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  • Montreal Protocol – A Mission to Save Planet Earth

    About Author: Ashish Chauhan
    M.Pharm (Pharmaceutical Chemistry)
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
    Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar (Punjab).

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
    (A Protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer)


    Ozone Layer

    • The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3).
    • This layer absorbs 97–99% of the Sun's high frequency ultraviolet light, which is damaging to life on Earth.
    • It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 30 to 40 kilometres above Earth, though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically.
    • The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson.
    • Its properties were explored in detail by the British meteorologist G. M. B. Dobson, who developed a simple spectrophotometer (the Dobson meter) that could be used to measure stratospheric ozone from the ground.
    • Between 1928 and 1958 Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations, which continue to operate to this day.
    • The "Dobson unit", a convenient measure of the columnar density of ozone overhead, is named in his honour.

    About Authors: Divya Gupta,
    M.Pharm (Pharmaceutics),
    Dehradun Institute of Technology, Dehradun

    In the words of Hughes and Mitra2: “ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavours facing the pharmaceutical scientist...The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye render this organ exquisitely impervious to foreign substances...The challenge to the formulator is to circumvent the protective barriers of the eye without causing permanent tissue damage...The primitive ophthalmic solutions, suspensions and ointment dosage forms are clearly no longer sufficient to combat some present virulent diseases...”

    Eye is a unique and very valuable organ. This is considered a window hinge. We can enjoy it and look at the world body. There are many eye diseases that can affect the body and loss of vision as well. Therefore, many eyes in drug delivery systems are available. They are classified as traditional and new drug development system. Topical application of drugs to the eye is the most popular and well-accepted route of administration for the treatment of various eye disorders. The bioavailability of ophthalmic drugs is, however, very poor due to efficient protective mechanisms of the eye. Blinking, baseline and reflex lachrymation, and drainage remove rapidly foreign substances, including drugs, from the surface of the eye [1].


    About Authors:

    Pharmaceutical suspension may be defined as coarse dispersions in which insoluble solids are suspended in a liquid medium. Insoluble solids may have a size range from 10 to 1000 µm.

    It is important to understand that suspensions are kinetically stable, but thermodynamically unstable, system.
    Physical stability is defined as the condition in which the particles remain uniformly distributed throughout the dispersion without any signs of sedimentation. It is difficult to achieve this condition. Hence the definition can be restated as –if the particles settle they should be easily resuspendable by moderate amount of shaking.

  • Antimicrobial Activity of Plants Belong to Solanaceae Family

    About Authors: Ajay Kumar Pathak,
    Analytical Science Division,
    Shriram Institute for Industrial Research,
    19 University Road, Delhi, 110007

    The plant kingdom comprises many species of plants containing substances of medicinal value, which are yet to be explored. A large number of plants are constantly being screened for their possible medicinal value.[12] The use of plant extracts in traditional medicine has been going on from ancient time.[13] Herbalism and folk medicine, both ancient and modern, have been the source of much useful therapy.[14-16] In the recent years, the development of resistance of pathogens against antibiotics has become a difficult issue caused by the indiscriminate use of modern antibiotics.[17-23] Therefore, the demand for new and effective antimicrobial agents with broad spectrum activities from natural sources are increasing day by day. Infectious diseases account for approximately one-half of all deaths in tropical countries. The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and "leads" which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50% of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used as antimicrobials.

  • Nanotechnology Cure the Uncontrolled Growth of Cells: Cancer

    About Authors: Rinki Verma,
    Research fellow,
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005

    Cancer is caused by damage of genes which control the growth and division of cells. Detection/diagnose/treatment is possible by confirming the growth of the cells and treated by rectifying the damaging mechanism of the genes or by stopping the blood supply to the cells or by destroying it. Conventional detection method of the cancer is not more efficient than nanotechnogical detection method. Nano Particles (NP) being of a few of nano meters size and the cells being of the size of few microns, NP can enter inside the cells and can access the DNA molecules/Genes and therefore, there is a possibility that the defect in the genes can be detected. The conventional treatment is less sensitive than the nanotechnology methods, certain NP can be designed to absorb preferentially certain wave length of radiation and if they enters in the cancerous cells, they will burn them So, Nanotechnology can be used to create therapeutic agents that target specific cells and deliver toxin to kill them.

  • UV - Spectrophotometric and RP - HPLC Method Developement for Simultaneous Determination of Paracetamol and Etodolac in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    About Authors: Manoj Kumar Jadia1*, Dr. U. L. Narayan2
    1. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
    Indira Gandhi institute of Pharmaceautical Sciences,
    IRC village, Bhubaneswar, Odhisa, India
    2. Principal, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
    Indira Gandhi institute of Pharmaceautical Sciences,
    IRC village, Bhubaneswar, Odhisa, India

    The two methods are described for the simultaneous determination of Paracetamol and Etodolac in binary mixture. The first method was based on UV-spectrophotometric determination of both of the drugs, using simultaneous equation method. It involves absorbance measurement at 256.0 nm (λmax of Paracetamol) and 226.0 nm (λmax of Etodolac) in methanol; linearity was obtained in the range of 5 – 25 μg.mL-1 for both the drugs. The second method was based on HPLC separation of the two drugs in reverse phase mode using Promosil C18 column. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 30-70μg.mL-1 for Paracetamol and 20-60 μg.mL-1 for Etodolac. The LOD and LOQ value of UV-Spectrophotometric determination was found to be 167.43 ng mL-1, 507.37 ng mL-1  and for HPLC determination was found to be 1653.12 ng mL-1, 5009.48 ng mL-1.Both these methods have beensuccessively applied to pharmaceutical formulation and were validated according to ICH guidelines.

  • Liver Enzymes

    About Authors: Sharath Babu
    M.Pharm, Mallareddy Institute of Pharmacy

    Liver Enzymes
    Four separate liver enzymes are included on most routine laboratory tests. They are-aspartate aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT), which are known together as transaminases; and alkaline phosphatase (AP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), which are known together as cholestatic liver enzymes. Elevations of these enzymes can indicate the presence of liver disease.

  • Combinatorial Chemistry and Contemporary Pharmacology

    About Authors: Aswini K. Reddy, Swetha Yasa, Srivally Challa, Masoom. md
    Mallareddy Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hyderabad

    Both solid- and liquid-phase combinatorial chemistry have emerged as powerful tools for identifying pharmacologically active compounds and optimizing the biological activity of a lead compound. Complementary high-throughput in vitro assays are essential for compound evaluation. Cell-based assays that use optical endpoints permit investigation of a wide variety of functional properties of these compounds including specific intracellular biochemical pathways, protein-protein interactions, and the subcellular localization of targets. Integration of combinatorial chemistry with contemporary pharmacology now represents an important factor in drug discovery and development.

    This is an exceptionally exciting time in the field of pharmacology. The environment for the identification of new therapeutic targets and agents that interact with these targets has rapidly changed with the application of genetic tools and genomics. Extrapolation from the genomic sequencing of lower organisms suggests that there will be a 10-fold increase in the number of potential human therapeutic targets in the next several years with the completion of the Human Genome Project (Drews, 1996). This is leading to a fundamental transformation in pharmacology; no longer is there a dearth of molecular targets for small molecules. Rather, the emphasis is now on validating whether or not the targets are appropriate for therapeutic intervention, on generating large arrays of compounds that represent diverse portions of “chemical space”, and developing methods to quickly assess the credentials of small molecules as target disrupters. We believe many of the tools and reagents that are being developed to facilitate this scientific activity will emerge as vital for future academic pharmacological research. Perhaps most important will be the exploitation of combinatorial chemistry libraries, which are becoming widely available. Although we cannot comprehensively review this broad topic here, the goal of this brief commentary is to portray some of the strategies and potentials of combinatorial chemistry libraries as they relate to pharmacological studies.


    About Authors: Shoeib Afroz Mohammad,
    M.Pharm (Pharmacology),
    Vaagdevi College of Pharmacy, Kakatiya University

    Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1087

    By the 1930s, scientists had isolated and determined the structure of the steroid hormones and found that high doses of androgens, estrogens or progesterone inhibited ovulation. The first oral-contraceptive formulations marketed in the United States, in 1960 and1961, contained 2 to 5 times as much estrogen and 5 to 10 times as much progestin as the oral contraceptives now in use. Since introduced in May of 1960, these pills have provided reliable contracep¬tion for millions of woman throughout the world.They were given in a regimen consisting of 21 active tablets containing estrogen and progestin followed by 7 days of placebo tablets (21/7 regimen). The 7 days of placebo was designed for menses to occur during that time. The use of these high-dose formulations was linked to increased risks of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and pulmonary embolism in healthy young women. The estrogen and progestin were reduced rapidly during the 1960s and 1970s because of concern about safety and because the reduction of the doses did not reduce the contraceptive effectiveness.The reductions in the dose of estrogen are believed to have decreased the risk of venous thrombosis. The combination estrogen–progestin oral contraceptives that are now on the market contain estrogen at doses ranging from 20 to 50 μg of ethinyl estradiol or, uncommonly, mestranol. Currently there are over 70 different brands on the market. 1


    About Authors: Dipak Kumar Dash
    M.Pharm (Pharmaceutics)
    Himalayan Pharmacy Institute
    East Sikkim, Majhitar

    Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1086

    Hazard is a term associated with a substance that is likelihood to cause an injury in a given environment or situation. Industrial hazard may be defined as any condition produced by industries that may cause injury or death to personnel or loss of product or property.    Safety in simple terms means freedom from the occurrence of risk or injury or loss. Industrial safety refers to the protection of workers from the danger of industrial accidents.

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