decision-making that intends to combine the most reliable scientific information with individual expertise and patient preferences in order to offer the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic option for the patient. On the other hand, pharmacogenomics is a whole genome application that examines the single gene interactions with drugs. In recent years, the term personalized medicine has been introduced to represent an approach considering differences among individual patients. In modern medicine, the most important sources of evidence are clinical trials using epidemiological methods, and molecular biological and genetic methods characterizing individual patients.
This paper tries to review the rapid transformation of modern medicine from the ‘evidence-based medicine’ to ‘personalized and genomic medicine’.
SKU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Molecular farming officially known as transgenic non-food GM plant pharming and biopharming, is a type of genetic modification used in farming involving the use of plants, and potentially also animals, as the means to produce compounds of therapeutic value. The idea is to use such crops as biological factories to generate drugs difficult or expensive to produce in any other way. The issue of genetically modified crops has been around for a number of years and continues to be a controversial subject.
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Rakesh Thakur, Jayesh Patel
Department of Pharmacology,
University of Bedfordshire, Luton, LU1 3JU, England.
The PCR is widely used technique in sex determination. PCR is also used for the determination of x linked inherited disorders, with help of biopsied embryos into mothers. DNA polymerase enzyme replicates a piece of DNA. Thus, chain reaction occurs and generating multiple copies of it. Polymerase chain reaction is frequently used technique for sex determination. PCR can also be used for detecting the presence or absence of a particular piece of DNA. In this method, we used PCR method for determination of the sex of three unknown bovine samples.PCR techniques have developed to reduce the problems by increasing amplification quality.
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Rakesh Thakur, Jayesh Patel
Department of Pharmaceutical analysis and chemistry (Gujarat technical university)
Department of Pharmacology (University of Bedfordshire)
Amino acid sequence comparisons have several distinct advantages over nucleotide sequence comparisons, which, at least potentially, lead to a much greater sensitivity. Firstly, because there are 20 amino acids but only four bases, an amino acid match carries with it >4 bits of information as opposed to only two bits for a nucleotide match. Thus, statistical significance can be ascertained for much shorter sequences in protein comparisons than in nucleotide comparisons. Secondly, because of the redundancy of the genetic code, nearly one-third of the bases in coding regions are under a weak (if any) selective pressure and represent noise, which adversely affects the sensitivity of the searches. Thirdly, nucleotide sequence databases are much larger than protein databases because of the vast amounts of non-coding sequences coming out of eukaryotic genome projects, and this further lowers the search sensitivity.
Rajesh G. Dobariya
shree M.&N. Virani Science College,
Single cell protein typically refers to source of mixed protein extracted from pure or mixed culture of algae, yeast, fungi or bacteria. The microbes which are used for single cell protein production must be non-pathogenic to plants, animals and man. Good nutritional value, easily and cheaply produced on scale, toxin free, fast growing, easily to separate from the medium and to dry. They have many silent feature. Biomass production is ordinarily carried out in continuous mode to maximize yields and economic scale. The raw material of this process is very cheap because we used molasses, whey, gas, oil etc. For a substrate. So SCP is waste to best. The molasses and various salts including ammonium and phosphate salt contain of the baker’s yeast. The yeast are used for the production of SCP. The baker’s yeast is useful to as and they create disadvantages also the SCP and baker’s yeast very useful for organism.
Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Vishnupuri , Nanded.
A few decades ago, it was realized that certain proteins could be used as pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of human diseases. e.g. insulin for diabetes mellitus, interferon for viral diseases. However the availability of such therapeutic/ pharmaceutical products was limited due to costly and cumbersome procedures involved in their isolation. Further, their use in humans was associated with several complications. For instance, administration of pig insulin to diabetic patients results in the development of antibodies.
The advent of recombinant DNA technology heralded a new chapter for the production of a wide range of therapeutic agents in sufficient quantities for human use. The commercial exploitation of recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology began in late 1970s by biotechnological companies to produce proteins.There are around 400 different proteins being produced by rDNAtechnologyand as of now around 30 have been approved for human use.
*1M Prasad Naidu, 2T Madhu Chaithanya, 3N Mallikarjun Rao, 4Muneer Bhanu , 5Dr Madhu Sudan Reddy
1Medical Biochemistry, NMCH
2Medical Pharmacology, NMCH
5MD Pharmacolgy, NMCH
Conjugation of enzymes to antibodies involves the formation of a stable, covalent linkage between an enzyme [e.g., horseradish peroxidase (HRPO), urease, or alkaline phosphatase] and an antigen-specific monoclonal or polyclonal antibody in which neither the antigen-combining site nor the active site of the enzyme is functionally altered. The chemistry of cross-linking HRPO or urease to immunoaffinity purified monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies (IgG) is presented in. The chemistry of cross-linking alkaline phosphatase to antibodies is presented in. The enzyme most commonly used in the immunoreagent (the antibody enzyme conjugate) preparation is horseradish peroxides. This enzyme is cheap and can be attached to the immunoreagent by a variety of methods. Moreover many chromogenic substrates for it are also available.
Abhijeet Welankiwar*, Sushant Tope
Govt. college of Pharmacy Kathora naka
Amravati (Maharashtra) 444604.
The validation is a Fundamental segment that supports to a commitment of company towards quality assurance. It also assures that product meets its predetermined quality specification and quality characteristics. Validation of individual step of manufacturing is called as process validation. This Article concerns with the validation of biotechnological process. It is generally complex than validation of traditional synthetic or naturally occurring small molecules of drugs. Its level of complexity depends upon type of biotechnological products. The validation of biotechnological process has 3 Basic aspects they are Risk factors that are needed to be addressed, analytical tools necessary for validation and validation of unit operations.