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BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR A BETTER WORLD

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Nirav.R. Soni
M.Pharm, A-One Pharmacy College,
Anasan, Ahmedabad-382330, India
nirav_sonic@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT:
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology is not a source of energy, but a scientific method that provides tools to produce energy based entirely on modern biotechnological techniques, as to date encompass a wider range of altogether newer medicinal compounds, e.g., antibiotics, vaccines development and monoclonal antibodies (MABs) that may now be produced commercially using well-defined, optimized and improved fermentative methodologies. In fact, genetic engineering has brought in a sea change by virtue of the directed construction of microorganisms resulting in a plethora of newer life-saving drugs. Focus on a variety of  Research areas including health/medicine, food science, environmental science and agri- science and also bioenergy development.


TILLING: VERSATILE REVERSE GENETIC TOOL

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About Authors:
Navgeet1, Balraj Singh Gill2, Arvind Negi3*, Shashi Shekhar Anand2
1Institute of Himalayan Bioresource and Technology (CSIR-IHBT), Palampur (HP)
2Centre for Biosciences Central University of Punjab, Bathinda (Punjab)
3Centre for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda (Punjab)
*arvindnegi2301@gmail.com, arvindnegicup@gmail.com

Abstract:
Recent years have been witnessedfor exhaustive genome sequencing, nourishing a cause to track the mutation and its consequences at the phenotypic level. Butreliabilityof these genomic studiesis the critical issuewhich is still unaddressed and not properly understood. Moreover via TILLING techniques (reverse genetic tool), can be valuable in evaluation of these studies to much extent. Usually TILLING account on a specific gene mutation in order to observe the extent of the functionality of that particular gene at morphological level. This review compiles the literature pertaining to the art of tilling in the evaluation of genomic studies and majorly in concern of functionalgenomics. Moreover this review also covers the example of the most common species so as to buildbetter understanding of the concept behind this technique of reversegeneticsand can be fruitfully applied in extractingthe ethano-botanical and therapeuticeffect of various medicinal plants.


A NEW PROMISE: NEURAL TISSUE ENGINEERING USING NANOTECHNOLOGY

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About Authors:
1*
Neeraj Kumar Lohani, 2Vachaspati Mishra, 3Divakar Joshi
1,2
Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Biomedical Education and Research, Mangalayatan University, Beswan, Aligarh-Uttar Pradesh, india,
3
MBPG College Haldwani Nainital Kumaun University Nainital Uttarakhand.
neerajlohani06@gmail.com

Abstract
The interdisciplinary approach with nanotechnology and animal tissue culture technique is going to revolutionize biomedical science in the next fifty years. Nanotechnology along  with regulated animal tissue culture, makestissue engineering a realization  based on the creation of new tissues in vitro followed by surgical placement in the body or the stimulation of normal repair in situ using bio-artificial constructs or implants of living cells introduced in or near the area of damage at nano level.It makes use of artificially stimulated cell proliferation by using suitable nano-material based scaffolds and growth factors. Nanotechnology can be successfully used to create a tissue or organ that can take the place of one that is terminally diseased, such as an eye, ear, heart, or joint. Implantable prosthetic devices and nano scaffolds are used for growing of artificial organs. The key components of tissue engineering with nanotechnology include: cells, scaffolds, signals and bioreactors. Scaffolds are produced by electro-spinning technique.The scaffold acts as an interim synthetic extra cellular matrix (ECM) that cells interact with prior to forming a new tissue. 


DRUG DESIGNING : A REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Muhammed Mujahed
Master’s of Science in Biotechnology.
SRTM University.
mujubiotech2011@rediffmail.com

INTRODUCTION:
Drug design is an integrated developing discipline which portends an era of ‘tailored drug’. It involves the study of effects of biologically active compounds on the basis of molecular interactions in terms of molecular structure or its physico-chemical properties involved. It studies the processes by which the drug produce their effects, how they react with the protoplasm to elicit a particular pharmacological effect or response how they are modified or detoxified, metabolized or eliminated by the organism.

Disposition of drugs in individual region of biosystems is one of the main factors determining the place , mode and intensity of their action . The biological activity may be “positive” as in drug design or “negative” as in toxicology. Thus drug design involves either total innovation of lead  or an optimization of already available lead. These concepts are the building stones up on which the edifice of drug design is built up.

The drug is most commonly an organicsmall  molecule that activates or inhibits the function of a biomolecule such as a protein, which in turn results in a therapeutic benefit to the patient. In the most basic sense, drug design involves the design of small molecules that are complementary in shape and charge to the biomolecular target with which they interact and therefore will bind to it. Drug design frequently but not necessarily relies on computer modeling techniques. This type of modeling is often referred to as computer-aided drug design. Finally, drug design that relies on the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the biomolecular target is known as structure-based drug design.


EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE TO PERSONALIZED MEDICINE – A PROSPECTIVE

About Author:
Pritish Dash
Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology (IBAB)
Bangalore, India
pr4evr@gmail.com

Abstract:
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the process of systematically reviewing, appraising and using clinical research findings to aid the delivery of optimum clinical care to patients. It is a method of healthcare decision-making that intends to combine the most reliable scientific information with individual expertise and patient preferences in order to offer the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic option for the patient. On the other hand, pharmacogenomics is a whole genome application that examines the single gene interactions with drugs. In recent years, the term personalized medicine has been introduced to represent an approach considering differences among individual patients. In modern medicine, the most important sources of evidence are clinical trials using epidemiological methods, and molecular biological and genetic methods characterizing individual patients.
This paper tries to review the rapid transformation of modern medicine from the ‘evidence-based medicine’ to ‘personalized and genomic medicine’.


EDIBLE VACCINES

About Author:
K.Kranthi Kumar
SKU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
S.k.univrsity, Anantapur
kranthikumarkotta@gmail.com

Abstract
Molecular farming officially known as transgenic non-food GM plant pharming and biopharming, is a type of genetic modification used in farming involving the use of plants, and potentially also animals, as the means to produce compounds of therapeutic value. The idea is to use such crops as biological factories to generate drugs difficult or expensive to produce in any other way. The issue of genetically modified crops has been around for a number of years and continues to be a controversial subject.


SEX DETERMINATION USING POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

About Authors:
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Rakesh Thakur, Jayesh Patel
Department of Pharmacology,
University of Bedfordshire, Luton, LU1 3JU, England.
*ricky.emanual@gmail.com

Abstract
The PCR is widely used technique in sex determination. PCR is also used for the determination of x linked inherited disorders, with help of biopsied embryos into mothers. DNA polymerase enzyme replicates a piece of DNA. Thus, chain reaction occurs and generating multiple copies of it. Polymerase chain reaction is frequently used technique for sex determination. PCR can also be used for detecting the presence or absence of a particular piece of DNA. In this method, we used PCR method for determination of the sex of three unknown bovine samples.PCR techniques have developed to reduce the problems by increasing amplification quality.


SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF AMINO ACIDS IN TRYPSIN AND RAT TONIN

About Authors:
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Rakesh Thakur, Jayesh Patel
Department of Pharmaceutical analysis and chemistry (Gujarat technical university)
Department of Pharmacology (University of Bedfordshire)
ricky.emanual@gmail.com

Abstract:
Amino acid sequence comparisons have several distinct advantages over nucleotide sequence comparisons, which, at least potentially, lead to a much greater sensitivity. Firstly, because there are 20 amino acids but only four bases, an amino acid match carries with it >4 bits of information as opposed to only two bits for a nucleotide match. Thus, statistical significance can be ascertained for much shorter sequences in protein comparisons than in nucleotide comparisons. Secondly, because of the redundancy of the genetic code, nearly one-third of the bases in coding regions are under a weak (if any) selective pressure and represent noise, which adversely affects the sensitivity of the searches. Thirdly, nucleotide sequence databases are much larger than protein databases because of the vast amounts of non-coding sequences coming out of eukaryotic genome projects, and this further lowers the search sensitivity.


SINGLE CELL PROTEIN AND BAKER’S YEAST

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Rajesh G. Dobariya
shree M.&N. Virani Science College,
Rajkot
drajesh47@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Single cell protein typically refers to source of mixed protein extracted from pure or mixed culture of algae, yeast, fungi or bacteria. The microbes which are used for single cell protein production must be non-pathogenic to plants, animals and man. Good nutritional value, easily and cheaply produced on scale, toxin free, fast growing, easily to separate from the medium and to dry. They have many silent feature. Biomass production is ordinarily carried out in continuous mode to maximize yields and economic scale. The raw material of this process is very cheap because we used molasses, whey, gas, oil etc. For a substrate. So SCP is waste to best. The molasses and various salts including ammonium and phosphate salt contain of the baker’s yeast. The yeast are used for the production of SCP. The baker’s yeast is useful to as and they create disadvantages also the SCP and baker’s yeast very useful for organism.



PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS OF RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Muhammad Mujahed
M.Sc Biotechnology
Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Vishnupuri , Nanded.
mujubiotech2011@rediffmail.com

INTRODUCTION:
A few decades ago, it was realized that certain proteins could be used as pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of human diseases. e.g. insulin for diabetes mellitus, interferon for viral diseases. However the availability of such therapeutic/ pharmaceutical products was limited due to costly and cumbersome procedures involved in their isolation. Further, their use in humans was associated with several complications. For instance, administration of pig insulin to diabetic patients results in the development of antibodies.

The advent of recombinant DNA technology heralded a new chapter for the production of a wide range of therapeutic agents in sufficient quantities for human use. The commercial exploitation of recombinant DNA  (rDNA) technology began in late 1970s by biotechnological companies to produce proteins.There are around 400 different proteins being produced  by rDNAtechnologyand as of now around 30 have been approved for human use.