An Article on Pharmacogenetics

About Authors:Kisananad Vishwakarma,
SGI Barabanki,

Pharmacogenetics is generally regarded as the study or clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to differing response to drugs. It refers to genetic differences in metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs. Much of current clinical interest is at the level of pharmacogenetics, involving variation in genes involved in, drug metabolism with a particular emphasis on improving drug safety. The wider use of pharmacogenetic testing is viewed by many as an outstanding opportunity to improve prescribing safety and efficacy.


About Authors: T.Venkatesh.Y.Nandini,L.Sai Kishore,V.Satish Kumar, P.Archana, G.malathi
Guided by: Ms.S.Rekha
Chilkur Balaji College of Pharmacy,Moinabad,Hyderabad.

The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity “KSHEERABALA THAILAM” (an ayurvedic preparation of IMCOPS) by topical application against fresh egg white induced inflammation on Swiss albino rats. Using Randall and Baroth methodKsheerabala Thailam was investigated for the anti-inflammatory activity in Swiss albino rats against Diclofenac as standard reference and normal saline as control .  The time taken for reduction of the inflammation in the rat paw was determined. The topical application of Ksheerabala Thailam exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard Diclofenac and normal saline. The topical application of Ksheerabala Thailam has anti-inflammatory effect on Swiss albino rats.

Pharmacognostic Studies of the Stems of Rumex Hastatus

About Author:
Rajput Praveen Kumar*, Gahlot Kavita
College of Pharmacy,
Institute of Foreign Trade and Management (IFTM),
Moradabad (UP)

Rumex hastatus is the bushy shrub or undershrub 30-90 cm,high,occurring chiefly on dry rocks and hillsides on dry rocks and hillsides of western Himalayas from Kumaun to Kashmir,at altitudes between 300 and 2400 m . Rootstock woody; leaves 2.5-6.5 cm.long,hastate, thick and fleshy ; flowers pink or green tinged with pink, polygamous ,on terminal panicles;nut small,trigonous.
Leaves have a pleasant acid tase and can be eaten;they also serve as an ingredienr for chutney and pickles.Root and stem yield 21-23 percent tannin.

Orthomolecular Therapy- A Ray Of Hope In Schizophrenia Treatment

About Author:
Divyasri Damacharla, Shruthi Gobbooru, IV.B.Pharm,
M.S.Ramaiah College Of Pharmacy

The use of prescription drugs in the treatment of diseases causes loss of essential nutrients from the body leading to various side effects. So Linus Pauling discovered the orthomolecular therapy which uses the essential nutrients which are found less in a particular disease condition. Here in Schizophrenia, certain negative and positive symptoms are observed with the use of certain prescription drugs. Besides, they are even ineffective sometimes. So, orthomolecular therapy has been developed and modified by various scientists like Drs Abram Hoffer and Humphrey Osmond in 1965 and treated and cured many hundreds of schizophrenic patients with their “Megavitamin formula”

Niosome: A Magic Targeted Drug Delivery System

About Author: DEVANG V. PATEL*, Manju Misra

Drug targeting is the ability to direct a therapeutic agent specifically to desired site of action with little or no interaction with nontarget tissue. Niosomes are one of the best carriers for drug targeting. Niosomes (non-ionic surfactant vesicles) are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl or dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. Niosomes are biodegradable, relatively nontoxic, more stable and inexpensive, an alternative to liposomes. Niosomes can be SUV (Small Unilamellar Vesicles), MLV (Multilamellr Vesicles) or LUV (Large Unilamellar Vesicles). The method of preparation of niosome is the based on liposome technology. The basic process of preparation is the same i.e. hydration of the lipid phase by aqueous phase. After preparing niosomal dispersion, unentrapped drug is separated by dialysis, centrifugation or gel filtration. Niosomes are characterized by vesicle size, bilayer formation, number of lamellae, membrane rigidity and entrapment efficiency. A method of in-vitro release rate study includes the use of dialysis tubing. Niosomal drug delivery is potentially applicable to many pharmacological agents for their action against various diseases including cancer and leishmaniasis.


About Authors: Rakesh Verma
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. college ,
sri ganganagar

1. Introduction
The discovery of a variety of pharmaceuticals in surface, ground, and drinking waters around the country is raising concerns about the potentially adverse environmental consequences of these contaminants. Minute concentrations of chemicals known as endocrine disruptors, some of which are pharmaceuticals, are having detrimental effects on aquatic species and possibly on human health and development. The consistent increase in the use of potent pharmaceuticals, driven by both drug development and our aging population, is creating a corresponding increase in the amount of pharmaceutical waste generated. Pharmaceutical waste is not one single waste stream, but many distinct waste streams that reflect the complexity and diversity of the chemicals that comprise pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical waste is potentially generated through a wide variety of activities in a health care facility, including but not limited to intravenous (IV) preparation, general compounding, spills/breakage, partially used vials, syringes, and IVs, discontinued, unused preparations, unused unit dose repacks, patients’ personal medications and outdated pharmaceuticals.

Synthesis & Evalution Of Triazolo Phthalazine Derivatives As Anticonvulsant Agents

About Author:
Assistant Professor

The importance of the phthalazine as a nucleus with medicinal properties is well established, since many decades. This nucleus possess potent anticonvulsant activity with high protection index value that why this property is use for the treatment that are related to mental disorder, like seizures.  Phthalazine and its derivatives possessing triazines nucleus has attracted great attention in recent years due to wide variety of biological activity particularly anticonvulsant activity keeping in view the continuing interest in phthalazine and its derivatives. The present study is aimed at synthesizing safer and effective anticonvulsant triazolo-phthalazine derivatives to evaluate them for anticonvulsant activity.

Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Soft Gel for Oral Administration

About Author: Alka Lohani
M.Pharm (Pharmaceutics)
department of pharmaceutical sciences bhimtal campus
kumaun university nainital

Inconvenience of administration and patient compliance are gaining significant importance in the design of dosage forms. Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) is common among all age groups, especially in elderly and pediatrics. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is an orally administered antibacterial agent. The objective of this study was to develop ciprofloxacin hydrochloride soft gel using sodium alginate as a gelling agent and sodium citrate as a source of cation. Gels are formed by aggregation of polymers with minimum two components; the gelling agent and the fluid component.  Different batches were prepared using three different concentrations of sodium alginate (0.1, 0.4, and 0.8%). The consistency of sodium alginate gel was dependent on the concentration of, sodium alginate, sodium citrate and co-solute. The results of dissolution study of soft gel F3 containing 0.4% sodium alginate and 0.3% sodium citrate revealed that Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride was 85% released in 45 min. and possessed acceptable sensory characteristics when evaluated by human volunteers. Short term stability study carried out for four weeks at different temperatures (0°C and room temperature) showed no considerable changes in performance characteristics of developed optimized formulation.

Effect of curcumin (Curcuma longa, Zingiberaceae) against sciatic nerve ligation induced behavioral and biochemical alterations: Possible involvement of nitric oxide mechanism

About Authors: Seema Meena, Anil Kumar and Shikha Chauhan
a) Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida,-201301, India.
b) Neuropharmacology division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC Centre for Advance Studies, Panjab University, chandigarh-160014, India.

Neuropathic pain represents a real clinical challenge because of its severity, chronic nature, and inadequate drug therapy. Recently, nitric oxide pathway has been proposed in the pathogenesis neuropathic pain like conditions. Curcumin is a well known for its antioxidant and medicinal values. The objective of the present study was to explore possible nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of curcumin against sciatic nerve ligation induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats.Sciatic nerve ligation was performed in Wistar rats. Various behavioral parameters (thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia) followed by assessment of biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, and nitrite) both on sciatic nerves and brain. Sciatic nerve ligation significantly caused thermal hyeralgesia, cold allodynia and oxidative damage as compared to sham (Sciatic nerve without ligation) and naïve animals. Chronic administration of curcumin (20 mg/kg, po) significantly reversed behavioral alteration and attenuated oxidative damage in both sciatic nerve and brain as compared to control.  Further, L-NAME (5 mg/kg) pretreatment with curcumin (10 mg/kg, po) potentiated protective effect of curcumin as compared to their effect per se. However, L-arginine (100 mg/kg) pretreatment with curcumin (10 mg/kg, po) significantly reversed the protective effects of curcumin. Result of present study suggests that nitric oxide mechanism could be involved in the protective effect of curcumin against sciatic nerve ligation induced behavior and biochemical alterations in rats.

Overview and Information of BENFOTIAMINE

About Author: Sayani Chakrabarti
M.Pharm in Pharmaceutical Chemistry
SIPS, Jharpokharia

Benfotiamine (rINN, or S-benzoylthiamine O-monophoshate) is a synthetic S-acyl derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1). It has potential anti oxidant effect. A three-armed, randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled double-blind study was used to examine the efficacy of benfotiamine vs a combination containing benfotiamine and vitamins B6 and B12 in out-patients with severe symptoms of alcoholic polyneuropathy (Benfotiamine in treatment of Alcoholic Polyneuropathy. BAP I). The study period was 8 weeks and 84 patients fulfilled all the prerequisite criteria and completed the study as planned. Benfotiamine led to significant improvement of alcoholic polyneuropathy. Vibration perception (measured at the tip of the great toe) significantly improved in the course of the study, as did motor function, and the overall score reflecting the entire range of symptoms of alcoholic polyneuropathy. A tendency toward improvement was evident for pain and co-ordination, no therapy-specific adverse effects were seen.