Kota

A REVIEW ON NEUROTOXICITY

About Authors:
Yogesh Yaduwanshi*, Gireesh Mehta, Jitendra Shakyawal, Surya Pratap, Sanjay Singh, Mahaveer Kabra
Department of Pharmacology,
Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota,
Rajasthan India
*yogeshyaduwanshi24@gmail.com

Abstract:
Chemicals are an integral part of our daily lives and are responsible for substantially improving them. Yet chemicals can also endanger our health, even our survival. This report focuses on neurotoxic substances, those chemicals that adversely affect the nervous system. Included among such substances are industrial chemicals, pesticides, therapeutic drugs, abused drugs, foods, food additives, cosmetic ingredients, and naturally occurring substances. Whether a substance causes an adverse health effect depends on many factors, including the toxicity of the substance, the extent of exposure, and an individual's age and state of health. Minimizing public health risks requires knowledge about the properties and mechanisms of action of potentially toxic substances to which humans may be exposed. The assessment includes discussion of industrial chemicals, pesticides, therapeutic drugs, substance drugs, foods, food additives, cosmetic ingredients, and such naturally occurring substances as lead and mercury. It does not include radioactive chemicals, nicotine, alcohol, biological and chemical warfare agents, microbial, plant, and animal toxins, and physical agents such as noise.

CLINICAL RESEARCH: TRIALS & SCOPE

About Author:
Mr. Piyush Tripathi
Kota College of Pharmacy
Kota, Rajasthan.
piyushtripathi1992@rediffmail.com

Introduction:
The term Clinical Research refers to the entire bibliography of a drug from its inception in the lab to its introduction to the consumer market & beyond. Not every compound that is tested in the lab is marketed. Before a drug is marketed, it has to undergo several stages of development.

ROLE OF CAVEOLAE IN HEALTH & DISEASE

About Author:
Mr. Piyush Tripathi
Kota College of Pharmacy,
Kota (RAJ).
piyushtripathi1992@rediffmail.com

Introduction:
In biology, caveolae (Latin for little caves, singular: caveola), which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50–100 nanometer) invaginations of the plasma membrane in many vertebrate cell types, especially in endothelial cells and adipocytes.

These flask-shaped structures are rich in proteins as well as lipids such as cholesteroland sphingolipids and have several functions in signal transduction. They are also believed to play a role in endocytosis, oncogenesis, and the uptake of pathogenicbacteriaand certain viruses.

DRUG DEVELOPMENT, ESPECIALLY “CANCER” BASED ON MOLECULAR BIOMARKERS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Piyush Tripathi*, Rahul Sharma, Shanti Bhushan Mishra
Kota College of Pharmacy, Ranpur,
Kota-325003 (Rajasthan) India.
*piyushtripathi1992@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
A biomarker can be a substance that is introduced into an organism as a means to examine organ function or other aspects of health. A biomarker is a parameter that can be used to measure the progress of disease or the effects of treatment. In the treatment of diseases especially “Cancer”, there is a shift from the traditional clinical practices (drugs with low toxicity) to novel approaches. Currently, effective treatment is available for only a small percentage of cancer patients.These novel approaches are intended to identify individualized patient benefits of therapies, minimize the risk of toxicity and reduce the cost of treatment. The biggest challenge for researchers and clinicians today is, to decide on which type of biomarker to use across the wide spectrum of disease processes. In cancer, genomic studies are valuable because every cancer cell shows some degree of genetic damage. Biomarkers have the ability to greatly enhance cancer detection and the drug development process. In addition, biomarkers will enable physicians to develop individualized treatment plans for their cancer patients; thus allowing doctors to tailor drugs specific to their patient's tumor type.

SUPERDISINTEGRANTS: A REVIEW

About Authors:
Hemant Rathod*, M.P.Khinchi, Dilip Agrawal, Natasha Sharma
*Department of Pharmaceutics
Kota College of Pharmacy,
Kota, Rajasthan, India
*hemant2787@gmail.com

Abstract
Fast dissolving, fast melting, chewable and orally dissolving or disintegrating tablets are solid dosage forms that disintegrate rapidly and dissolve in the mouth without water. These products have staying power in the marketplace because they appeal to consumers and support increased compliance among users as well as provide effective life-cycle management. The principle challenge with orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) is to develop tablet formulations that deliver rapid disintegration, pleasant mouth feel and high breaking force for tablet robustness. Superdisintegrants affect a range of formulation parameters; including the rate of disintegration, tablet breaking force, and mouth feel i.e. Polyplasdone XL-10 superdisintegrant provides optimal performance in ODT formulations.

AN OVERVIEW: MELT-IN-MOUTH TABLETS

About Authors:
Hemant Rathod*, Shakti Shekhawat, Jimit Shah, Parth Gandhi
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota, Rajasthan.
*hemant2787@gmail.com

Abstract
Oral solid dosage form are more popular than other dosage form but suffer from problems like taste, solubility, bioavailability; so patient compliance. To improve patient compliance, melt in mouth tablets have emerged as an alternative to conventional oral dosage form. The aim is to provide the tablet that quickly melts upon contact with saliva and also provides a good mouth feel. The venture's latest technology, called Frosta™, involves tablet formulations that can melt in a patient's mouth as quickly in 10 seconds much faster than existing commercial products made by tablet press machines. Melt in mouth tablet disintegrate in saliva without need of drinking water within 15 to 60 seconds. There is easy administration to pediatric, geriatric & psychiatric patients.  They produce rapid onset of action with increased bioavailability. Free of the risk of suffocation due to physical obstruction when swallowed, thus offering improved safety. It has ability to provide advantages of liquid medication in the form of solid preparation. It can be manufactured with common methods such as Freeze drying, Moulding, Sublimation, Spray-Drying, Mass-Extrusion, Direct Compression and by using conventional equipment. Keeping in view of the advantages of the delivery system, rapidly disintegrating dosage forms have been successfully commercialized, and because of increased patient demand, these dosage forms are expected to become more popular.

A REVIEW ON HISTAMINE ANTAGONIST

About Authors:
Mahaveer Kabra*1, Sanjay Bhandari1,  Ami Sharma1, Reema Jain2
Department of Pharmacology,
1Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota
2Bhupal Noble’s Institute of Pharmaceutical science, Udaipur
*sanskarkabra@gmail.com

Abstract:
A histamine antagonist is an agent which serves to inhibit the release or action of histamine. Allergies are caused by an excessive response of the body to allergens, such as the pollen released by grasses and trees. An allergic reaction indicates an excessive release, of histamine by the body.Histamine is a natural chemical produced by the immune (disease-fighting) system of the body. The main action of histamine is related to allergies. An allergen is a substance that is not normally harmful, such as pollen, but which causes an overreaction by the immune system in some people.drugs show their action by binding with their specific receptor like H1-receptor antagonists are Diphenhydramine, Meclizine etc. H2-receptor antagonists Cimetidine, Famotidine. All antihistamines are reversible, competitive antagonists at histaminic (H1) receptors. They act by inhibiting binding of circulating histamine to its receptor site, but do not prevent histamine release. Administration of an antihistamine results in inhibition of respiratory, vascular, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle constriction, a decrease in histamine-activated secretions from salivary and lacrimal glands, and anti-inflammatory effects. Antihistamines also decrease capillary permeability, which reduces the wheal and flare response to an allergen, as well as diminishes itching. Competitive inhibition of histamine at H2 receptors of the gastric parietal cells resulting in reduced gastric acid secretion, gastric volume and hydrogen ion concentration reduced. Antihistamines are used as treatment for allergies.


A REVIEW ON ABRUS PRECATORIUS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Mahaveer Kabra*, Sanjay Bhandari, Natasha Sharma Raman Gupta.
Department of Pharmacology,
Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota. Raj.
*sanskarkabra@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Abrus precatorius
Linn (Fabaceae) Plant found all throughout the plains of India, from Himalaya down to Southern India and Ceylon. It is used medicinally in various country. The roots, leaves and seeds of the plant are used medicinally. Glycyrrhizin, Triterpene glycosides, pinitol and alkaloids such as abrine, hepaphotine, choline and precatorine are the principle chemical constituents of the plants. Traditionally leaves are used as aphrodisiac, tonic, remove biliousness, useful in eye diseases, cures leucoderma, itching, skin diseases and wounds. The root is considered emetic and alexiteric. Internally, the seeds are described as poisonous and useful in affections of the nervous system and externally used in skin diseases, ulcers and affections of the hair. Antifertility, Antithrombin, Aanthelmintic Activity, Antimalarial are some reported activity of Abrus precatorius Linn.

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