BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences

AN INSIGHT ON NUTRACEUTICALS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Niyati Borkar*1, SS Saurabh2, KS Rathore3, Ashlesha Pandit1, KR Khandelwal1
1JSPM’s Rajarshi Shahu College of Pharmacy and Research, Tathwade, Pune, India
2Lachoo Memorial College of Science & Technology, Pharmacy Wing, Jodhpur (Raj.), India
3BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur (Raj.), India
niyatiborkar@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT
The concept of nutraceutical a evidence based medicines was started from a survey held in United Kingdom, Germany and France which concluded that diet is rated more highly by consumers than exercise or hereditary factors for achieving good health. Nutraceutical, a portmanteau of the words “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical”, is a food or food product that reportedly provides health and medical benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease. Nutraceutical is a term that does not easily fall into the legal category of food and drug and often inhabits a grey area between the two. Nutraceuticals may range from isolated nutrients herbal products, dietary supplements and diets to genetically engineered “designs” foods and processed products such as cereals, soups and beverages and hence also referred to as functional foods. A nutraceutical is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease. Apart from disease prevention, they play an important role in disease management and therapy. Also, the growing consumer awareness regarding health care has led to the tantalizing opportunity for a “nutraceutical” breakthough in the pharmaceutical battleground as an alternative to modern medicine. This revolution will lead us into a new era of medicine and health, in which the food industry will become a research oriented one similar to the pharmaceutical industry. This review article focuses on the definition, history, development, classification, challenges and opportunities, regulations,global market scenario as also the motivation behind the development of nutraceuticals.

MICROSPHERES AS HYDRODYNAMICALLY BALANCE SYSTEM

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About Authors:
Rohit Kumar Ahuja*1, Surendra Singh Saurabh1, Poonam Choudhary1, Aniket Singh Chouhan1, Kamal Singh Rathore2
1 Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology (Pharmacy Wing) Sector-A, Shastrinagar, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342003, IND.
2 BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur (Raj.) 313002, India
rohitahuja1111@gmail.com

Abstract:
To build up an oral drug delivery system, it is essential to optimize both release rate of drug and residence time of system within gastrointestinal tract. In oral path difference in gastric physiology such as gastric pH and motility display variability on gastric residence time (GRT) and drug delivery actions. Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT including hydrodynamic balance systems (HBS), swelling and expanding systems, polymeric bioadhesive systems, high-density systems, modified-shape systems and other delayed gastric emptying devices.One such approach is Floating Microspheres (Hollow Microspheres). Floating microspheres are gastro-retentive drug delivery systems based on non-effervescent approach. These microspheres are characteristically free flowing powders made of proteins or synthetic polymers, ideally having a size less than 200 micrometer. Gastro-retentive floating microspheres are low-density systems that have sufficient buoyancy to float over gastric contents and remain in stomach for prolonged period. The drug is released slowly at desired rate resulting in increased gastric retention with reduced fluctuations in plasma drug concentration. Floating microspheres improve patient compliance by decreasing dosing frequency and better therapeutic effect of short half-life drugs can be achieved. Floating microspheres are characterized by their micromeritic properties such as particle size, tapped density, compressibility index, true density and flow properties including angle of repose, scanning electron microscopy, in vitro floatability studies, in vitro drug release studies and stability studies etc.

PRODRUGS: AN OVERVIEW

About Authors:
Deepti Soni*, Rathore KS1, Nema RK2
*College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Behrampur, Orissa
1BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur, Raj.
2Rishiraj College of Pharmacy, Indore-MP
*deepti_jazz@yahoo.com

Introduction
A prodrug is a pharmacological substance (drug) that is administered in an inactive (or significantly less active) form. Once administered, the prodrug is metabolised in vivo into an active metabolite (Wadhwa LK, 1994). Almost all drugs possess some undesirable physiochemical and biological properties. Their therapeutic efficacy can be improved by minimizing or eliminating the undesirable properties while retaining the desirable ones.  This can be achieved through biological, physical or chemical means (Loe A, 1971, Balant LP, E Doelker, et al., 1990, Jha V, 1995).

  • The biological approach is to alter the route of administration, which may or may not be acceptable to the patient.
  • The physical approach is to modify the design of the dosage form such as controlled delivery of drugs.
  • The chemical approach is the best approach in enhancing drug selectivity and minimizing the toxicity.

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PHYTOSOMES LOADED WITH GENISTIN-SOYBEAN PHOSPHOLIPID COMPLEX DEVELOPED FOR DRUG DELIVERY

About Authors:
Aniket Singh*, Poonam Sain, Rekha Singh Saurabh1, Surendra Singh, Kamal Singh Rathore1
*Department of Pharmaceutics, Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology (Pharmacy Wing), Shastri Nagar, Jodhpur, 342003 (Raj.), INDIA.
1B.N. Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur-Raj.313002 INDIA
aniketsingh18@yahoo.com

Abstract
Phytosomes of soy-isoflavones (genistin/daidzin) was formulated to provide good bioavailability for treatment of cancer associated with skin and prostate etc. There are many dosage forms like tablet, capsules, liposomes etc. of isoflavones having anticancer activity available in market but still need for a new dosage form which acts effectively with better bioavailable dose. So the present investigation has been taken up to design, prepare and evaluate phytosomes to meet need of bioavailability and local action. Benefits of this phytosomes showed increase in bioavailability, reduction in gastric irritation by passing first pass metabolism and increase onset of action. Phytosomes were prepared using lecithin as phospholipid and ethanol, acetone etc as solvent system. All formulations were subjected to physic-chemical evaluation. Selected were subjected to stability studies, spectroscopic and biological evaluations.

EMULGELS: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR TOPICAL DRUG DELIVERY OF HYDROPHOBIC DRUGS

About Authors:
Arpana Kumari*, Saurabh SS, Poonam K, Rathore KS1
*Department of Pharmaceutics, Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology, Pharmacy Wing,
Jodhpur, 342001 (Raj) India.
1BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur-313002 (Raj.)
111arpnasingh@gmail.com

Abstract:
A unique aspect of dermatological pharmacology is the direct accessibility of the skin as a target organ for diagnosis and treatment. When gel and emulsion are used in combined form they are referred as Emulgel. Among the various groups of semisolid preparations, the use of gels has expanded both in cosmetics and in pharmaceutical preparations. Despite of several advantages of gels there is a limitation in delivery of hydrophobic drug moiety. This limitation can be overcome by the use of novel topical drug delivery i.e. emulgel. The major objective behind emulgel is delivery of hydrophobic drugs via skin. Emulgels show dual release control system i.e. gel and emulsion. The presence of a gelling agent in the water phase converts a classical emulsion into an emulgel. These emulgel are having major advantages on novel vesicular system as well as on conventional systems in various aspects. Emulgels have several favourable properties for dermatological use such as being thixotropic, greaseless, easily spreadable, easily removable, emollient, nonstaining, long shelf life, bio-friendly, transparent and pleasing appearance. So emulgels can be used as better topical drug delivery systems over present systems. The use of emulgels can be expanded in analgesics, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-acne drugs and various cosmetic formulations.

BUCCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW

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About Authors:
Poonam K*, Saurabh SS, Arpana Kumari, Rathore KS1
*Department of Pharmaceutics, Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology, Pharmacy Wing, Jodhpur, 342001 (Raj) India.
1BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur-313002 (Raj.)
poonam28nov.pharm@gmail.com

Abstract:
The main aim for the oral delivery of most of the drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Parenteral route of administration is the only established route that overcomes all these drawbacks associated with these orally inefficient drugs. But these formulations are costly, have least patient compliance, require repeated administration, in addition to the other hazardous effects associated with this route. Buccal cavity was found to be the most convenient and easily accessible site for the delivery of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic delivery as retentive dosage forms. Buccoadhesive drug delivery is relatively new drug delivery strategy; in this traditional polymers are replaced by novel bioadhesive polymers such as Thiomers and lectins etc. to overcome limitation of traditional polymer. Buccoadhesive characteristic are factor of both bioadhesive polymer and the medium in which the polymer reside. It is the objective of this article to review buccoadhesive drug delivery by discussing the structure, permeability of buccal mucosa, mechanism of buccoadhesion, novel bioadhesive polymers, buccoadhesive dosage form and their evaluation, recent advances in buccoadhesive drug delivery system.

AN OVERVIEW ON PHARMACOVIGILANCE

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Jain Deepika*, Rathore Kamal Singh
BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Udaipur-Raj.313002 INDIA
*dpka88jain@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Pharmacovigilance is particularly concerned with adverse drug reactions, or ADRs, which are officially described as: “A response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological function”. The mission of Pharmacovigilance is to contribute to the protection of public health in the regulation of the safety; quality and efficacy of medicines for human use and to ensure the healthcare professionals and patients have access to information about the safe and effective use of medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adverse drug reaction (ADR) as “Any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease or for modification of the physiological function”.

The discipline of pharmacovigilance has developed considerably since the 1972 WHO technical report, and it remains a dynamic clinical and scientific discipline. It has been essential to meet the challenges of the increasing range and potency of medicines (including vaccines), which carry with them an inevitable and sometimes unpredictable potential for harm. The following is a summary of some of the serious challenges facing pharmacovigilance programmes in the next ten years & the major challenges are:Globalization, Web-based sales and information, Broader safety concerns, Public health versus pharmaceutical industry economic growth , Monitoring of established products, Developing and emerging countries, Attitudes and perceptions to benefit and harm, Outcomes and Impact.