About Authors:
Ritesh Shah*, Gaurav Chandawat, Rahul Jadav, Bhoomi Arora
Institute Of Clinical Research (India),
Ahmedabad, Gujarat-380013, India

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicates approximately 1 to 2 of 1,000 pregnancies, with pulmonary embolism (PE) being a leading cause of maternal mortality and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) an important cause of maternal morbidity. The main reason for the increased risk of thromboembolism in pregnancy is hypercoagulability, which has likely evolved to protect women from the bleeding challenges of miscarriage and childbirth. Women are at a 4- to 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with when they are not pregnant. Eighty percent of the thromboembolic events in pregnancy are venous, with an incidence of 0.61 to 1.72 per 1000 pregnancies.Includes a history of thrombosis, inherited and acquired thrombophilia, maternal age greater than 35, certain medical conditions, and various complications of pregnancy and childbirth.

Despite the increased risk of VTE during pregnancy and the postpartum period, most women do not require anticoagulation. The intensity of the anticoagulation will depend on the indication and the monitoring will depend on the intensity. At the time of delivery, anticoagulation should be manipulated to reduce the risk of bleeding complications while minimizing the risk of thrombosis. There are no large trials of anticoagulants in pregnancy, and recommendations are based on case series, extrapolations from nonpregnant patients and the opinion of experts. Nonetheless, anticoagulants are believed to improve the outcome of pregnancy for women who have, or have had, VTE.

A Review Biotechnological removal of color and dye from waste water

About Authors:
Alpesh J.Shiroya*, K.K.Vaghasiya, N.J.ghantala
Bhagwan Mahavir College Of  Biotechnology ,

Clean technology has become an important concern for every industry. Especially in textile dyeing factories, there is much use of water, energy, dyeing colours and chemicals. This can cause significant water and air pollution problems. The wastewater wear a lot of colour and having toxic odour, COD and BOD. wastewater contains the following reactive dyes: turquoise DG, black DN, red DB-8 and orange OGR. It has been shown that the efficiency of dye removal depends on the type of dye, coagulant dosage, and the sample pH.The performance of COD and colour removal in the single-stage ozonation- biological treatment was also compared with the multi-stage ozonation-biological treatment processes. Ozonation transforms the functional groups in azo dye to produce more biodegradable by products, which is easily removed by biological treatment. semiconductor photocatalysis process could be an appropriate tool for the treatment for textile dyeing and printing wastewater. Activated sludge treatment and the coagulation-flocculation method with ≥80% removal efficiency of waste water. Using the electrocoagulation process possible the reuse of dye wastewater by removing the colours. sequential batch reactor (SBR) technology as an alternative method for treating industrial effluents.In the present work we review existing processes as well as promising new technologies for texttile waste water decolorisation.

Simultaneous Estimation of Tramadol HCl, Paracetamol and Domperidone in Pharmaceutical Formulation by Thin-Layer Chromatographic-Densitometric method

About Authors:
Keyur B.ahir, Emanual M. Patelia*, Falgun A.Mehta
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis,
Indukaka Ipcowala College of Pharmacy,
New Vallabh Vidyanagar – 388121, Gujarat, India

A simple, precise, rapid, selective, and economic high-performance-thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method has been established for simultaneous analysis of Domperidone (DMP), Paracetamol (PCM) and Tramadol Hcl (TMD) in tablet dosage forms. The chromatographic separations were performed on precoated silica gel 60254 plates with toluene-ethylacetate-butanol-ammonia 5:4:1:0.2(v/v) as mobile phase. The plates were developed in a 7.0 cm at ambient temperature. The developed plates were scanned and quantified at their single wavelength of maximum absorption at approximately 278 nm for DMP and PCM, respectively. Experimental conditions such as chamber size, chamber saturation time, migration of solvent front, slit width, etc. were critically studied and the optimum conditions were selected. The drugs were satisfactorily resolved with Rf 0.18 ± 0.02 for DMP, Rf 0.25 ± 0.02 for PCM and for TMD Rf 0.50 ± 0.02. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and specificity. The calibration plot was linear between 100-600 ng / band for DMP, 3250-19500 ng / band based for PCM and 375-2250 ng / band based for TMD. The limits of detection and quantification for DMP were 9.95 and 30.16ng / band, respectively; for PCM they were 64.30 ng and 194.87 ng / band and for TMD 5.51 and 16.70/ band. This HPTLC procedure is economic, sensitive, and less time consuming than other chromatographic procedures. It is a user-friendly and importance tool for analysis of combined tablet dosage forms.

Job as Associate Professor, Assistant Professor in Saurashtra University, NAAC

Saurashtra University, established on 23rd May, 1967, is situated in Rajkot city of the Saurashtra region of Gujarat State. The campus of the University is spread over 360 acres of land. The jurisdiction of the University includes Amreli, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Porbandar, Rajkot and Surendra Nagar districts.

Guar gum: A Potential Natural Hydrophilic Polymer

About Authors:
Pankaj S. Waghere1*, Malpani Amol2,

1Prin. K. M. Kundnani College of Pharmacy, Mumbai. Maharashtra, India.
2Roland Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Berhampur. Orissa, India.


Hydrocolloids are naturally-occurring plant polysaccharide, in that gaur gum is most useful and validated natural plant polysaccharide. Guar gum and their derivatives are widely used in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Many are used as biodegradable polymeric materials to deliver active pharmaceutical ingredients. Natural polymers can be modified to obtain tailor-made materials for drug delivery systems and to compete with the synthetic biodegradable excipients available in the market. Natural polymers as a drug carrier material are of two types: polysaccharides and proteins. They found both in plants and animals providing several advantages over synthetic polymers.Gaur gums are preferred to those of synthetic origin due to their green, cost-effectiveness, nontoxic, easy availability and for suitable binder in tablet manufacture. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into the many potential applications of gaur gum as pharmaceutical natural excipients.